Grade 12 BIOLOGY – Review

Grade 12 BIOLOGY – Review
Unit 1: Molecules of Life
Basic chemistry of life
Atoms & Molecules
– bonding – ionic, covalent, covalent/polar, H-bonds
Water – why is it sooooooo important? What are its special properties?
Organic molecules
- What are they made of? How are they assembled? What are they for?
- Saccharides - disaccharides and polysasccharides
- Lipids and fats
- Polypeptides and proteins
Unit 2: Metabolic Processes
The cell and cellular process
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells – similarities and differences
Structure and function of all organelles
Why are mitochondria SO special?
Why are chloroplasts SO special?
Cell membranes structures and function
Cells and energy :
Enzymes and metabolism
Energy pathways:
Cellular respiration (aerobic AND anaerobic) What are the overall reactions?
Reactants and products? What are important enzymes / co-enzymes involved in these
processes? What are the different parts of these reactions?
Photosynthesis  What is the overall reactions? Reactants and products? What
are important enzymes / co-enzymes involved in this processes? What are the different
parts of this reactions? What are photosystems? How does the light energy work? What is
the difference btw C3 and C4?
Unit 3: Molecular Genetics
Mitosis and Meiosis basics
Mendel’s genetics: phenotype, genotype
Morgan’s gene: what is a chromosome
Watson & Crick DNA model – nucleotides etc.
The Gene
Structure and replication of DNA
DNA and RNA: transcription, editing, and translation Protein synthesis
Regulation of gene expression
Mutations – different types, consequences
Biotechnology – What is it? how does it work?
Unit 4: Animal systems and their controls (Homeostasis)
Overview of systems and homeostasis
Positive and negative feedback
Nervous system: reception and responses
Nervous system
Invertebrate vs. vertebrate
Peripheral and central
The neuron
Arc reflex
Human brain
Endocrine system & exocrine
Types of hormones (steroid hormones vs amino acid hormones)
Areas of control, stress and response
Excretion, urine formation, diseases associated with malfunction of glands
that can be detected by urine analysis
The immune system
B-Cells, T-Cells, Lymphocytes
Lines of defense
Unit 5: Population Dynamics
Population ecology and community interactions
- Population growth, size, density
- Competition, mutualistic relationships
- carrying capacity (K)
Ecosystems and community dynamics
Animal behaviour, defense mechanisms