*Progressivism, 1890-1920* Can politics fix social problems?

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*Progressivism, 1890-1920*

Can politics fix social problems?

I. The Roots of Progressivism Essential Question: Can politics fix social problems?

Vocabulary: muckraker direct primary initiative referendum recall suffrage prohibition 2

The Rise of Progressivism

Who were progressives and what did they believe caused social problems?

□ Collection of different ideas/ activities □ Not an organized political movement with specific set of goals □ Reaction to the effects of the era of rapid industrialization, immigration, and urbanization □ Wanted to improve society (make progress, move society forward) 3

Who were the progressives?

I.A. Urban, educated, middle-class Americans from both political parties

□ Thought

government

should take a more active role in

solving society’s problems

, but that

government had to be fixed before it could be used to fix other problems.

I.B.

Strong faith in science and technology; thus,

progressives believed using scientific principles could solve society’s problems.

4

The Muckrakers

□ □ □ First to articulate progressive ideas Were journalists who

(I.C.) wrote about political corruption and social problems to expose wrongdoings

Teddy Roosevelt named them. Thought they were obsessed with corruption and scandal 5

6

Lincoln Steffens

• Investigative reporter, Steffens’ book,

The Shame of the Cities,

dealt with political decay in America. • Reported on vote stealing and other corrupt political practices of political machines.

Charles Edward Russell

• Investigative reporter, Charles Edward Russell is perhaps best known, for his series of articles about the Beef Trust that were published as The Greatest Trust in the World (1905) 7

Reforming Government

How did progressives hope to make government more efficient and responsive to citizens?

□ Making government efficient ■ ■ Frederick W. Taylor’s The Principles of Scientific Management (1911): company could increase efficiency by managing time, breaking tasks down into small parts, and using standardized tools

II.A. Cities should use scientific techniques, with experts playing the major roles.

□ □ Political favors = inexperienced officials, inefficiency Proposals to reform city government using experts to play a major role in managing the city. Another solution was to weaken political machines by having officials elected city wide instead of by neighborhoods.

8

Reforming Government

How did progressives hope to make government more efficient and responsive to citizens?

□ Democratic Reform

■ II.B. Many believed that the key to improving government was to make elected officials more responsive and accountable to voters.

9

Wisconsin’s Reform Governor

□ □ □ Robert La Follette of Wisconsin (3 term governor) --> became a “laboratory of democracy” Attacked the way political parties ran their conventions. Party bosses controlled the selection of convention delegates and the nomination of candidates. La Follette pressured the state legislature to pass a law requiring parties to hold a direct primary, in which all party members could vote for a candidate to run in the general election.

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More Power to Voters

Direct Primary Voters select party candidate Initiative Citizens place an issue before voters/legislature for approvals Referendum Voters approve/reject a law passed by legislature Recall Remove elected official before term is up

11

State Reforms

More power to voters

III.C. The Seventeenth Amendment provides for the direct election of Senators by the people.

12

Woman Suffrage

What problems did social-welfare progressives attempt to reform?

□ III.A. The goal of the suffrage movement was achieving full voting rights for women.

13

The Leaders….

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Early movement

□ American women first demanded the right to vote in 1848 at the Seneca Falls Convention in New York □ Also abolitionists, ending slavery became the priority 15

Suffrage Movement

□ □ 1872 Stanton led a group of women to the polls in Rochester, NY where they insisted on voting She was arrested for illegally casting a ballot in the presidential election 16

Pushing for Federal Amendment was Difficult

□ □ First introduced in 1868 Stalled and was reintroduced in 1878 made it to committee 17

Split into two groups

National Woman Suffrage Association

□ □ □ □ based in New York City founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony in 1869 refused to endorse 15th amendment because it did not give women the ballot.

III.B. The NWSA wanted to focus on passing a constitutional amendment.

American Woman Suffrage Association

□ □ □

based in Boston founded by Lucy Stone & Julia Ward Howe in 1869 argued that once the black man was enfranchised, women would achieve their goal.

III.B. The AWSA wanted to win women’s rights at the state level

Groups united in 1890 to form the

National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

. Women needed right to vote to promote Progressive reforms and pass labor laws. Women began

Woman Suffrage, 1869-1920

19

Suffrage at the Turn of the Century

□ □ By the time of the NAWSA founding, women had won many rights Married women could buy and sell property 20

Suffrage at the Turn of the Century

□ □ The beloved leaders of the movement, Stanton and Anthony died in 1902 and 1906 Did not see life’s work realized 21

It was time for a new generation to take on the cause of women’s suffrage.

Next generation of leaders…

22

A New Generation

□ □ One leader who emerged to re energize the movement was Carrie Chapman Catt She headed the NAWSA and focused on precinct by precinct political work 23

A New Generation

□ Alice Paul learned aggressive tactics from suffragists in England like hunger strikes 24

25

26

□ The Congressional Union (CU) headed by Alice Paul called for an aggressive, militant campaign for Constitutional Amendment 27

Protest at White House…

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29

30

□ □ Went to jail Went on hunger strikes to protest their treatment How did the NAWSA feel about the CU’ plan?

□ Their aggressive tactics would hurt the movement 31

Impact of World War I

The entrance into WWI helped the women’s suffrage movement because many women helped with the war effort and did men’s jobs when they went to war 32

Victory for Suffrage

□ III.C. the Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote

□ 33

What progressive goals did suffragists believe they could achieve if women had the right to vote?

34

Reforming Society

What problems did social-welfare progressives attempt to reform?

health & safety crime

Social Problems

illiteracy child labor alcohol abuse 35

Reforming Society

What problems did social-welfare progressives attempt to reform?

Child Labor

□ John Spargo’s 1906 book, The Bitter Cry of the Children

□ IV.A. Laws set a minimum age and the maximum number of hours a child could work.

□ At the same time, many states began passing compulsory education laws, requiring young children to be in school instead of at work.

36

Reforming Society

What problems did social-welfare progressives attempt to reform?

Health and Safety Codes

□ □ □ □ Workers’ compensation laws established insurance funds that employers financed. Workers injured in accidents received payments from the funds.

Zoning laws for commercial, residential, or other development, thereby regulating how land and buildings could be used. Building codes set minimum standards for light, air, room size, and sanitation and required buildings to have fire escapes. Health codes required restaurants and other facilities to maintain clean environments for their patrons.

37

Reforming Society

What problems did social-welfare progressives attempt to reform?

The Prohibition Movement

□ □ □

Settlement house workers, employers concerned about alcohol abuse. Temperance movement advocated people stop or moderate alcohol consumption. 1874 Woman’s Christian Temperance Union When the temperance movement began, it concentrated on reducing alcohol consumption. Later it pressed for prohibition.

IV.B. Prohibition laws banned the manufacture, sale, and consumption of liquor.

38

Reforming Society

What problems did social-welfare progressives attempt to reform?

Progressive vs. Big Business

□ □ □ Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890, Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887 to regulate railroads Some advocated SOCIALISM: ■ What is socialism? IV.C. It is the idea that the

government should own and operate industry.

■ Eugene V. Debs, American socialist candidate for president in 1912; most Americans believed in free enterprise 39

How did Progressives hope to solve problems through political reform?

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Summary: Government reforms improved city government, gave women the right to vote, and gave voters the direct primary. Societal reforms included child and adult labor laws, as well as Prohibition.

□ 41

What would a progressive muckraker try to reform today?

42

17

th

Amendment

• The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state elected by the people thereof for six years and each Senator shall have one vote 43

Progressive Legislation:

New Constitutional Amendments 44

16

th

Amendment

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

45

Tax Rates today…

46

17

th

Amendment

• The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state elected by the people thereof for six years and each Senator shall have one vote 47

18

th

Amendment

• Prohibited the production, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States 48

19th Amendment

• Women win the right to vote!!

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