Key Terms and Important Stuff to Know
Compounds: Bonding Between Atoms
Bond Formation
- stable octet formed (except H and He which
can only hold a max of 2 electrons)
- results in lower energy state for atoms
- energy is released (exothermic) when bonds
are formed
Metallic Bonding
Positive metal cations in a sea of mobile eProp. of metals caused by this type of bonding
Ionic bonding – metal and nonmetal
Predicting Ionic Compound formulas
criss-cross the charges
compound must be neutral
Empirical Formulas:
simplest whole # ratio of atoms or ions
Using Polyatomic ion chart (Table E)
Naming Ionic Compounds
- Stock System
- Binary compounds
- Ternary Compounds (with polyatomic ion)
- Use Roman Numerals if metal has more than
one possible positive charge
Properties of Ionic Compounds
Lewis Dot Diagram of Ions & Ionic Compounds
“ous”/”ic” naming system for ionic compounds
Shapes up to octahedral variants
Bond Angles associated with different shapes
Exceptions to Octet Rule
Covalent bonds – two or more nonmetals
Types of Covalent Bonds
- Polar covalent bond: atoms have diff. E.N.
- Non-polar covalent bond: atoms have same E.N.
- Coordinate covalent bond: one atom gives 2 eto shared pair in bond, other gives none
- Network bonds: very strong covalent bond , found in
macromolecules (like diamonds), highest MP
Molecular Formulas: show actual # of each atom
Structural Formulas: show bonding between atoms
Naming Molecular Compounds
- prefix system to show how many of each
element present
- Use of Stock system with Roman Numerals, first
nonmetal in formula takes + charge
Properties of Covalent Compounds
Lewis Dot Diagram of Molecules & Polyatomic Ions
Polarity & Molecules
Determine if bonds are polar or nonpolar (look at
electronegativity differences)
Determine if molecule is polar or non-polar (look
for polarity of bonds, shape and symmetry)
Shapes of Molecule: (linear, bent, tetrahedral, and
Hybridization Types
Sigma and Pi Bonds
Bond Length vs. Bond Strength
Textbook Chapters:
UPCO Review Book: Chap. 3 (beginning only for naming), Chap. 4
Honors: Chap. 7, 15
Regents: Chap. 6, 15, 16