The human body

The human body
Cell diagram
Cells are the basic building
blocks of all living things.
The human body is
composed of trillions of cells.
They provide structure for
the body, take in nutrients
from food, convert those
nutrients into energy, and
carry out specialized
functions. Cells also contain
the body’s hereditary
material and can make
copies of themselves.
Cells have many parts, each
with a different function.
Some of these parts, called
organelles, are specialized
structures that perform
certain tasks within the cell.
The cell is the smallest functional body unit capable of life processes.
Human cells contain the following major parts
The plasma membrane is the
outer covering around the cell.
The nucleus contains most of
the cell’s genetic material. It
also houses DNA, the cell’s
hereditary material.
The cytoplasm surrounds the
cell’s nucleus and organelles.
The endoplasmic reticulum is
involved in molecule
processing and transport.
The Golgi apparatus is
involved in packaging
molecules for export from the
Lysosomes and peroxisomes
destroy toxic substances and
recycle worn-out cell parts.
Mitochondria provide the
cell’s energyand can make
copies of themselves..
Ribosomes use the cell’s
genetic instructions to make
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)- "ντι εν έι"
δε(σ)οξυριβο(ζο)νουκλεϊ(νι)κό οξύ
The nucleus (πυρήνας) of each cell (except red blood cells, eggs, and sperm) contains 46 chromosomes, which are coiled
molecules (κουλουριασμένα μόρια) of DNA.
Genes are tiny regions of DNA that dictate cell activity and inherited traits (γνωρίσματα).
Human cells
• Collections of cells make up
• Each body tissue has a distinct
• A tissue is an ensemble of
similar cells from the same
origin that together carry out a
specific function.
• Organs are then formed by the
functional grouping together of
multiple tissues.
• An organ consists of 2 or more
tissues that perform a particular
function (e.g., heart, liver,
stomach, and so on).
Nervous system
The Human Body
with all systems
• The body consists of several integrated
systems. These systems are organs and tissues
that work together to carry out a specific body
function, such as digestion. The different types
of tissue that make up organs and other body
parts are specialized.
• The interconnected cells that make up these
tissues each contain genes that programme
cell activities.
• Each major body system has a particular
• In a healthy body, all the systems work
efficiently and in synchrony so that we are able
to live and reproduce.
All body systems are controlled by the nervous
system, the control centre of which is the brain .
Endocrine system
It has organs, such as the thyroid gland, and tissues that
produce hormones to regulate body functions.
Respiratory system
Cardiovascular system
The heart pumps blood containing oxygen and
nutrients through a network of vessels to all parts
of the body .
The key organs in this
system are the lungs;
They absorb oxygen from
the air and release
carbon dioxide (CO2).
Muscular system
Digestive system
Muscles are able to
contract and relax
to carry out body
It processes nutrients as they pass through
the stomach and intestines and eliminates
Urinary system
Reproductive system
The kidneys and bladder control urine
to maintain water and chemical
Male: the tests produce testosterone.
They control the development of sperm
and physical characteristics in men such
as facial hair and a deep voice.
Female: The ovaries produce estrogen/
oestrogen and eggs.
Skin protects internal organs and helps to
control body temperature.
Lymphatic and
immune system
A network of lymph vessels
and nodes work with blood
and bone marrow to protect
the body from diseases.
Skeletal system
The bones protect internal organs and
support the body.
•, Genetics Home
Reference, US Library of Medicine
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