Physical Fitness Study Guide

Cardiovascular endurance: activities that cause you to sweat and use a lot of
oxygen such as running, power walking, jumping rope, cycling, and swimming, the
ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscles over
an extended period of time.
Muscle endurance: allows a muscle or group of muscles to continue contracting
over time against light to moderate resistance.
Examples: cross-country, skiing, performing a series of sit-ups.
To develop muscular endurance, perform exercises at low resistance with high
Muscular strength: maximum force you can exert against resistance at one time.
Examples: lifting a bag of groceries, hoisting a mainsail, moving a refrigerator.
To develop, use specific muscles with heavier weight and fewer repetitions.
Flexibility: allows a muscle or group of muscles to move a joint through its full range
of motion.
Examples: overhead serves, jack knife dive, stretching exercises.
To develop slowly, stretch a muscle for 45 to 60 seconds.
Body composition: this is the ratio between fat weight (fat) and lean weight
(muscles, bones, tissues). Training muscles will increase lean weight and aerobic
conditioning will help decrease fat weight.
Frequency: how often you work out during the week (recommended minimum - 5
times a week).
Intensity: tells you how hard you are working.
Formula for determining a good target heart rate for a moderate workout:
a) 220 - age x .75 = target heart rate
Low intensity workout = 65%; moderate workout = 75%; high intensity workout
= 85%
Time/Duration: how long a workout should be.
Each exercise period will depend upon how physically fit you are.
Recommended minimum at above frequency and intensity for 30 minutes at
target heart rate.
Type: what kind of exercising are you going to do?
Examples: power walking, swimming, or cycling
Warm-up: continuous exercise that gradually increases the body temperature and
blood flow to muscles and increases heart rate to approximately 100 bpm. Duration is
at least five minutes.
Workout: conditioning period focusing on the goals you set. Recommended
minimum time is 30 minutes.
Cool down: a gradual reduction in exercise intensity that will lower heart rate back to
normal. Don’t just sit down, do some form of stretching. Duration should be at least
five minutes.
Isometric: exerting muscular force without movement, i.e., holding weights shoulder
height for ten seconds.
Isotonic: exerting muscular force with movement, i.e., pushups (a large majority of
exercises involve movement and are therefore isotonic).
Aerobic: exercise that requires excess amounts of “air.” Since “aerobic exercise” is
characterized by activities that increase the heart and breathing rates, it is the only
type of activity that exercises the most important muscle of your body...the heart.
Therefore, the most health related, life enhancing type of exercise is “aerobic.”
Examples of aerobic activities include vigorous hiking, cross country skiing, basketball,
1) Must cut out 3,500 calories a week or 500 calories a day for seven days.
2) Could also exercise to burn off 250 calories - eating 250 less calories.
3) For the average person to burn off 1 pound of fat by only exercising, they
would have to run or walk 32 miles or use some other type of exercise with
same frequency, intensity and time.