Comparison of Bonding Types

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Comparison of Bonding Types Key
Characteristics
Nonpolar Covalent
Compounds
2 nonmetals
(usually 2 of the same)
Polar Covalent
Compounds
2 nonmetals
(usually 2 different)
Electronegativity
np bonds
(less than or = to .5)
Bond Formation
np bonds are formed
from the equal sharing
of e- (overlapping of
orbitals)
Representative Unit
molecule
(actual # of atoms)
Examples
“dirty 7” (H2, N2, O2, F2,
Cl2, Br2, I2), CH4, CO2
H2O, NH3
State at Room Temp.
gas
exceptions I2(s) & Br2(l)
liquid or gas (varies)
solid
solid
exception Hg(l)
Relative Melting Point
very low
<<300C
>300C
higher than p
>>300C
higher than ionic
Solubility in Water
no
low
<300C
higher than np
varies
yes-most
no
Type of Elements
Ionic Compounds
Metallic Compounds
metal & nonmetal
cation & anion
metal or 2 different
metals (alloy)
p bonds
(between .5-1.6)
greater than or = to 1.6
N/A
p bonds are formed
from the unequal
sharing of e(overlapping of
orbitals)
molecule
(actual # of atoms)
transferring of eloss & gain of e-
sea of delocalized eholds metal cations
together
formula unit
formula unit
(lowest whole # ratio of (lowest whole # ratio of
atoms)
atoms)
NaCl, KBr, KMnO4
Cu, Fe, Zn
brass (70%Cu, 30% Zn)
Conductivity
no
no
no as a solid
yes when molten or
dissolved in H2O
***ions are present
yes
***ions are present
***Don’t forget to review the unique properties of each type of compound since you may be asked about this topic on your
test!!!
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