The Life Cycle of a Car – Environmental Commendations Document Progress Always One Step Ahead Volkswagen’s goal in the next few years is to become not only the most successful but also the most eco-friendly automobile manufacturer in the world. It’s not that we’ve just discovered environmental protection at impact was what came out of the exhaust pipe. But those days Volkswagen – on the contrary: as long ago as 1947 we had already are long gone. Today we need to consider the entire life cycle of introduced systematic product recycling. It just went by a different the vehicle. Because if you’re going to develop targeted innova­ name back then. We called it the remanufacturing – some say re­ tions, you first have to know where, along the whole life cycle, conditioning – of used parts. Today it’s standard practice for every improvements are going to have maximum effect. This is where Volkswagen plant around the world and for our Technical Devel­ Life Cycle Assessments come in. opment department to have a certified Environmental Manage­ ment System in place. And needless to say, to ensure that we reach In these Life Cycle Assessments or LCAs for short, we analyse our goal, our cars too represent a high environmental standard. But the creation of new vehicles and drivetrains, components and for a long time now, Volkswagen has been going one step further... materials from the initial design sketch via their production and service life, all the way to recycling. That way, even our produc­ Our environmental activities start well before a car goes into pro­ tion processes come under the environmental microscope before duction. For many years, the only measure of a car’s environmental we use them. To make at least part of these efforts visible for our 2 Environmental Commendations “We can assess everything” Günter Damme, Head of Environment, Volkswagen Group talks about Life Cycle Assessments Günter Damme, what benefits do Life Cycle Assessments bring? “The topic of environmental protection has long since become firmly anchored at Volkswagen. The aim of creating new products that are better than their predecessors is a permanent fixture. And the Technical Development department has always been tasked with ensuring that this is the case. By drawing up Life Cycle Assessments we have made it possible to analyse the entire process from start to finish. They also show us where there is room for improvement. Why did we introduce LCAs in the first place? Because they tell us whether the measures we take actually lead us in the right direction.” →→ And what are the drawbacks to a Life Cycle Assessment? “Like the benefits, the drawbacks relate to the interpretation of the findings. It’s always a question of deciding what is more important: water consumption or CO2 emissions or soil acidification... That’s very difficult and I think it’s an aspect we can improve on. If we go a step further and include other aspects in Life Cycle Assessments – financial or social aspects, for example – then we have to define comparable metrics for these as well. That’s the challenge facing LCAs.” →→ Are there any processes or technologies for which an LCA cannot be drawn up, or only to a limited extent? “For everything that happens within Volkswagen we can draw up an LCA. I’m not aware of anything at all where it wouldn’t work. It’s just a question of the degree of difficulty. Things only get critical when we add-in something from the outside, where we’re not familiar with the production process, or when we’re dealing with technologies that are still in the early stages of development and the database is still inadequate. When that is the case, we use LCAs as environmental management tools. They can help us deduce, for example, how much energy the production process can consume, if the product is going to represent progress in ecological terms as well.” →→ vidual models or technologies. Can you imagine LCAs ever being prescribed by law? “We know that legislators are thinking about such steps. The vital thing for us is to make sure we are not caught napping. That’s why we’re already keeping an eye on future developments, so that we’re well prepared and can perhaps even help shape the process. Politicians are keen on using such instruments. If legal requirements and threshold values don’t deliver the required progress, the next step for them could be to try using LCAs. But LCAs should not be misused for such purposes.” Today, LCAs are not only a proven envi­ →→ →→ customers, we issue what we call Environ­ mental Commendations. They document the findings of the Life Cycle Assessments – verified in each case by independent experts – which we’ve drawn up for indi­ ronmental management tool but also an important one; a tool that will ensure we reach the goals set out in Volkswagen’s Environmental Policy. Can Life Cycle Assessments deliver even more in future? “Let me put it this way: our ultimate goal is to deliver the optimum product in ecological terms. And LCAs are a fine way of documenting the fact that we’re on the right road.” Will LCAs one day shape the future of mobility? “I don’t think LCAs will ever displace the power of the market.” →→ Environmental Commendations 3 Everyone Needs Good Guidance In 1995, Volkswagen replaced its original Environmental Guidelines with a Corporate Environmental Policy. As practical implementation of this policy can only be achieved In the preamble, it says: through ongoing dialogue with the workforce and its represent­ Volkswagen develops, manufactures and markets motor vehicles atives, a “Factory Agreement on Environmental Protection” worldwide with the aim of safeguarding personal mobility. The was also concluded with the Company Works Council. The En­ company accepts responsibility for the continuous improvement vironmental Policy of the Volkswagen Group laid down in 1995 of the environmental compatibility of its products and for the continues to provide the framework for the environmental ac­ increasingly conservative use of natural resources and energy, tivities of Volkswagen and the other Group brands and companies, with due regard to economic aspects. Accordingly, the company such as Audi, Lamborghini, Skoda or the Volkswagen Bank. makes environmentally efficient, advanced technology available 4 Environmental Commendations Basic Principles 1. It is the declared aim of Volkswagen in all its activities to restrict the environmental impact to a minimum and to make its own contribution to resolving environmental problems at regional and global level. 2. It is Volkswagen‘s aim to offer high-quality automobiles which take equal account of the expectations of its customers with regard to environmental compatibility, economy, safety, quality and comfort. 3. In order to safeguard the long term future of the company and enhance its competitive position, Volkswagen is researching into and developing ecologically efficient products, processes and concepts for personal mobility. 4. Those responsible for environmental management at Volkswagen shall, on the basis of the company‘s Environmental Policy, ensure that in conjunction with suppliers, service providers, retailers and recycling companies, the environmental compatibility of its vehicles and pro­ duction plants is subject to a process of continuous improvement. 5. The Volkswagen Board of Management shall, at regular intervals, check that the company’s environmental policy and objectives are being observed and that the Environmental Management System is working properly. This shall include evaluation of the recorded environmentally relevant data. 6. Providing frank and clear information and entering into dialogue with customers, dealers and the public is a matter of course for Volkswagen. Cooperation with policy-makers and the authorities is based on a fundamentally proactive approach founded on mutual trust and includes provision for emergencies at each production site. worldwide and brings this technology to bear over the full life cycle of its products. At all its corporate locations, Volkswagen works hand-in-hand with society and policy-makers to shape a development process that will bring sustainable social 7. In keeping with their duties, all Volkswagen employees are informed, trained and motivated in respect of environmental protection. They are under obligation to implement these principles and to comply with statutory provisions and official regulations as these apply to their respective activities. and ecological benefits. Environmental Commendations 5 The Goal Is: Be Better than Before The Environmental Objectives of the Technical Development department help set Volkswagen apart from the competition to the benefit of its customers. For a long time now, Volkswagen has assigned absolute priority to the environmental impacts of its vehicles. With this in mind, we have defined goals designed to ensure the sustainable development and production of our models. These form part of the environmental strategy of the Volkswagen brand and serve as guidelines for all regions, worldwide. The Environmental Objectives concern three focus areas: 1. Climate protection Volkswagen is striving to reduce the fuel consumption of its vehicles and the related greenhouse gas emissions. Through these measures and by supporting fuel-efficient styles of driving, we aim to make a significant contribution to climate protection. 2. Resource conservation A conservative approach to the use of resources is prescribed across the Group. The key focal points here are to ensure the high recyclability of the materials used and to use renewable and secondary raw materials. We also develop and make available alternative powertrain technologies that enable the use of alternative fuels and other energy storage systems, in line with regional circumstances. 3. Healthcare The aim here is to further reduce the exhaust and interior emissions of our vehicles and cut exterior and interior noise levels. In addition, we aim to avoid the use of hazardous materials and pollutants, wherever possible in accordance with the most stringent materials legislation in the world. Volkswagen’s objective is to develop each model in such a way that, in its entirety, it presents better environmental properties than a comparable predecessor. The ongo­ ing improvement of our vehicle fleet in terms of environmental impacts and re­ Environmental Objectives of the Technical Development department of the Volkswagen brand To attain the highest possible environmental objectives, the Technical Development department is intensifying the continuous improvement of Volkswagen products in respect of environmental compatibility and resource conservation. Our activities and processes are designed for sustainability and to ease the load on the environment. In this way we aim to live up to our responsibilities towards our customers, society and the environment. In line with this approach, we have derived the following objectives: 1. Climate protection • reduce greenhouse gas emissions • reduce fuel consumption in the driving cycle and over the vehicle’s service life with the customer • be fuel-efficiency leader in each class of vehicle • support fuel-efficient styles of driving • contribute to/assess eco-compatible traffic management measures 2. Resource conservation • improve resource efficiency • pursue best possible recyclability and identification of the materials used • use renewable and secondary raw materials • develop and make available alternative powertrain technologies • enable the use of alternative fuels 3. Healthcare • • • • reduce regulated and non-regulated emissions avoid the use of hazardous and harmful materials minimise interior emissions including odours attain best possible exterior and interior noise levels In future, we will develop each model in such a way that, in its entirety, it presents better environmental properties than its predecessor. As we do so, we will always make sure that the entire life cycle is taken into account during the development of our products. The environmental objectives set out above also serve to differentiate us from the competition to the benefit of our customers. source conservation forms part of Volkswagen’s corporate policy, reflecting our In addition, we aim to place selected models in various environmental rankings. awareness of our responsibility towards customers, society and the environment. 18 July 2007 Member of the Board of Management Volkswagen Brand 6 Environmental Commendations Environment Officer, Product Volkswagen Brand Focus on healthcare We’re running our own healthcare reform For Volkswagen, healthcare means cutting emissions, avoiding the use of hazardous substances and pollutants, minimising interior emissions and reducing interior and exterior noise levels. All our models outperform the emission thresholds laid down in the Euro 5 exhaust standard. Some already undercut the target levels for Euro 6. Engine downsizing and locating catalytic converters close to the engine reduce harmful emissions from our TSI engines. And in the interior, we avoid using types of plastic that give off formaldehyde. Focus on resource conservation Focus on climate protection There’s only one Planet Earth For Volkswagen, resource conservation means improving resource efficiency, targeting the best possible recyclability by exploiting the latest recycling technologies, and using renewable raw materials. That’s why, for example, we use long-life oil in our cars and fit long-life light bulbs, install maintenancefree oil particulate filters and dispense with hydraulic fluid by using electromechanical power steering systems. The pollen, air and oil filters in our cars are mostly made of paper and in the Golf, for example, cotton alone accounts for 5.6 kilos of raw material. In all, secondary raw materials today make up 40 percent of a vehicle by weight, and 95 percent of those materials are metals. It’s quite warm enough For Volkswagen, climate protection means cutting fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by offering our BlueMotionTechnologies in every model series, forging ahead with downsizing our TDI and TSI engines and reducing drag and friction – for example by designing more aerodynamic bodywork and using low-rolling-resistance tyres. We also drive forward lightweight design by using weight-saving materials such as plastics, aluminium or magnesium, and innovative production processes such as hot stamping. Environmental Commendations 7 Mastering the Material Mix To arrive at vehicles and technologies that present better environmental properties than their comparable predecessors, Volkswagen puts its faith in Design for Environment. Design for Environment starts at the very beginning of the prod­ consumption and which materials are particularly hard to recycle. uct creation process, which is to say in the Technical Development Among the key considerations here are weight reduction, opti­ department (TE) of the Volkswagen brand. But what exactly do mum aerodynamic drag, material segregation, and the number we mean by Design for Environment and how do we set about of different parts. So we analyse and evaluate our current mod­ designing something with the environment in mind? To achieve els and components and look at which parts or assemblies have our goal of being “better than before” TE defined a set of Envi­ already proved themselves and how we can further improve them. ronmental Goals for itself. These goals are subject to ongoing Where can we make something lighter, for example, without im­ review and are regularly brought into line with the latest envi­ pacting on safety? Or how can we make use of renewable raw ronmental legislation, regulations and voluntary commitments. materials without impairing durability or functionality? Or which material mix can we use without encountering processing prob­ When we are about to start planning a new model, the rule is lems? There are so many factors to consider. that the new arrival must consume less fuel and generate lower emissions than the current model. Its production must consume Our development engineers are assisted here by a large number less raw materials and its components must be at least 95 per­ of controlling and computing tools that place an immense vol­ cent recoverable. Given their knowledge of the past 100 years ume of data at their disposal. With the aid of these data, we and more of automobile manufacturing, our engineers are design parts, modules or whole vehicles and simulate their well aware of which factors have the biggest impact on fuel properties and behaviour in the widest variety of challenging conditions. Needless to say, our engineers also make use of the 8 Environmental Commendations “We need to look outside the box” Design for Environment is above all a question of the necessary expertise and qualified personnel. We discussed the subject with Cornelia Wiedemann, Head of Product Planning Mid-Fullsize, and Dr. Alexander Wittmaier, Head of Wind Tunnel and Aerodynamics at Volkswagen. →→ What requirements does Design for Environment (DfE) have to meet? Wittmaier: “We aim to focus on the future. What kind of vehicles will our customers want to drive in 10-15 years’ time? How can we make car bodies more aerodynamic? Or what will a recycling plant look like 20 years from now? Our customers want cars that are quiet and safe, but that will also get them around fast. They also need to be fuel-efficient, have minimum impact on the environment and be affordable. Then you have to consider that the requirements for, say, Brazil and Sweden are going to be different: on the one hand you’re dealing with heat and humidity and on the other with freezing cold temperatures.” Wiedemann: “That’s why we’ve defined a process that starts five years before the scheduled product launch with our very first thoughts and ideas about the new model. With the aim of ensuring environmentally compatible product design we draw up product specifications from three different viewpoints: market, technology and profitability. We use these specifications to derive fields of action, which we then work our way through together with the business units in a simultaneous engineering approach that spans the five-year period leading up to the launch of the car.” How does Volkswagen ensure it continues to attract and retain qualified staff for Design for Environment? →→ latest scientific findings and the state of the engineering art. Among other things, they draw on Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs). LCAs clearly and unerringly docu­ ment many properties of materials and ingredients. As a result, we are able to se­ lect components and production processes that benefit the environment for the devel­ opment and production of our vehicles. All of these factors are flowed into the development of a new vehicle. They help make engines more economical and qui­ eter, chassis lighter and bodywork more Wittmaier: “We stay in close touch with the universities and keep them informed of our current needs. Volkswagen offers students internships and work-experience semesters so they can acquire some initial experience of working in the auto industry. We also set up programmes like StiP, an integrated degree and training scheme. This involves students undergoing training at Volkswagen in parallel with a course of study at Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences. They gain insights into the world of work and into the company, and we give them regular feedback.” Wiedemann: “We also make use of bonding, though job fairs, for example. At these events we’re in direct contact with the students and can offer them the chance to write their dissertation or thesis at the company or maybe even discuss direct entry. We deliberately push the company at these fairs. But returning to DfE, there are other, related topics that also impact on product design for us – like what will the traffic scenario of the future look like? And what solutions does the automobile industry have to offer? We really need to look outside the box, here. aerodynamic. To find out exactly which environmentally compatible technologies have gone into the latest Volkswagen mod­ els, turn to pages 10 and 11. Environmental Commendations 9 Fuel-saving measures on the Passat BlueMotion Every Volkswagen comes with a wide range of features designed to reduce environmental impacts to a minimum. They include high-efficiency engines and gearboxes, aerodynamic body design and the use of innovative materials and components. Multifunction display with gear recommendation The intelligent engine management system helps the driver select the most efficient gear for the current driving situation – the recommended ratio is shown in the multifunction display. →→ Start/stop system The engine switches off automatically whenever the vehicle comes to a standstill and the driver shifts into neutral. To move away again, the driver simply dips the clutch and the engine restarts automatically. The start/ stop system can be deactivated by pressing a button on the centre console. →→ Higher gear ratios The manual gearboxes in the BlueMotion and BlueMotion Technology models have optimised gear ratios for improved fuel economy. →→ 10 Environmental Commendations Optimised aerodynamics The optimised aerodynamics of the BlueMotion models improve airflow and have significant benefits for fuel economy. The specially designed underbody tray, for example, helps cut drag. The aerodynamics are also enhanced by spoiler lips on the boot lid and forward of the rear wheel arches, a specially channeled airflow to the radiator grille, enhanced airflow to the brakes, and breakaway lips on the tail lights. →→ Efficiency-optimised electric modules Permanent electrical consumers like the Traffic Information Memory, the anti-theft alarm or the radio remote control system draw less idle current from the battery. →→ Braking energy recovery (regenerative braking) The alternator converts the energy produced when braking or on overrun into electricity, which is stored in the battery. This electricity is used later on to supply electrical consumers – reducing the amount of power that would otherwise have to be taken away from the engine to run the alternator. →→ Long-life components These include long-life and LED lights and maintenance-free particulate filters and catalytic converters. →→ Low rolling-resistance tyres Low rolling-resistance tyres reduce fuel consumption and therefore CO2 emissions – without compromising safety. →→ Environmental Commendations 11 Focus on the Full Story What is the full extent of the environmental impact of a car? And which phases of its life cycle contribute the most? Life Cycle Assessments help Volkswagen deliver the right answers. Extraction and production of materials In our efforts to keep the environmental impact of our products to a minimum, we look at every aspect of their life cycle. We analyse the development and evolution of new vehicles, com­ ponents and materials in detail, from the first ideas and design sketches, through the manufacturing and service life phases to final disposal. Recycling Reduced emissions and fuel-saving measures are good as far as they go, but in today’s world sustainable mobility demands a much broader approach. After all, environmental impacts are not just produced while driving. Long before the vehicle ever hits the road, raw materials must first be extracted, and compo­ nents must be manufactured. Intelligent production Raw materials production, vehicle manufacturing and end-of- The “life” of a car begins long before it first takes to the road. life disposal all have impacts on society and the environment. The first step in the cycle is the development stage, when the Because in all these phases, energy and resources are consumed engineers decide which innovative technologies – such as intel­ and emissions are released into the atmosphere, the soil and ligent materials or fuel-efficient powertrains – to fit in the future water. This is why, when we develop a new product, one of the vehicle. The manufacturing phase, too, starts long before the first things Volkswagen thinks about is how the materials can be “marriage” of the engine and body on the assembly line. recycled and reutilised at the end of the product’s useful life – for example as a secondary raw material for use in new products. In a Volkswagen Life Cycle Assessment, the “manufacturing phase” takes into account not only in-house vehicle manufac­ Just how important it is to look at the “full story” when assessing turing operations but also all those operations which take place a vehicle’s environmental impacts becomes clear when we con­ upstream of Volkswagen’s own factories. Because before a car sider that emissions are produced at every stage in the product’s can be built, raw materials such as iron ore, sand and petroleum life cycle, be it manufacturing, the service life or recycling. Of must first be extracted from the earth. Some of these materials course, the impacts of the different phases vary widely. For ex­ are then processed into the steel and aluminium from which ample, while the bulk of carbon dioxide emissions – almost the vehicle bodywork and engine components will be made; three quarters of total life cycle CO2 emissions, to be precise – others are processed into plastics, glass and rubber. At all these are generated during the vehicle’s service life, emissions of this stages energy is consumed, which also results in emissions. greenhouse gas at the recycling stage are negligible. Further energy – transport energy – is then consumed when these raw materials and components are shipped by road and rail to Volkswagen from our many suppliers. All these journeys consume fuel and electricity, and produce emissions. 12 Environmental Commendations Vehicle manufacturing Service life How much fuel a new car consumes will depend above all on them. This, in turn, means that less energy is consumed at the its weight, and on external resistances such as aerodynamic steel manufacturing stage. What’s more, these components are drag. These are factors that Volkswagen can influence by appro­ lighter than their conventional counterparts, which reduces the priate styling, choice of materials and construction methods. weight of the vehicle body and thus saves fuel on every trip. Aerodynamically designed bodywork for example can do a lot to cut drag. The same goes for the use of new joining techniques, or underbody trays specially designed to smooth under-car airflow. Lightweight design, too, has an influence on environmental performance throughout the product life cycle. To take one example, many body components are produced using a hot stamping process specially developed by Volkswagen. Although this technique consumes more energy than conventional proc­ esses, thereby increasing CO2 emissions per vehicle at the manufacturing stage, across the life cycle as a whole it actually has net environmental benefits (see box). The reason is because hot-stamped components are stronger Improved environmental footprint: with hot stamping Hot stamping of sheet metal components for the Passat uses more energy than conventional stamping processes, increasing CO2 emissions by approximately 22 kilograms per vehicle produced. However, due to the greater strength of hot-stamped components, less steel is needed to produce them, resulting in a weight saving per vehicle of approximately 20 kilograms – which automatically cuts fuel consumption. Using hot-stamped steel reduces the total lifecycle CO2 emissions of every Passat by an average of 174 kilograms compared with the predecessor model. than conventional ones, and so less steel is needed to produce Environmental Commendations 13 It’s down to the driver, too The biggest contributor to the total life cycle environmental So it’s during the vehicle’s service life that the success of our impact of a vehicle is its service life – while it’s out on the road. Design for Environment measures is most apparent. But that’s For a mid-sized vehicle, this phase accounts for almost three not all, because this is the phase where drivers themselves have quarters of total life cycle CO2 emissions. That’s over three an opportunity to influence the environmental impact of their times more than the manufacturing phase. Volkswagen cars vehicle, for example by adopting a proactive and defensive style normally show a big reduction in driving emissions between of driving. Anybody can learn to drive in a more eco-friendly current and predecessor models. The biggest improvements way, simply by taking one of our fuel-saver courses. Under the over outgoing models are achieved by our vehicles with Blue­ motto “Drive differently – the easy way to save fuel”, Volkswagen MotionTechnologies. stages these courses all over Germany in cooperation with the German Society for Nature Conservation (NABU). Or Volkswagen assumes an average lifetime mileage for its vehicles you can check out our fuel-saving tips on the Internet, at of 150,000 kilometres. Since this service life accounts for the larg­ www.mobility-and-sustainability.com est single fraction of the vehicle’s total life cycle carbon dioxide emissions, it follows that any technological improvements affect­ Whenever Volkswagen succeeds in reducing the fuel consump­ ing this phase will have a correspondingly significant impact. tion of its vehicles, it also automatically reduces the environ­ To put it another way, the most effective way to reduce total life mental impacts upstream, at the fuel production and supply cycle emissions is to reduce driving emissions. When we reduce stage. Because if a vehicle consumes more fuel, then more crude drag and improve engine efficiency, for example, we also ensure oil has to be extracted and transported to the refineries, proc­ that the vehicle consumes less fuel and produces lower emissions. essed into fuel and then transported by truck to the filling sta­ tions. The more fuel the refineries have to supply to the filling stations, the more en­ ergy they consume and the more waste products they gener­ ate. So if we all do our bit to reduce vehicle fuel consumption, we will also be helping to reduce energy con­ sumption and emis­ sions at the fuel pro­ duction and supply stage too. 14 Environmental Commendations Much too good to scrap Looking ahead and planning for the future is second nature to pact comparison between the different life cycle phases Volkswagen. Our responsibilities for vehicle-related environ­ shows that the recycling phase generates lower emissions than mental protection don’t stop when our cars come to the end of any other phase. CO2 emissions for this phase are negligible their useful lives. Most components of an end-of-life vehicle compared with total life cycle emissions, or with emissions for can now be recovered. The VW Si-Con process, co-developed by the service life and manufacturing phases. Volkswagen, is a particularly impressive example of the resource savings that can be achieved in this way. Thanks to this technique, The VW SiCon process achieves an average reduction in envi­ shredder residues which were previously sent to landfill can now ronmental impacts in the different impact categories of between be turned into new raw materials. In 2006, this process won us six and 29 percent over comparable recycling processes. Also, the European Business Award for the Environment and the En­ the use of secondary raw materials in new components is a fur­ vironmental Award of the Federation of German Industry (BDI). ther step towards minimising the overall life cycle environmen­ tal impact of Volkswagen’s vehicles and components. Of course, So what exactly is the VW SiCon process and how does it work? it goes without saying that components made from these mate­ For a start, this process enables us to recycle a full 95 percent of rials must fulfil the same high Volkswagen quality standards as a vehicle by weight. The end-of-life vehicle is first drained of those made from primary raw materials. Thanks to our advances fluids, then a range of components which are capable of being in this field, in the sixth-generation Golf such secondary raw recycled and used in new products, as so-called secondary raw materials now make up around 40 percent of the vehicle by materials, are removed. Any parts not subject to statutory end- weight. 95 per cent of these materials are obtained from recy­ of-life dismantling requirements, or which cannot be cost-effec­ cled metals alone. tively remanufactured into replacement parts, are put through the shredder. Unlike conventional re­ cycling systems, the VW SiCon recycling process is also capable of ob­ taining secondary raw materials from non-me­ tallic shredder residues. A life cycle assessment has shown that the VW SiCon technique is al­ ways preferable from an environmental point of view to an approach based on separate removal of plastic com­ ponents. Incidentally, an environmental im­ Environmental Commendations 15 Four Steps for the Environment As we’ve seen, cars have an impact on the environment no matter whether they are out on the road or not. So we never stop working to improve that environmental impact. To help measure our progress, we formulated the Environmental of all the individual phases – i.e. manufacturing, service life and Goals of the Technical Development department at Volkswagen. recycling – that we can arrive at an evaluation and compare dif­ In a word, every new model should have less impact on the en­ ferent vehicles and technologies. vironment than its predecessor. With this in mind, we are boost­ ing the efficiency of our engines and developing advanced pro­ Our Life Cycle Assessments describe the environmental impacts duction processes. And to check that we do indeed meet the associated with a product precisely and quantifiably and thereby environmental goals we set ourselves, we draw up complex Life enable the more exact description of its environmental profile Cycle Assessments. based on comparable data. In each case, Volkswagen obtains a certificate of validity from an independent certification body The purpose of a Life Cycle Assessment – not just at Volkswagen – (e.g. TÜV) to confirm that our Life Cycle Assessments are based is to explain in detail all the data on energy consumption, on reliable data and that the methods used to draw them up com­ emissions and the other environmental impacts generated dur­ ply with the requirements of the DIN EN ISO 14040 and 14044 ing the production of vehicles or technologies and/or during standards. related processes. It is only when we draw up an assessment 1 Life Cycle Inventory 2 Environmental impacts 3 omparison of envi­ C ronmental profiles 4 Certification There are four parts to each Life Cycle Assessment We define the goal and the framework for the LCA. – Which product or process is to be assessed? – Which individual aspects are to be studied? 1 16 This is followed by a data collection process called a Life Cycle Inventory. – Which raw materials, energy forms and materials are consumed for the product or process? – What volume of emissions and waste are generated during the entire product lifetime? – What do the prevailing background conditions look like? Environmental Commendations 2 We decide for which categories of environmental impact the influences of the emissions and waste are to be analysed. What are the consequences for the environment and where are they particularly intensive? And from this we derive an environmental profile. 3 We compare the environmental profiles in terms of the five environmental impact categories: global warming, photochemical ozone creation, ozone depletion, acidification and eutrophication potential. 4 The data generated are used to create the Life Cycle Assessment with findings that are verified by independent experts. 1 Life Cycle Inventory Every last bolt is analysed Life Cycle Assessments can be drawn up for just about any Cycle (NEDC). In addition, we calculate the amount of energy product or process. When we’ve decided, for example, which consumed during the dismantling and/or recycling of the vehi­ vehicle we want to assess, the first step is to prepare a Life Cycle cle parts. Together, all these calculations enable us to compute Inventory. In other words we set about collecting all kinds of all airborne and water-borne emissions, soil pollutants, waste data – on every last component and process step. and wastewater generated during the entire life cycle of the vehicle. As the word “inventory” suggests, a Life Cycle Inventory is all about facts and figures. So we collect all the important facts The data collection process is based on the vehicle parts lists, over the entire life cycle of the vehicle and back them up with material and weight information stored in the company’s own figures. For each step in the process we determine the volume Material Information System (MISS), technical datasheets and of raw materials and energy that goes into its production and drawings, as well as the threshold values for regulated emis­ the production of the fuel it requires. And we carry this process sions in line with the current EU regulations. These are joined over into the 150,000 kilometres that make up the vehicle’s by processing-related data taken from the GaBi computer data­ assumed service life. The fuel consumption and the resultant base or drawn up in conjunction with the production plants, emissions of carbon dioxide during this phase are worked suppliers or industrial partners. out based on the legally prescribed New European Driving Environmental Commendations 17 2 Environmental impacts Making the impact on the climate visible All emissions, waste and wastewater generated during the life­ time of a car impact on different aspects of the environment. The greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2), for example, affects the climate. Greenhouse gases promote the warming of the Earth’s atmosphere by the sun’s rays, leading to a worldwide increase in average temperatures and to climate change. This is what’s known as global warming. So the amount of CO2 gener­ ated by a car, and not just while it’s out on the road, has a global warming potential that can be precisely calculated. That’s why global warming potential is one of the environmental impact categories we consider. To arrive at a conclusion about the potential environmental impacts of a particular vehicle, in the second part of a Life Cycle Assessment – Life Cycle Impact As­ sessment – the various material flows from the manufacturing, service life and recycling phases are assigned to the relevant environmental impact categories. This involves defining an in­ dicator substance for each of these categories. Carbon dioxide (CO2), for example, is the indicator substance for “global warming potential”. Then all the other substances that also contribute to global warming are converted to CO2 equivalents using what are called equivalence factors (see box). Along with global warming potential, we analyse four other en­ vironmental impact categories in our Life Cycle Assessments: photochemical ozone creation potential (which impacts on local air quality, not least in the form of summer smog), ozone deple­ What exactly are CO2 equivalents? The indicator substance for the greenhouse effect is carbon dioxide (CO2). All substances that contribute to the greenhouse effect are converted into CO2 equivalents through an equivalence factor. Methane (CH4), for example, has a greenhouse potential 25 times higher than CO2. In concrete terms this means that the emission of 1 kg of CO2 and 1 kg of CH4 leads to a net greenhouse effect of 26 kg of CO2 equivalents. All emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect are measured in this way. 18 Environmental Commendations tion potential (concerning depletion of ozone in the Earth’s at­ mosphere), and the acidification and eutrophication of water and soil. Photochemical ozone creation potential describes the formation of what are known as photooxidants, such as ozone, which are formed from a variety of pollutants (e.g. HC, CO, NOx) in conjunction with direct sunlight and can act as an irritant gas for plants, animals and humans alike. Acidification potential describes the impact of acidifying substances (e.g. SO2, NOx,) on soil and water that can cause acid rain, for example, or fish mortality. Each of these four environmental impact categories also has its own indicator substance. 3 Comparison of environmental profiles The goal simply must be attained Once we have taken the entire life cycle of a car, component or These data are presented for each of the models compared and process into account, there can be only one outcome: the cur­ broken down by the three life cycle phases: manufacturing, rent version is better than its predecessor. If that is not the case, service life and recycling. In addition, for the service life of the we continue to improve and refine until we reach that goal – in vehicle we distinguish between the environmental impact of the interests of the environment. the fuel production and supply process and the direct driving emissions. The results of the Life Cycle Assessment are depicted in the shape of a material composition analysis, a Life Cycle Inventory and The Life Cycle Inventory data enables us to depict the potential a Life Cycle Impact Assessment for the product or process con­ impacts on the environment, comparing the environmental cerned. The material composition analysis shows the materials profiles of the respective vehicles for the five environmental of which the car being studied is made up. The results of the impact categories: global warming potential, photochemical Life Cycle Inventory show which amounts of which emissions – ozone creation potential, acidification potential, ozone deple­ e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur tion potential and eutrophication potential. We also compare dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (NMVOC) the environmental impacts over the entire life cycle and for and methane (CH4) – are generated over the life cycle of the car. each individual phase. They also reveal how much primary energy was consumed. Comparison of impacts on global warming potential CO2 equivalents in t 35 Manufacture Service life [150,000 km] Recycling 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Diesel models Petrol models Predecessor Predecessor Current model A Current model A Current model B Current model B Environmental Commendations 19 A Lifetime Achievement Award When a Life Cycle Assessment confirms that the vehicle, technology or process analysed has met the defined environmental goals, then they qualify for an Environmental Commendation. Through the Environmental Commendation, Volkswagen docu­ Each Environmental Commendation is based on a Life Cycle ments ecological progress in a vehicle or technology compared Assessment (LCA) in line with the detailed description set out to its predecessor. Environmental Commendations provide our on the preceding pages. Naturally enough, Volkswagen consid­ customers, shareholders and other stakeholders inside and out­ ers it important that the results achieved in the LCA should not side the company with detailed information about how we are only meet the environmental goals we set ourselves but should making our vehicles, components and processes more environ­ also be verified and confirmed by independent experts. Because mentally compatible and what we have achieved in this respect. in addition to being transparent, readily comparable and verifi­ Along with facts and figures on the models and technologies able, the findings and evaluations in the LCAs have to match assessed, Environmental Commendations also include infor­ up to internationally recognised quality standards. mation about key environmental activities at Volkswagen, such as BlueMotionTechnologies, fuel-saver courses or new recycling Procedures for a critical review of comparative LCAs are laid processes, as well as about our Environmental Management down in the ISO 14040 standard. This involves commissioning System or the Volkswagen Fuel and Powertrain Strategy. external experts who need to be familiar with the requirements of an LCA and must command the appropriate scientific and 20 Environmental Commendations 4 Certification technical competence. They are tasked with determining whether or not the LCA meets the requirements in terms of methodology, data collection, evaluation and reporting, and complies with the prescribed principles. As a rule, the Life Cycle Assessments of our vehicles and processes are verified by external experts from from the chemical, motor vehicle and automotive supplier the German technical inspectorate TÜV, an organisation that sectors, as well as companies from energy-intensive branches stands for independent critical reviews, competence and re­ of industry. spectability, as well as enjoying broad-based acceptance in the fields of politics and business, and in society at large. In addi­ tion, the auditors from TÜV conduct such verifications of LCAs not only for Volkswagen but also for other companies, mainly­ Environmental Commendations 21 Every One of Us Can Help As the Life Cycle Assessments we’ve drawn up for our vehicles clearly prove, a car makes its biggest impact on the environment when it’s out on the road. While Volkswagen continues to invest heavily in making its But there’s more to Think Blue. than that: it stands for the cars even more fuel-efficient, every single driver can reduce core values of the Volkswagen brand – “innovative”, “provi- his or her environmental footprint by relatively simple means. ding enduring value” and “responsible”. Think Blue. is also Because one third of the fuel consumption of a car can be about involving our customers in our activities themed around influenced by an intelligent approach to driving – simply by an ecologically sustainable approach. Because every one of changing your style of driving and treating your car right. To us can help, without having to “do without” in any way, and find out how that works, take a look at the Think Blue. pages not just when we’re in the car. To that extent, Think Blue. is on the Internet. That’s where you’ll find our fuel-saver tips, the company’s overarching mindset that shapes not only our among other things. existing product communications effort but also a wealth of 22 Environmental Commendations Volkswagen Environmental Commendations The New Transporter Environmental Commendation This space is reserved for the Environmental Commendations from Volkswagen. You can obtain a copy of these six-page brochures from The Golf your Volkswagen dealer. Environmental Commendation The Caddy Environmental Commendation The Golf Environmental Commendation www.volkswagen.com Reduced photochemical ozone creation potential (improvement of local air quality)* – Diesel models: -7% (TDI*), -8% (BlueMotion Technology*), -9% (BlueMotion*) – Petrol models: -25% (BiFuel*), -18% (TSI*), -19% (BlueMotion Technology*) Global warming potential – less CO2 emissions overall* – Diesel model: -15% – Petrol models: -5% or -8% (BlueMotion Technology) Reduced photochemical ozone creation potential (improvement of local air quality)* VW_Golf_200x280_GB_RZ_261110.indd 1-3 – Diesel model: -5% – Petrol models: -2% or -2% (BlueMotion Technology) Reduced driving emissions (CO2)* – Diesel model: 120 g/km compared with 148 g/km (predecessor) – Petrol models: 149 g/km or 142 g/km (BlueMotion Technology) compared with 158 g/km (predecessor) Reduction of fuel consumption through – tyres with optimised rolling resistance – smart lightweight design (hot stamping, used of aluminium parts) Resource conservation through – use of long-lasting components (long-life and LED lamps, maintenance-free particulate filters and catalytic converters) – longer service and oil-change intervals Global warming potential – less CO2 emissions overall* – Delivery Van -9% (1.6 TDI**) or -18% (1.6 TDI BlueMotion Technology**) – Startline -8% (1.6 TDI**) or -15% (1.6 TDI BlueMotion Technology**) Reduction of fuel consumption through – new 4-cylinder TDI engines – transmission ratios selected for optimised fuel consumption Reduced driving emissions (CO2)* – Delivery Van 147 g/km (1.6 TDI**) or 129 g/km (1.6 TDI BlueMotion Technology**) compared to predecessor’s 164 g/km – Startline 149 g/km (1.6 TDI**) or 134 g/km (1.6 TDI BlueMotion Technology**) compared to predecessor’s 164 g/km Ident-No. 107310 ® © Volkswagen AG Group Research Environment Affairs Product P.O. Box 011/1774 38436 Wolfsburg Germany ® This brochure was printed on FSC -certified paper. FSC stands for Forest Stewardship Council® and is a worldwide sign of ecological and socially responsible use of forests. This brochure was printed on FSC-certified paper. FSC stands for Forest Stewardship Council and is a worldwide sign of ecological and socially responsible use of forests. Additional savings in models with BlueMotion Tech­ nology through – tyres with optimised rolling resistance – engine with stop-start system – regenerative braking (recuperation) – wheel spoilers Resource conservation through – Use of long-lasting components (maintenance-free particulate filters) – Longer service and oil-change intervals – Use of renewable raw materials (e.g. for filter materials) The Polo Environmental Commendation Other highlights – Recycling type approval successfully completed Your Volkswagen Dealer * Applies to the actual vehicles assessed in this test series ** See inside for fuel consumption and emissions figures RZ_VW_Caddy_GB_200x280_RZ_100910.indd 1-3 13.09.10 13:39 December 2010 Art. No. 015.1240.04.18 Resource conservation through – use of long-lasting components (maintenance-free particulate filters and catalytic converters, long-life lamps) – longer servicing and oil change intervals – no hydraulic fluid required as a result of electro© Volkswagen AG Group Research mechanical power steering Environment Affairs Product P.O. Box 011/1774 – lifetime oil fill for transmission 38436 Wolfsburg The Passat Environmental Commendation Germany Reduced driving emissions (CO2)* Eco-friendly materials October 2010 – Diesel models: 119 g/km (TDI*), 107 g/km (BlueMoArt. No. 015.1240.05.18 – use of renewable materials (e.g. for filters and floor tion Technology*), 99 g/km (BlueMotion*) compared www.volkswagen.com matting) with 135 g/km (predecessor) – Petrol models: 149 g/km (BiFuel*), 134 g/km (TSI*), Passat Description, Environmental optimized efficiencies components withwith – electricalcompared full profile over the environmental Generally improved 121 g/km (BlueMotion Technology*) * Applies to the actual vehicles assessed in this test series. See inside for fuel – low-friction oils vehicle life cycle compared with the predecessor model 176 g/km (predecessor) consumption and emissions figures – reduced drag and friction and reduced emissions fuel consumption due to lower www.volkswagen­commercial­vehicles.com Reduction of other driving emissions (CO, NOx, particulates) through – Euro 5 exhaust emissions standard instead of Euro 4 The Polo Environmental Commendation Environmental Description, Golf Global warming potential – less CO2 emissions overall* – Diesel models: -10% (TDI*), -17% (BlueMotion Technology*), -21% (BlueMotion*) – Petrol models: -18% (BiFuel*), -20% (TSI*), -27% (BlueMotion Technology*) September 2010 Art. No. 065.1192.44.18 Generally improved environmental profile over the full vehicle life cycle compared with the predecessor model due to lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions Reduced photochemical ozone creation potential (improvement of local air quality)* – Delivery Van -6% (1.6 TDI**) or -8% (1.6 TDI BlueMotion Technology**) – Startline -5% (1.6 TDI**) or -7% (1.6 TDI BlueMotion Technology**) December 2010 Art. No. 015.1240.03.18 Reduction of fuel consumption through – tyres with optimised rolling resistance – BlueMotion Technologies (start-stop system, regenerative braking) – smart lightweight design (hot stamping, use of aluminium and magnesium components) – electrical components with optimized efficiencies – reduced drag and friction 38436 Wolfsburg Germany Environmental Description, Caddy © Volkswagen AG Group Research Environment Affairs Product P.O. Box 011/1774 38436 Wolfsburg Germany Generally improved environmental profile over the full vehicle life cycle compared with the predecessor model due to lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions www.volkswagen.com Environmental Description, Polo The Passat Environmental Commendation Generally improved environmental profile over the full vehicle life cycle compared with the predecessor model due to lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions Global warming potential – less CO2 emissions overall* – Diesel models: -13% (1.2 TDI*), -15% (1.6 TDI BlueMotion Technology*), -20% (BlueMotion*) – Petrol models: -12% (1.4 MPI) or -18% (1.2 TSI*) Reduced photochemical ozone creation potential (improvement of local air quality)* – Diesel models: -6% (1.2 TDI*), -6% (1.6 TDI BlueMotion Technology*), -7% (BlueMotion*) – Petrol models: -14% (1.4 MPI), -16% (1.2 TSI*) Reduced driving emissions (CO2)* – Diesel models: 99 g/km (1.2 TDI*), 96 g/km (1.6 TDI BlueMotion Technology*), 87 g/km (BlueMotion*) compared with 119 g/km (predecessor 1.4 TDI*) – Petrol models: 135 g/km (1.4 MPI) or 124 g/km (1.2 TSI*) compared with 159 g/km (predecessor 1.6 MPI*) Your Volkswagen Retailer ® This brochure was printed on FSC®-certified paper. FSC stands for Forest Stewardship Council® and is a worldwide sign of ecological and socially responsible use of forests. Eco-friendly materials – use of renewable raw materials (e.g. for filter materials) – avoidance of components containing PVC or heavy metals Reduction of fuel consumption through – tyres with optimised rolling resistance – smart lightweight design (use of high-strength and extremely high-strength steels, aluminium and magnesium components and composite materials) – Volkswagen DSG dual-clutch transmissions (petrol models) – electrical components with optimized efficiencies – BlueMotion Technologies (start-stop system, regenerative braking) Ident-No. 107310 This brochure was printed on FSC®-certified paper. FSC® stands for Forest Stewardship Council® and is a worldwide sign of ecological and socially responsible use of forests. Resource conservation through – use of long-lasting components (maintenance-free particulate filters and catalytic converters, long-life lamps) – lifetime oil fill for electro-hydraulic steering Eco-friendly materials – use of recycled plastics (e.g. for sound deadening materials) – use of renewable materials (e.g. for filters and floor matting) * Applies to the actual vehicles assessed in this test series. See inside for fuel consumption and emissions figures 29.11.10 13:11 Your Volkswagen Retailer VW_Polo_200x280_GB_RZ_261010.indd 1-3 * Applies to the actual vehicles assessed in this test series. See inside for fuel The Caddy Environmental Commendation © Volkswagen AG Group Research Environment Affairs Product P.O. Box 011/1774 29.11.10 12:40 Your Volkswagen Retailer consumption and emissions figures 06.10.10 16:36 VW_Passat_200x280_GB_RZ_011010.indd 1-3 7 Well-oiled for impressive savings. Use low-viscosity oil. 8 Keep it sleek. Cut aerodynamic drag. other ecologically sustainable 2 litres brand-related activities. 5% To find out more about Think Blue. visit www.volkswagen.de/thinkblue Extra fuel consumption per 100 km Less fuel consumption The sooner the engine is well-lubricated the sooner it will produce fewer emissions. This is especially important when starting from cold and on short journeys. Good engine oil must therefore do one thing in particular: circulate quickly. A good aerodynamic shape is the key to low fuel consumption, particularly at high speeds. The body of your Volkswagen has therefore been designed to minimise the surface area exposed to the wind. However, roof attachments such as cycle racks and roof boxes nullify this advantage. Low-viscosity oils are unbeatable in this respect. They can cut fuel consumption by up to 5 % compared with conventional oils. This means the slightly higher purchase price is almost as swiftly recouped as the oil is circulated in the engine. Consequently, almost every Volkswagen leaves the factory supplied with low-viscosity oils. Now we don’t wish to say anything against ski racks and suchlike in principle – only against their being used unnecessarily. A 33 % rise in aerodynamic drag will increase fuel consumption by as much as 2 l/100 km at 160 km/h! All that remains for you to do is to make sure the engine always has sufficient oil, observe the oil change intervals and, when topping up, use oils approved by Volkswagen for your vehicle. Then nothing will stand in the way of eco-friendly motoring! Savings potential in city traffic 12 With figures like these, it’s certainly worth thinking again: it definitely makes sense to remove the roof rack between two skiing or mountain bike weekends – the car’s aerodynamic qualities will then be restored for your day-to-day trips. Work it out for yourself – you’ll find it’s worth it! Savings potential on the motorway in city traffic on the motorway 13 Environmental Commendations 23 © Volkswagen AG Group Research Environment Affairs Product P.O. Box 011/1774 38436 Wolfsburg Germany December 2010 Art. No. 015.1240.07.18 www.volkswagen.com This brochure was printed on FSC®-certified paper. FSC® stands for Forest Stewardship Council® and is a worldwide sign of ecological and socially responsible use of forests.