chapter 8 designing and developing effective hrd programs

Lecture Outline
(1) Defining Objectives of HRD Intervention/Program
(2) Responsibility for the Delivery of Training (cont..)
(3) In-House or External Intervention? (cont..)
(4) Selecting Trainers
(5) Learning and Training methods
(6) Preparing a Lesson Plan
(7) Preparing Materials
(8) Scheduling HRD
Learning Objectives
 Discuss the issues involved in the design of effective
HRD programs
 Write objectives for HRD programs
 Develop a lesson plan
 Discuss varieties of training methods
Defining Objectives of HRD
 In the design phase,
 Objectives of HRD must be identified. These
objectives must fit SMART Criteria
 Detailed description of what should be achieved
must be prepared
Defining Objectives of HRD
 Why do we need to identify HRD objectives?
Defining Objectives of HRD
 Why do we need to identify HRD objectives?
 Provide the design of effective instruction
 Facilitate the development of a framework for evaluation
 Guide the learner on what is to be achieved at the end of
the HRD intervention.
Defining Objectives of HRD
Intervention/Program (cont..)
 Objectives can be set during both design and development
 Objectives may differ depending on when it is being
 Eg: Objectives of overall HRD program can be broad,
Objective of a particular training program or a lesson plan
can be narrow
Defining Objectives of HRD
Intervention/Program (cont..)
 Instructional objectives can be developed
according to the following categorization.
(1) Cognitive Domain
(2) Psychomotor domain
(3) Affective domain
Defining Objectives of HRD
Intervention/Program (cont..)
(1) Cognitive Domain
 Objectives
that involve specific knowledge or
information that has to be learnt. E.g. knowledge of
the regulations involved in performing a job. The
cognitive domain can be further elaborated using
Bloom’s Taxonomy of cognitive objectives. They are:
Defining Objectives of HRD
Intervention/Program (cont..)
Cognitive Domain
a. Knowledge: direct recall of specific information
b. Comprehension: understanding of the information
c. Application: Application of what is learnt in practice
d. Analysis: critical thinking of what was learnt
e. Synthesis: putting together different concepts and creating new
f. Evaluation: Making judgments about the information provided.
Defining Objectives of HRD
Intervention/Program (cont..)
(2) Psychomotor Domain
 Objectives in this domain relate to skills to be
demonstrated at the end of the learning. E.g. increased
typing skill.
Defining Objectives of HRD
Intervention/Program (cont..)
(3) Affective domain
 this domain is concerned with attitudes, values and
emotions. For example learning about attitude towards
Responsibility for the Delivery of
The responsibility for training delivery is shared within and
sometimes outside the organisation. The following discussion
outlines some of the responsibilities associated with different
parties that may be involved in the training effort.
(1) Training Departments
(2) Training Consultancies
(3) The Line Manager
Responsibility for the Delivery of
Training (cont..)
(1) Training Departments
As learning becomes more important for organizational
effectiveness, larger organizations have a training department
built into their structure. The training department located
usually within the Human Resource Department would have
the mandate of identifying needs and conducting training for
new and current employees of the organization.
Responsibility for the Delivery of
Training (cont..)
(2) Training Consultancies
Consultancies specialized in the area of training offer expert
knowledge and skills that most organizations lack in this field.
As external bodies they are also offer the advantage of bringing
in new ideas into the workplace. Reputable consultancies are
however costly, and it would be a loss for the organization if
such training consultants are hired without the proper
identification of training needs.
Responsibility for the Delivery of
Training (cont..)
(3) The Line Manager
As HR realises the crucial role of line managers in the
development of employees, it is logical to involve line managers
in training of employees. The line manager who is in a position
to identify training needs may be allocated funding and
flexibility to arrange training for his/her subordinates. Line
managers are also an excellent resource person who could fill
the role of trainer for task specific training.
In-House or External Intervention?
regarding HRD, especially training or learning is
whether to conduct a program within the
organization or contract it out to a training
In-House or External Intervention?
 Cost is one area which is looked at when making this
decision. For a larger organization it maybe more
viable to conduct the training within the organization
or contract the whole program to a training provider.
For smaller organizations it maybe more viable to send
one or two staff who requires training to participate in
a specific course or program offered by a training
In-House or External Intervention?
 Furthermore, it is important to understand the impact on
the type of HRD effort in making this decision. A higher
education program would probably be more effectively
conducted by a college or university rather than by the
organisation. Similarly if the training is about theoretical
content or knowledge transfer it may be better to contract
the effort to an external training provider.
In-House or External Intervention?
 If the content to be learnt involves organisational
procedures it would be more effective to conduct the
program within the organisation.
Selecting Trainers
 Regardless of whether the trainers are within or outside the
organisation, it is important to select a trainer who can
organisation. For an organisation with a good HRD
function, this decision is easy because they will be
equipped with professionals, especially trained for this
Selecting Trainers
 As highlighted earlier, line managers can be good trainers
for specific job tasks. There job-related knowledge and
experience is a rich resource for learning. However, it is also
important to ensure that line managers who fill the role of
trainers know how to deliver the content. Without the
support of skills such as presentation skills, the knowledge
base of the line manager may not be transferred to the
Selecting Trainers (cont..)
 For training needed to roll out a change effort in
the workplace, organisations can utilise a Train
the Trainer approach which imparts training
skills to key people of the organisation who will
deliver training to all the employees of the
Selecting Trainers (cont..)
 If selecting an External trainer, care should be taken to
ensure that he/she has the required skills to deliver
effective instruction. Organisations look at both the
qualifications and experience of the trainer in selection.
References from other organisations can also be useful
information for the organisation in selecting the most
appropriate trainer.
Learning and Training methods
 To arrange an HRD effort, the organisation can choose
whether to conduct on the job training or off the job
training. This section will discuss the variety of these
methods available for the employer to arrange for employee
training needs
(1) On the Job Training
(2) off the Job Training
(3) Blended Learning
Learning and Training methods
(1) On the Job Training
 On-the-job training is where trainees learn while they are
working. This type of training is beneficial for jobs where
performance. On the negative side, employers may not give
enough time for the employees to learn something while
working. Some popular methods of on-the-job training are:
Learning and Training methods
(1) On the Job Training
 Mentoring: Usually offered to managers, mentoring involves a
senior more expert manager offering advice to a junior manager
to groom him or her for a potential promotion. Mentoring has to
be a systematic process and the mentor has to be chosen
carefully in order to transfer skills and knowledge.
 Job Rotation: ‘rotating’ job tasks and duties so that an employee
can learn to multi-task or duties of another job he/she may be
Learning and Training methods
(1) On the Job Training
 E-learning: Increasing in popularity, e-learning
through the internet or intranet offers employees
the flexibility to learn in their work environment.
E-learning can also easily cater to the individual
differences in speed of learning.
Learning and Training methods
(2) Off the Job Training
 As the name implies,
off-the-job training requires
employees to learn away from their normal duties. Off-the
job training could require the employee to go away for 2
hours each day to attend a training program or take six
months away from the job to enroll in a course. Some of the
popular off-the-job training methods are:
Learning and Training methods
(2) Off the Job Training
 Courses: usually include some academic content that aims to
inculcate knowledge.
 Interactive learning methods: involve active participation by the
learners. This is increasingly being used both within and outside
the organization. Some interactive methods are:
 Case Studies
Work shops
Role plays
Learning and Training methods
(3) Blended Learning
 Each of the training methods outlined in this chapter
separately have their own disadvantages. Added to this is
the complication of conflicting needs of employees and
employers. Employees would prefer time off work for
learning while employers might be reluctant to release an
employee from normal job duties to pursue a learning
Learning and Training methods
(3) Blended Learning
 Blended learning is a term that combines a variety of
methods of learning to ensure that employee and employer
needs are matched. For example a six month course that is
made up of lectures and tutorials can be remade into
modules which can be learned online, supported by case
studies and some workshops. Such a design would offer
flexibility for both the employee and the organization.
(6) Preparing a Lesson Plan
 A lesson plan structures training sessions to facilitate the
instructional objectives that were developed. Content in
the lesson plan include:
• Title of the lesson
• Objectives
• Timing
• Number of Participants
• Aids and Equipment
• Methods used
• Detailed plan of the content covered and activities planned for
the session.
(7) Preparing Materials
 Conducting an HRD program involves the preparation of several
materials such as the following:
 Announcements of the training program – especially if selecting
employees for long-term training.
 Training materials: including outlines, handouts, powerpoint or
other presentations
 Manuals or texts: relevant if the training is about the process of
doing a specific job. Manuals will help in the retention and
transfer of learning.
Scheduling HRD
 The importance of timing was earlier discussed in the
context of deciding whether to conduct training internally
or externally.
 The organisation needs to plan the types of HRD initiatives
(education, training, self-development) for the year, so that
Organisations usually do not prefer to stop all their work
because there are too many programs happening at once.
Scheduling HRD
 Furthermore the decision of whether to conduct the
program during work hours or after work hours is
important. On the one hand, the organisation may not be
able to afford to release employees during working hours.
The employee may not be able to come in for a training
program after work hours due to additional family or other
responsibilities. The timing of a program should be
decided on the basis of balancing these two conflict needs.