HRD Evaluation – the systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions related to the selection, adoption and modification of various instructional activities.
Evaluation can serve a number of purposes, among them:
Determine whether a program is accomplishing its objectives
Identify the strengths and weakness of the HRD program
Determine the cost-benefit ratio of an HRD program
Decide who should participate in future HRD programs
Identify who benefited the most or least from the program
Reinforce major points to be made for the participants
Gather data to assist in marketing future programs
Determine if the program was appropriate
Establish a database to assist the management in making decisions
How often should HRD programs be evaluated?
Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation (Expanded) Framework
(Level 1) Reaction – (Affective) How well did the trainees like the training?
(Utility) What was the perceived usefulness from the training?
(Level 2) Learning – How much did the trainee learn from the training?
(Level 3) Behavior – What behavior change occurred as a result of the training? Did the trainee use what was learned?
(Level 4) Results – What tangible outcomes occurred as a result of the training?
- What was the ROI?
- What was the contribution of this training program to
- the community?
• Also known as the Context, Input, Process, Product model.
• Evaluation focuses on measuring the context for training
(need analysis), inputs (resources such as budgets, schedules), the process of conducting training (for feedback) and the product or outcome (success in meeting objectives)
• Also known as the Context, Input, Reaction, Outcome model
• The context, input and product evaluation same as CIPP
• Emphasizes trainee reaction to improve the training program
Brinkeroff’s six stages
• Goal setting: What is the need?
• Program design: What will work to meet the need?
• Program implementation: Is it working, with the focus on the implementation on the program?
• Immediate outcomes: Did participants learn?
• Intermediate or Usage outcomes: Are the participants using what they learned?
• Impacts and worth: Did it make it worthwhile difference to the organization?
This model suggest a cycle of overlapping steps, with problems identified in one step possibly caused by things occurring in previous steps.
Systems Approach (Bushnell)
• Input: What goes into the training effort? Consisting of trainee qualification and trainer ability.
• Process: The planning, design, development and implementation of the HRD program
• Output: Trainee reactions, knowledge and skills gained and improved job behavior
• Outcomes: Effects on the organization, including profits, productivity and customer satisfaction
This model states that evaluation measurement can and should occur between each of the stages as well as between the four stages to ensure good design and to ensure program meets its objectives
Collection of evaluation data helps decision makers with the facts and judgments upon which decisions can be based.
Some of the methods are:
• Interview: Conversation with individuals to assess their opinions, observations and beliefs
• Questionnaire: Standardized set of questions intended to assess opinions, observations and beliefs
• Direct Observation: Observing a task or set of tasks as they are performed and recording what is seen
• Tests and simulations: Structured situations to assess an individuals knowledge or proficiency to perform
• Archival performance data: Use of existing information, such as files and reports
When dealing with data collection some vital issues that needs to be considered are:
• Reliability: Consistency of results, freedom from error and bias. Decisions based on unreliable data are likely to be poor ones.
• Validity: Concerned with whether the data collection method actually measures what needs to be measured.
Practicality: Concerns how much time, money and resources are available for the evaluation method.
Reliability and validity are complex issues and assessing them requires knowledge of statistics and measurement concepts. AT times, due to certain conditions, realistic and creative trade-offs can ensure that the evaluation effort is carried out effectively.
• Confidentiality: When confidentiality is ensured, employees would be more willing to participate
• Informed Consent: Some evaluations are monitored so that employees know the potential risks and benefits
• Withholding Training: When results of training are used for raises or promotions
• Use of deceptions: When an investigator feels a study would yield better results if an employee did not realize they were on an evaluation study
• Pressure to produce positive results: When Trainers are under pressure to make sure results of the evaluation demonstrates that the training was effective
Return on Investment = Operational Results/Training Costs
(greater the ratio, greater the benefit to organization)