The Development of Christianity WHI Ch. 5 Section 4 pp. 168-173 • I. Augustus brought back traditional Roman festivals and ceremonies. – A. Romans believed proper ritual brought a right relationship with the gods. – B. Romans were tolerant of other religions. • II. Judea had become a Roman province by A.D. 6. – A. Unrest was widespread in Judea, but the Jews differed among themselves about Roman rule. • • • • Sadducees: cooperation with Rome Pharisees: scholars, observe Jewish law Essenes: liked apart from society Zealots: wanted violent overthrow of Roman rule – B. A Jewish revolt in A.D. 66 led to the destruction of the Jewish temple (70 A.D.). • III. In the midst of conflict in Judea, a Jewish prophet named Jesus began his public preaching. – A. Jesus taught the importance of the transformation of the inner person. • 1. “Do to others what you would have them do to you.” • 2. “Love the Lord your God with all your heart, soul, mind and strength.” – B. The Roman procurator, Pontius Pilate ordered Jesus to be crucified. • 1. Jesus was seen as a potential revolutionary against Rome. • 2. Followers of Jesus believed he had risen. – C. After reports that Jesus had overcome death, Christianity quickly spread. • 1. Paul taught that by accepting Jesus as Messiah, one could be saved. – Paul: wrote epistles (letters) to churches throughout the empire – Peter: viewed as the 1st Pope • 2. The written Gospels give a record of Jesus’ life and teachings. – D. Many Romans came to see Christianity as harmful to Rome. • 1. Christians refused to worship Roman gods. • 2. Rome began persecuting Christians during the reign of Nero. • Why? – Wouldn’t worship emperor – Wouldn’t serve in the military – Believed in one true religion – E. Christianity attracted many followers in the Roman world. • 1. Christianity gave meaning to life. • 2. Christianity was too strong to be blotted out by force. – It was a religion for anyone. – It allowed for spiritual equality. • 3. Under Theodosius, Christianity became the state religion. – Before, Constantine gave the Edict of Milan (313 A.D.) which provided for toleration of Christianity.