Miami-Dade County Public Schools

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(High Order Thinking Science Labs)

THE SCHOOL BOARD OF MIAMI-DADE COUNTY, FLORIDA Perla Tabares Hantman, Chair Dr. Lawrence S. Feldman, Vice Chair Dr. Dorothy Bendross-Mindingall Carlos L. Curbelo Renier Diaz de la Portilla Dr. Wilbert “Tee” Holloway Dr. Martin Karp Dr. Marta Pérez Raquel A. Regalado Hope Wilcox

Student Advisor

Mr. Alberto M. Carvalho

Superintendent of Schools

Ms. Milagros R. Fornell

Associate Superintendent Curriculum and Instruction

Dr. Maria P. de Armas

Assistant Superintendent Curriculum and Instruction, K-12 Core

Ms. Beatriz Zarraluqui

Administrative Director Division of Mathematics, Science, and Advanced Academic Program

Table of Contents Introduction

...............................................................................................................................1 • Next Generation Sunshine State Standards ..................................................................2

Resources

• Materials ........................................................................................................................7 • Laboratory Safety and Contract................................................................................... 10 • Lab Roles and Their Description ................................................................................. 11 • Writing in Science ........................................................................................................ 12

Hands-on Activities First Nine Weeks

1.

Alien Periodic Table (Topic 3) ................................................................................... 15 2.

Absorption and Reflection of Solar Energy (Topic 4) ................................................ 22 3.

Effect of Evaporation on Cloud Formation (Topic 5) ................................................. 27 4.

Icy Boil: Can you boil water with ice? (Topic 5) ........................................................ 32 5.

Change of States (Topic 5) ....................................................................................... 37 6.

Coriolis Effect (Topic 6) ............................................................................................ 43

Second Nine Weeks

7.

The Importance of Carbon in Earth’s Processes (Topic 8) ...................................... 49 8.

Greenhouse Effect (Topic 8) ..................................................................................... 57 9.

Effect of Salinity on the Density of Ocean Water (Topic 10) ..................................... 63 10.

What’s Under our Feet (Topic 12) ............................................................................ 69

Third Nine Weeks

11.

Sea Floor Spreading (Topic 14) ................................................................................ 74 12.

Earthquakes and Subduction Boundaries (Topic 15) ............................................... 84 13.

Finding an Epicenter (Topic 15) ................................................................................ 91 14.

Fossils as Evidence for Environments and Change (Topic 19) ................................ 99 15.

Stratigraphic Column (Topic 20) ............................................................................. 105 16.

Evolutionary Implications of the Geologic Time Scale (Topic 20) ........................... 115

Fourth Nine Weeks

17.

Phases of the Moon (Topic 26) ............................................................................... 127 18.

Newton’s Laws and Planetary Motion (Topic 27) .................................................... 135 19.

Life on Earth…and Elsewhere: What Makes a World Habitable? (Topic 30) .......... 142

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to provide Earth and Space Science teachers with a list of basic laboratories and hands-on activities that students in an Earth and Space Science class should experience. Each activity is aligned with the Earth and Space Science Curriculum Pacing Guide and the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (SSS). All the information within this document provides the teacher an essential method of integrating the Science NGSSS with the instructional requirements delineated by the Course Description published by the Florida Department of Education (FLDOE). The information is distributed in three parts: (1) A list of the course specific benchmarks as described by the FLDOE. The Nature of Science Body of Knowledge and related standards are infused throughout the activities. Specific Nature of Science benchmarks may have been explicitly cited in each activity; however, it is expected that teachers infuse them frequently in every laboratory activity. (2) Basic resources to assist with laboratory safety, organization of groups during lab activities, and scientific writing of reports. (3) Hands-on activities that include a teacher-friendly introduction and a student handout. The teacher introduction in each activity is designed to provide guidelines to facilitate the overall connection of the activity with course specific benchmarks through the integration of the scientific process and/or inquiry with appropriate questioning strategies addressing Norman Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Levels in Science. All the hands-on activities included in this packet were designed to cover the most important concepts found in the Earth and Space Science course and to provide the teacher with sufficient resources to help the student develop critical thinking skills in order to reach a comprehensive understanding of the course objectives. In some cases, more than one lab was included to cover a specific standard, benchmark, or concept. In most cases, the activities were designed to be simple and without the use of advanced technological equipment to make it possible for all teachers to use. However, it is highly recommended that technology, such as

Explorelearning Gizmos

and hand-held data collection equipment from

Vernier

,

Texas Instruments

, and

Pasco

, is implemented in the science classrooms. This document is intended to bring uniformity among the science teachers that are teaching this course so that all can work together, plan together, and rotate lab materials among classrooms. Through this practice, all students and teachers will have the same opportunities to participate in these experiences and promote discourse among learners, which are the building blocks of authentic learning communities.

Acknowledgement

M-DCPS Curriculum and Instruction Division of Mathematics, Science, and Advanced Academic Programs would like to acknowledge the efforts of the teachers who worked arduously and diligently on the preparation of this document. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 1

Next Generation Sunshine State Standards LA.910.2.2.3

The student will organize information to show understanding or relationships among facts, ideas, and events (e.g., representing key points within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, comparing, contrasting, or outlining);

LA.910.4.2.2

The student will record information and ideas from primary and/or secondary sources accurately and coherently, noting the validity and reliability of these sources and attributing sources of information;

MA.912.S.1.2

Determine appropriate and consistent standards of measurement for the data to be collected in a survey or experiment.

MA.912.S.3.2

Collect, organize, and analyze data sets, determine the best format for the data and present visual summaries from the following: • bar graphs • histograms • line graphs • box and whisker plots • • stem and leaf plots circle graphs • • scatter plots cumulative frequency (ogive) graphs

SC.912.E.5.1

Cite evidence used to develop and verify the scientific theory of the Big Bang (also known as the Big Bang Theory) of the origin of the universe.

SC.912.E.5.2

Identify patterns in the organization and distribution of matter in the universe and the forces that determine them.

SC.912.E.5.3

Describe and predict how the initial mass of a star determines its evolution.

SC.912.E.5.4

Explain the physical properties of the Sun and its dynamic nature and connect them to conditions and events on Earth.

SC.912.E.5.5

Explain the formation of planetary systems based on our knowledge of our Solar System and apply this knowledge to newly discovered planetary systems.

SC.912.E.5.6

Develop logical connections through physical principles, including Kepler's and Newton's Laws about the relationships and the effects of Earth, Moon, and Sun on each other.

SC.912.E.5.7

Relate the history of and explain the justification for future space exploration and continuing technology development.

SC.912.E.5.8

Connect the concepts of radiation and the electromagnetic spectrum to the use of historical and newly-developed observational tools.

SC.912.E.5.9

Analyze the broad effects of space exploration on the economy and culture of Florida.

SC.912.E.5.11

Distinguish the various methods of measuring astronomical distances and apply each in appropriate situations.

SC.912.E.6.1

Describe and differentiate the layers of Earth and the interactions among them.

SC.912.E.6.2

Connect surface features to surface processes that are responsible for their formation. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 2

SC.912.E.6.3

Analyze the scientific theory of plate tectonics and identify related major processes and features as a result of moving plates.

SC.912.E.6.4

Analyze how specific geologic processes and features are expressed in Florida and elsewhere.

SC.912.E.6.5

Describe the geologic development of the present day oceans and identify commonly found features.

SC.912.E.7.1

Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the different biogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon.

SC.912.E.7.2

Analyze the causes of the various kinds of surface and deep water motion within the oceans and their impacts on the transfer of energy between the poles and the equator.

SC.912.E.7.3

Differentiate and describe the various interactions among Earth systems, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.

SC.912.E.7.4

Summarize the conditions that contribute to the climate of a geographic area, including the relationships to lakes and oceans.

SC.912.E.7.5

Predict future weather conditions based on present observations and conceptual models and recognize limitations and uncertainties of such predictions.

SC.912.E.7.6

Relate the formation of severe weather to the various physical factors.

SC.912.E.7.7

Identify, analyze, and relate the internal (Earth system) and external (astronomical) conditions that contribute to global climate change.

SC.912.E.7.8

Explain how various atmospheric, oceanic, and hydrologic conditions in Florida have influenced and can influence human behavior, both individually and collectively.

SC.912.E.7.9

Cite evidence that the ocean has had a significant influence on climate change by absorbing, storing, and moving heat, carbon, and water.

SC.912.L.15.1

Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change.

SC.912.L.15.8

Describe the scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth.

SC.912.N.1.1

Define a problem based on a specific body of knowledge, for example: biology, chemistry, physics, and earth/space science, and do the following: 1. pose questions about the natural world, 2. conduct systematic observations, 3. examine books and other sources of information to see what is already known, 4. review what is known in light of empirical evidence, 5. plan investigations, 6. use tools to gather, analyze, and interpret data (this includes the use of measurement in metric and other systems, and also the generation and interpretation of graphical representations of data, including data tables and graphs), 7. pose answers, explanations, or descriptions of events, 8. generate explanations that explicate or describe natural phenomena (inferences), 9. use appropriate evidence and reasoning to justify these explanations to others, 10. communicate results of scientific investigations, and 11. evaluate the merits of the explanations produced by others.

SC.912.N.1.2

Describe and explain what characterizes science and its methods. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 3

SC.912.N.1.3

Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.

SC.912.N.1.4

Identify sources of information and assess their reliability according to the strict standards of scientific investigation.

SC.912.N.1.5

Describe and provide examples of how similar investigations conducted in many parts of the world result in the same outcome.

SC.912.N.1.6

Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied.

SC.912.N.1.7

Recognize the role of creativity in constructing scientific questions, methods and explanations.

SC.912.N.2.1

Identify what is science, what clearly is not science, and what superficially resembles science (but fails to meet the criteria for science).

SC.912.N.2.2

Identify which questions can be answered through science and which questions are outside the boundaries of scientific investigation, such as questions addressed by other ways of knowing, such as art, philosophy, and religion.

SC.912.N.2.3

Identify examples of pseudoscience (such as astrology, phrenology) in society.

SC.912.N.2.4

Explain that scientific knowledge is both durable and robust and open to change. Scientific knowledge can change because it is often examined and re-examined by new investigations and scientific argumentation. Because of these frequent examinations, scientific knowledge becomes stronger, leading to its durability.

SC.912.N.2.5

Describe instances in which scientists' varied backgrounds, talents, interests, and goals influence the inferences and thus the explanations that they make about observations of natural phenomena and describe that competing interpretations (explanations) of scientists are a strength of science as they are a source of new, testable ideas that have the potential to add new evidence to support one or another of the explanations.

SC.912.N.3.1

Explain that a scientific theory is the culmination of many scientific investigations drawing together all the current evidence concerning a substantial range of phenomena; thus, a scientific theory represents the most powerful explanation scientists have to offer.

SC.912.N.3.2

Describe the role consensus plays in the historical development of a theory in any one of the disciplines of science.

SC.912.N.3.3

Explain that scientific laws are descriptions of specific relationships under given conditions in nature, but do not offer explanations for those relationships.

SC.912.N.3.4

Recognize that theories do not become laws, nor do laws become theories; theories are well supported explanations and laws are well supported descriptions.

SC.912.N.3.5

Describe the function of models in science, and identify the wide range of models used in science.

SC.912.N.4.1

Explain how scientific knowledge and reasoning provide an empirically-based perspective to inform society's decision making.

SC.912.P.8.1

Differentiate among the four states of matter. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 4

SC.912.P.8.4

Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing the structure of atoms in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons, and differentiate among these particles in terms of their mass, electrical charges and locations within the atom.

SC.912.P.10.4

Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation, and explain the connection of heat to change in temperature or states of matter.

SC.912.P.10.10

Compare the magnitude and range of the four fundamental forces (gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, strong nuclear).

SC.912.P.10.11

Explain and compare nuclear reactions (radioactive decay, fission and fusion), the energy changes associated with them and their associated safety issues.

SC.912.P.10.16

Explain the relationship between moving charges and magnetic fields, as well as changing magnetic fields and electric fields, and their application to modern technologies.

SC.912.P.10.18

Explore the theory of electromagnetism by comparing and contrasting the different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum in terms of wavelength, frequency, and energy, and relate them to phenomena and applications.

SC.912.P.10.19

Explain that all objects emit and absorb electromagnetic radiation and distinguish between objects that are blackbody radiators and those that are not.

SC.912.P.10.20

another. Describe the measurable properties of waves and explain the relationships among them and how these properties change when the wave moves from one medium to

SC.912.P.12.2

Analyze the motion of an object in terms of its position, velocity, and acceleration (with respect to a frame of reference) as functions of time.

SC.912.P.12.4

Describe how the gravitational force between two objects depends on their masses and the distance between them.

SC.912.P.12.7

Recognize that nothing travels faster than the speed of light in vacuum which is the same for all observers no matter how they or the light source are moving. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 5

Resources

Materials 1. Alien Periodic Table

Blank Alien Periodic Table Colored Pencils

2. Absorption and Reflection of Solar Energy

5 sheets of cardboard each painted a different color: medium green, light blue, medium brown, black, and white. 1 sheet of sandpaper 1 sheet of metal or aluminum foil

3. Effect of Evaporation on Cloud Formation

Clear plastic bowl(or other plastic bin) Hot-plate (sufficient hot-plates to heat up all of the students’ water) 250-ml. beaker Thermometer Clear plastic wrap

4. Icy Boil

Boiling flask Stopper Ring stand Bunsen burner Wire gauze

5. Changes of State

Hot plate 250 mL beaker water Thermometer Stop-watch or timer

6. Coriolis Effect

Circular cardboard Pin or nail Periodic table from text 1 sheet of vinyl 8 Celsius thermometers Watch or clock Graph paper Self-sealing plastic bag (baggy) Ice cubes or crushed ice Tape 150 to 200 ml. of water minimum 50 or 100 ml. graduated cylinder Tape Baggie Ice Water Stirring Rod 100 mL graduated cylinder Funnel CBL/ Calculator /Temperature Probe (Optional) “Chalkable” globe red, blue, yellow, and green chalk Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 7

7. The Importance of Carbon in Earth’s Processes

Station 1: Eye protection Crushed natural chalk Vinegar Flask Balloon A sprig of

Elodea

Bright light Carbon cycle diagram Station 3: Eye protection 2 beakers Test tube Limewater (calcium hydroxide solution) Station 2: Universal Indicator solution Sea water Tap water (fresh water) Drinking straw 3 boiling tubes A drinking straw Stopwatch Carbon cycle diagram Boiled water Phenol red indicator

8. Greenhouse Effect

2 empty containers such as fish aquarium, a large beaker, or a flask Dry ice Gloves or tongs Safety glasses

9. Effect of Salinity on the Density of Ocean Water

Heat lamp Four thermometers Heavy duty tape Styrofoam cup of water Graduated cylinder Balance Sample of “fresh” water (500 mL) Sample of “ocean” water (500 mL) Sample of “Great Lake Salt” water (500 mL)

10. What’s Under Our Feet

2 sheets of white paper, 8.5” x 11” pencils (colored preferred) Salt Yellow, Red, and Blue food coloring 3 – 500 mL beakers 3 – 250 mL beakers Dropper or pipette ruler meter stick tape

11. Sea Floor Spreading

Scissors Metric ruler 1 sheet of unlined, white paper

12. Earthquakes and Subduction Boundaries

Graph paper (2) Maps of the tectonic plate boundaries 1 sheet of unlined, colored paper Colored markers or pencils Ruler Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 8

13. Finding the Epicenter

3 seismograms from the same earthquake Safe drawing compass P and S wave travel time curve

14. Fossils as Evidence for Environments and Change

Plastic fossil kit by Hubbard Scientific Map for plotting the earthquake epicenter Straight edge Geologic Time Chart Attached fossil handout

15. Stratigraphic Column

Part I 5 different types of sediments such as sand, potting soil, etc. 5 beakers or cups, plastic preferred Part II Stratigraphic column handout Ruler Ruler

16. Evolutionary Implications of the Geologic Time Scale

5 meters of nylon cording Yarn or colored string White unlined paper

17. Phases of the Moon

2 Styrofoam balls Tape Ruler Fossil sheet 2 Pencils A light source (flashlight or lamp)

18. Newton’s Laws and Planetary Motion

3 masses, 1 kg each Beaker Coin, such as a quarter Cord Dynamics cart with spring mechanism Human-figure toy or doll Water Key of habitability factors Habitability cards Set of masses, 20g-100g Stopwatch Track with pulley Dynamic cart String 16 washers Hook Index card Paper towels Pulley Timer Rubber band Ruler

19. Life on Earth… and Elsewhere: What Makes a World Habitable?

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 9

Laboratory Safety Rules:

• Know the primary and secondary exit routes from the classroom. • Know the location of and how to use the safety equipment in the classroom. • Work at your assigned seat unless obtaining equipment and chemicals. • Do not handle equipment or chemicals without the teacher’s permission. • Follow laboratory procedures as explained and do not perform unauthorized experiments. • Work as quietly as possible and cooperate with your lab partner. • Wear appropriate clothing, proper footwear, and eye protection. • Report to the teachers all accidents and possible hazards. • Remove all unnecessary materials from the work area and completely clean up the work area after the experiment. • Always make safety your first consideration in the laboratory.

Safety Contract:

I will: • Follow all instructions given by the teacher. • Protect eyes, face and hands, and body while conducting class activities. • Carry out good housekeeping practices. • Know where to get help fast. • Know the location of the first aid and firefighting equipment. • Conduct myself in a responsible manner at all times in a laboratory situation. I, _______________________, have read and agree to abide by the safety regulations as set forth above and also any additional printed instructions provided by the teacher. I further agree to follow all other written and verbal instructions given in class. Signature: ____________________________ Date: ___________________ Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 10

Lab Roles and Their Descriptions

Cooperative learning activities are made up of four parts: group accountability, positive interdependence, individual responsibility, and face-to-face interaction. The key to making cooperative learning activities work successfully in the classroom is to have clearly defined tasks for all members of the group. An individual science experiment can be transformed into a cooperative learning activity by using these lab roles and responsibilities: group. •

Project Director (PD)

The project director is responsible for the Reads directions to the group • Keeps group on task • Is the only group member allowed to talk to the teacher • Assists with conducting lab procedures • Shares summary of group work and results with the class

Materials Manager (MM)

The materials manager is responsible for obtaining all necessary materials and/or equipment for the lab. • Picks up needed materials • Organizes materials and/or equipment in the work space • Facilitates the use of materials during the investigation • Assists with conducting lab procedures • Returns all materials at the end of the lab to the designated area

Technical Manager (TM)

The technical manager is in charge of recording all data. • Records data in tables and/or graphs • Completes conclusions and final summaries • Assists with conducting the lab procedures • Assists with the cleanup

Safety Director (SD)

The safety director is responsible for enforcing all safety rules and conducting the lab. • Assists the PD with keeping the group on-task • Conducts lab procedures • Reports any accident to the teacher • Keeps track of time • Assists the MM as needed. • student. When assigning lab groups, various factors need to be taken in consideration: Always assign the group members, preferably trying to combine in each group a variety of skills. For example, you can place an “A” student with a “B”, “C”, and a “D” and or “F” • Evaluate the groups constantly and observe if they are on task and if the members of the group support each other in a positive way. Once you realize that a group is dysfunctional, re-assign the members to another group. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 11

Writing in Science

A report is a recap of what a scientist investigated and may contain various sections and information specific to the investigation. Below is a comprehensive guideline that students can follow as they prepare their lab/activity reports. Additional writing templates can be found in the District Science website .

Parts of a Lab Report: A Step-by-Step Checklist

Title (underlined and on the top center of the page) Benchmarks Covered: • A summary of the main concepts that you will learn by carrying out the experiment. Problem Statement: • Identify the research question/problem and state it clearly. Hypothesis(es): • State the hypothesis carefully, logically, and, if appropriate, with a calculation. Write your prediction as to how the independent variable will affect the dependent variable using an

IF-THEN-BECAUSE

statement:

If

(state the independent variable) is (choose an action),

then

(state the dependent variable) will (choose an action),

because

(describe reason for event). Materials and activity set up: • List and describe the equipment and the materials used. (e.g., A balance that measures with an accuracy of +/- 0.001 g) • Provide a diagram of the activity set up describing its components (as appropriate). Procedures: • Do not copy the procedures from the lab manual or handout. • Summarize the procedures that you implemented. Be sure to include critical steps. • Give accurate and concise details about the apparatus (diagram) and materials used. Variables and Control Test: • Identify the variables in the experiment. There are three types of variables: 1. Independent variable (manipulated variable): The factor that can be changed by the investigator (the cause). 2. Dependent variable (responding variable): The observable factor of an investigation resulting from the change in the independent variable. 3. Constant variable: The other identified independent variables in the investigation that are kept or remain the same during the investigation. • Identify the control test. A control test is the separate experiment that serves as the standard for comparison and helps identify effects of the dependent variable Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 12

Data: • Ensure that all observations and/or data are recorded. Use a table and write your observations clearly. (e.g., color, solubility changes, etc.) Pay particular attention to significant figures and make sure that all units are stated. Data Analysis: • Analyze data and specify method used. • If graphing data to look for a common trend, be sure to properly format and label all aspects of the graph (i.e., name of axes, numerical scales, etc.) Results: • Ensure that you have used your data correctly to produce the required result. • Include any errors or uncertainties that may affect the validity of your result. Conclusion and Evaluation: I.

First Paragraph:

Introduction 1. What was investigated? a) Describe the problem. 2. Was the hypothesis supported by the data? a) Compare your actual result to the expected (from the literature, or hypothesis) result. b) Include a valid conclusion that relates to the initial problem or hypothesis. 3. What were your major findings? a) Did the findings support (or not) the hypothesis as the solution to the problem? b) Calculate the percentage error from the expected value. II.

Middle Paragraphs:

• Discuss the major findings of the experiment. 4. How did your findings compare with other researchers? a) Compare your result to other students’ results in the class. The body paragraphs support the introductory paragraph by elaborating on the different pieces of information that were collected as data. • Each finding needs its own sentence and relates back to supporting or not supporting the hypothesis. • The number of body paragraphs you have will depend on how many different types of data were collected. They should always refer back to the findings in the first paragraph. III.

Last Paragraph:

Conclusion 5. What possible explanations can you offer for your findings? a) Evaluate your method. b) State any assumptions that were made which may affect the result. 6. What recommendations do you have for further study and for improving the experiment? a) Comment on the limitations of the method chosen. b) Suggest how the method chosen could be improved to obtain more accurate and reliable results. 7. What are some possible applications of the experiment? a) How can this experiment or the findings of this experiment be used in the real world for the benefit of society? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 13

Hands-on Activities

Teacher Alien Periodic Table NGSSS: SC.912.P.8.4

Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing the structure of atoms in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons, and differentiate among these particles in terms of their mass, electrical charges and locations within the atom.

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

Students will apply their understanding of the Periodic Table to predict characteristics of unknown elements.

Prerequisites:

• Prior to this activity the student should be able to: Label the parts of the Periodic Table: periods, families or groups, noble gases • Identify an element as being a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid • Recognize carbon as the element of life • Identify those elements which occur as diatomic molecules • Using the Periodic table, recognize which metals are more reactive than others. • Relate the atomic number to the number of protons • Relate the atomic mass to the number of protons and neutrons • Determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons based on the atomic number and atomic mass • Describe the changes that occur in atomic energy levels as you move down the periods in the Periodic table • Describe the changes that occur in atomic energy levels as you move across a period in the Periodic table • Describe ionic and covalent bonds • Relate ionic and covalent bonds to an atom’s electron requirements • Relate physical and chemical properties to atomic structure

Materials (per group):

• Blank

Alien Periodic Table

• Periodic table from text (used for reference)

Procedures: Day of Activity Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Make copies of the blank Alien Periodic table. b. Review the structure of the Periodic Table emphasizing: 1. periods, families/groups, Noble Gases. 2. metals, nonmetals, or metalloids. 3. carbon as the element of life. 4. diatomic molecules. 5. reactivity of substances. 6. calculations of protons, neutrons and electrons based on the atomic number and atomic mass. 7. ionic and covalent bonds. c. Ask if the Periodic Table follows universal laws and guide students to a “yes” answer. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 15

Teacher

d. If laws are universal, then they should apply to anywhere in space, even to an “Alien Periodic Table.”

During activity: After activity: What the teacher will do:

a. As a class guided activity, answer the first set of unknown elements on the Alien Periodic Table, modeling how to apply the logic required to complete the lab. b. As the class continues, ask questions that pertain to the lab such as: 1. How can you determine the number of protons in an element? 2. How can you determine the number of electrons in an element? 3. How can you determine the number of neutron in an element? 4. How does the physical size of an atom change as you move down a family (column)? 5. How does reactivity change as you move more to the left side of the periodic table?

What the teacher will do:

a. Lead a class discussion about which clues the students found most helpful, which clues were the most difficult to understand in placing the alien elements, and what would the students change about the clues. b. Ask students if they would be able to design their own “Alien Periodic Table,” for another earth science class using the same information they just used. Perhaps for extra credit, you may want to allow students to create one. c. Tell students they just applied the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by making predictions regarding unknown elements by using their knowledge of the structure of atoms. This is a basic State of Florida NGSSS.

Extension:

• Assign each student one of Earth’s elements identified in this activity. Students will research the element identifying physical and chemical properties, common uses of the element, and construct a model of the element’s electron configuration including energy levels. Students must also include all the basic information listed on the periodic table. • GIZMO: Element Builder , Electron Configuration Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 16

Teacher Answer Key

Observations/Data

Atomic Number Element Alien Name

1 2 3 4 Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Pfsst Bombal Chow

Atomic Number

11 12 13

Element

Sodium Magnesium

Alien Name Atomic Number

Byyou 31 Zapper 32

Element Alien Name

Gallium Doadeer Germanium Terribulum Aluminum Yazzer 33 Arsenic Sississ 14 Silicon Highho 34 Selenium Urrp 5 6 7 8 Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Doggone Ernst Floxxit Goldy Nuutye 15 16 17 18 Phosphorus Magnificon Sulfur Oz Chlorine Kratt Argon Jeptum 35 36 37 38 Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Vulcania Wobble Xtalt Pie 9 Fluorine Apstrom 19 Potassium Quackzil 49 Indium Anatom 10 Neon Logon 20 Calcium Rhaatrap 50 Tin Eldorado Conclusion 1. Student answers will vary. 2. Student answers will vary. 3. Generally, atomic mass also increases as you increase in atomic number. 4. Rare Earth Metals, Transition Metals 5. Yes, these groups exist on Earth and the many of the other elements are man-made. 6. They are the most reactive due to their electron configuration; each of the elements listed in procedure #2b have one valance electron and are likely to react with other elements. 7. Atoms are more stable when their energy levels are filled with electrons. There are three types of bonds associated with chemical bonding: covalent bonding, ionic bonding, and metallic bonding. In covalent bonding, two elements share electrons. In ionic bonding, two elements that are oppositely charged are held together. In metallic bonding, outer electrons are shared and move freely around the atom. 8. Student answers will vary. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 17

Student Alien Periodic Table NGSSS: SC.912.P.8.4

Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by describing the structure of atoms in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons, and differentiate among these particles in terms of their mass, electrical charges and locations within the atom.

Background:

Imagine that scientists have made radio contact with life on a distant planet. The planet is composed of many of the same elements that are found on Earth, but the inhabitants of the planet have different names and symbols for their elements. The radio transmission gave data on the known chemical and physical properties of 30 elements that belong to Groups 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18 of the Periodic Table.

Problem Statement:

Where do alien elements fit into a periodic table using information based on universal atomic properties?

Hypothesis:

If the alien elements are the same as the elements on Earth, then…

(clue for completing the hypothesis statement: explain able to classify the alien elements into a periodic table, using atomic properties, to create an Alien Periodic Table) how scientists on Earth would be

Vocabulary:

periodic table, atom, element, atomic number, atomic mass, proton, electron, neutron, metal, nonmetal, metalloids, noble gases, periods, family/group, diatomic molecule

Materials (per group):

• Blank

Alien Periodic Table

• Periodic table from text (used for reference) • 4 different colored pencils

Procedures:

1. Obtain the blank periodic table. 2. Use the following clues about the chemical and physical properties of the 30 alien elements in order to classify them into their appropriate positions in the blank periodic table. a. The

noble gases

are bombal (Bo), wobble (Wo), jeptum (J), and logon (L). Among these gases, wobble has the greatest

atomic mass

and bombal the least. Logon is lighter (in mass) than jeptum. b. The

most reactive

group of

metals

are xtalt (X), byyou (By), chow (Ch), and quackzil (Q). Of these metals, chow has the lowest

atomic mass

. Quachzil is in the same

period

as wobble. c. Apstrom (A), vulcania (V), and kratt (Kt) are

nonmetals

whose atoms typically

gain or share one electron

. Vulcania is in the same

period

as quackzil and wobble. d. The

metalloids

are Ernst (E), highho (Hi), terribulum (T), and sississ (Ss). Sississ is the metalloid with the greatest

atomic mass

. Ernst is the metalloid with the lowest atomic mass. Highho and terribulum are in

Group

14. Terribulum has more

protons

than highho. Yazzer (Yz) touches the zigzag line, but it’s a

metal

, not a metalloid. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 18

Student

e. The

lightest element

of all is called pfsst (Pf). The

heaviest element

in the group of 30 elements is eldorado (El). The most

chemically active nonmetal

is apstrom. Kratt reacts with byyou to form

table salt

. f. The element doggone (D) has only 4

protons

in its atom. g. Floxxit (Fx) is important in the

chemistry of life

. It forms compounds made of long chains of atoms. Rhaatrap (R) and doadeer (Do) are

metals

in the fourth

period

, but rhaatrap is less reactive than doadeer. h. Magnificon (M), goldy (G), and sississ are all members of

Group

15. Goldy has fewer total

electrons

than magnificon. i. Urrp (Up), oz (Oz), and nuutye (Nu) all gain 2

electrons

when they react. Nuutye is found as a

diatomic molecule

and has the same properties as a gas found in Earth’s atmosphere. Oz has a lower

atomic number

than urrp. j. The element anatom (An) has atoms with a total of 49

electrons

. Zapper (Z) and pie (Pi) lose two

electrons

when they react. Zapper is found in planet families: metals, non-metals, metalloids, noble gases.

Earth’s crust

. 3. Create a color key on the alien periodic table to identify each of the following element 4. Color each of the element families on the alien periodic table according to the color key.

Observations/Data:

Fill in the attached Alien Periodic Table and complete the table below.

Atomic Number Element Alien Name Atomic Number Element Alien Name Atomic Number Element Alien Name

1 Hydrogen 11 Sodium 31 Gallium 2 Helium 12 Magnesium 32 Germanium 7 8 9 3 4 5 6 Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium 33 34 35 36 37 38 49 Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Indium 10 Neon Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction 20 Calcium 50 Tin

Conclusion:

1. Which alien elements were able to be placed on the blank periodic table with just a single clue? Explain how that one clue assisted in the placement. 2. Why are two or more clues needed to be able to place other elements? Explain using examples. 3. Even though the periodic table is based on atomic number, why are clues about atomic mass useful in placing elements? 4. Which group(s) of elements from Earth’s periodic table are not included in the alien periodic table? 5. Is it likely that an alien planet would lack the group of elements that are missing in the alien periodic table (mentioned in question #5)? Explain why or why not. 6. Explain why the groups of metals mentioned in procedure #2b are the most reactive on the periodic table. Page 19

Student

7. Procedures #2c and #2i both discuss electron movement. Explain how to determine which elements typically gain, lose, or share electrons. 8. Step #2 of the procedures provides descriptions in (a,b,c) format. Unlike most laboratory procedures that must be followed step by step, why was it necessary to skip some sections in order to make progress when completing step 2? Provide an example. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 20

1 1 2 3 2 4 5

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction

ALIEN PERIODIC TABLE

13 14 15 16 17 18

Page 21

Teacher Absorption and Reflection of Solar Energy NGSSS: SC.912.10.4

Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation, and explains the connection of heat to change in temperature and states of matter.

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

• Determine which factors best reflect/absorb solar energy • Recognize how Earth’s surface characteristics affect the reflection / absorption of solar energy • Relate changes in Earth’s surface by human activity to the reflection/absorption of solar energy • Explain how the reflection/absorption of solar energy affects the formation of weather • Develop graphing skills

Prerequisites

:

Prior to this activity the student should be able to: Recognize the differences between reflection and absorption of solar energy • Describe the electromagnetic spectrum • Explain how solar energy plays an important role in our weather patterns • Define the terms heat, reflection, absorption, radiation

Materials (per group):

• 5 sheets of cardboard each painted a different color: medium green, light blue, medium brown, black, and white. • 1 sheet of sandpaper • 1 sheet of metal or aluminum foil • • • • 1 sheet of vinyl 8 Celsius thermometers Watch or clock Graph paper

Procedures: Day of Activity Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Ask the students to define energy, convection, conduction, and radiation. b. Explain to the students the safety precautions to use when working with hot surfaces. c. Have the students look at the thermometer and have them read the room temperature, emphasize that they will be using the Celsius scale. (Note: Do students know the difference between Fahrenheit and Celsius) d. Model the effects of latitude on solar radiation. 1. Dim lights and hold a flashlight so that the beam shines directly on white board. Use a marker to trace the outline of the beam of light. 2. Move the flashlight so that the light shines on the board at an angle. Trace the outline of the beam of light using a different colored marker. 3. Make sure the height of the flashlight does not change when students change the angle of the flashlight. 4. Ask the students the following questions: • How does the area of the direct beam differ from the area of the Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 22

Teacher During activity: After activity:

angled beam? The area of the direct beam is smaller than the area of the angled beam.

• How does the demo illustrate how latitude affects incoming solar radiation? 90 0 At the equator, energy from the sun hits Earth at a 90 Therefore, each square unit of surface receives less energy.

0 . The same amount of energy is spread over a greater area. angle, so the energy is concentrated on a small area. At latitudes far north and south of the equator, sunlight hits Earth at angles less than

What the teacher will do:

a. Monitor students to make sure they are recording temperature readings in Celsius scale. b. Prompt students with questions to guide them to higher order thinking. Use the following questions: 1. In what way does solar energy affects weather patterns on earth. 2. What factors are taken in consideration when capturing solar energy? 3. Why shadows from buildings, trees, or people should not interfere with the sunlight heating the surface of all the materials? 4. How changes in different types of surfaces affect the absorption / reflection of solar energy? 5. In what way does solar energy affects weather patterns on earth.

What the teacher will do:

a. Engage in class discussion (including questions) to assess students in understanding the importance of solar energy as means of conservation of energy in our planet. 1. What other surfaces are useful in the absorption and or reflection of Solar Energy 2. Speculate on how man-made objects change the reflection and absorption of solar radiation b. For a closure activity have the students describe the characteristics of each material that affected its ability to either reflect or absorb solar energy.

Extension:

• GIZMO: Radiation Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 23

Student Absorption and Reflection of Solar Energy NGSSS: SC.912.10.4

Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation, and explains the connection of heat to change in temperature and states of matter.

Background:

Energy from the sun is either reflected or absorbed when it reaches Earth. The surface of the earth is covered with many materials such as different types of rocks, oceans and lakes of varying depths, ice caps, and a wide variety of vegetation. These materials will reflect or absorb the sun’s energy differently. There are many factors of these materials that affect the reflection or absorption of solar energy including color, texture, transparency, thickness, mass, specific heat, and chemical composition. The difference in the reflection and absorption of solar energy results in different parts of the earth becoming warm or cool. This difference in solar heating causes the formation of hot and cold air masses and ultimately forms Earth’s weather.

Problem Statement

: What affects the reflection and absorption of the sun’s energy when it reaches Earth?

Hypothesis:

If reflection and absorption of the sun’s energy is affected by… , then…

(Hint for completing the hypothesis: identify the factors that affect solar energy absorption or reflection of different materials, then describe how those factors will affect solar energy absorption or reflection)

Vocabulary:

heat, temperature, conduction, convection, radiation, states of matter, reflection, absorption

Materials (per group):

• 5 sheets of cardboard each painted a different color: medium green, light blue, medium brown, black, and white. • 1 sheet of sandpaper • 1 sheet of metal or aluminum foil • • • • 1 sheet of vinyl 8 Celsius thermometers Watch or clock Graph paper

Procedures:

1. Neatly copy the data table, from the section below, into your lab report. Record the color of your sandpaper, metal, and vinyl materials. 2. Go outside to an open area where the 8 pieces of material can be placed into the sun at the same time. ( top). pickup it up. (

Safety alert:

You will be outside; do not look directly at the sun.) a. Be sure shadows from buildings, trees, or people will not interfere. b. Be sure the materials are all on the same surface (sidewalk, grass, asphalt, table 3. On each piece of material, place the bulb of the thermometer in the center of the square. Make sure that the numbers of the thermometer can be seen without having to move it or

Safety alert:

Thermometers are made of glass; handle with care.) 4. Wait at least 10 minutes for the thermometers to register the difference in heat. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 24

Student

5. Without touching the thermometers, or casting a shadow on them, read the temperature of each thermometer and record the value in the correct place in the data table. Be as precise in your readings as possible.

Observation/Data:

Temperature Data Table

Material Color Temperature ( o C)

Cardboard Cardboard medium green light blue Cardboard Cardboard Cardboard Sandpaper Metal medium brown white black Vinyl

Data Analysis:

Use the data collected to create a bar graph with the different materials along the x-axis and temperature along the y-axis. Be sure to: • include a scientifically correct title for the graph, • label both the x and y axes, • include units and/or descriptions,

Results and Conclusions:

Understanding the Data 1. Which material was the hottest? 2. What factor was unique about the hottest material? 3. Which material was the coolest? 4. What factor was unique about the coolest material? 5. List the materials from hottest to coolest. Analyzing the Data 6. Look at the material that was the hottest. What type of surface on Earth would have similar characteristics (i.e., forests, polar oceans, deserts, etc.) 7. Look at the material that was the coolest. What type of surface on Earth would have similar characteristics (i.e., forests, polar oceans, deserts, etc.) Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 25

Student

8. Explain the purpose of using a bar graph to represent the data instead of a line or circle graph? 9. Recommend some changes that could be made to improve this lab. Be sure to explain how the changes would be considered an improvement. Applying the Data 10. Using the information from this lab, what type of roof would be best for a home that is being built in an area where temperatures are mostly hot? Explain why? 11. Using the information from this lab, what type of roof would be best for a home that is being built in an area where temperatures are mostly cold? Explain why? 12. Use information from this lab to answer the following questions. a. How would the air movement over a light blue lake be different from the air movement over an adjacent pine forest? (Hint: Think in terms of what happens to hot and cold air.) b. Describe what a pilot would feel (due to the movement of air), if a small plane flew over the forest, then the lake, and then the forest again. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 26

Teacher Effect of Evaporation on Cloud Formation NGSSS: SC.912.E.7.1 SC.912.E.7.3

Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the different biogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon. Differentiate and describe the various interactions among Earth systems, (Also addresses SC.912.E.7.4, SC.912.E.7.5, SC.912.E.7.6)

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

The purpose of this lab activity is to relate the process of evaporation and condensation to the steps that form and dissipate clouds and storms. The student will also gain an understanding of the water cycle and be able to relate the recycling of matter (specifically water molecules) to the flow of energy within earth’s systems.

Prerequisites:

• Prior to this activity, the student should be able to: Describe the layers of the atmosphere • Explain the three ways heat is transferred (convection, conduction, and radiation) • Relate humidity, pollution (condensation nuclei), evaporation, and condensation to the water cycle • Describe the four states of matter and phase changes • Explain cloud formation

Materials (individual or per group):

• Clear plastic bowl(or other plastic bin) • Hot-plate (sufficient hot-plates to heat up all of the students’ water) • 250-ml. beaker • Thermometer • Clear plastic wrap

Procedures: Day of Activity

• • • • • Self-sealing plastic bag (baggy) Ice cubes or crushed ice Tape 150 to 200 ml. of water minimum 50 or 100 ml. graduated cylinder

Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Assemble all of the lab supplies for each lab station b. Introduce the problem statement for this lab as per the student version: What is the effect of evaporation time on cloud formation? c. Review pertinent vocabulary (see student version). d. Propose a specific hypothesis to the class (it may be a right or wrong one), or, have the students write their own so that they can address it in the conclusion write-up. 1. Ex. If the amount of evaporation time increases, then the amount of condensation (cloud formation) will decrease. This is an example of a hypothesis that, most likely, will be proven wrong after performing the experiment. e. Demo: Cloud Formation 1. Use a bottle opener to puncture one or two holes into the metal lid of a glass jar. 2. Pour 1ml of hot water into the jar. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 27

Teacher During activity:

3. Place an ice cube over the holes in the lid of the jar. Make sure the holes are completely covered. 4. Have students observe the changes that occur within the jar and record observations on the board. 5. Draw a diagram of the jar on the board and label the areas of the diagram where evaporation and condensation take place. Label areas where latent heat is released and absorbed. Evaporation takes place near the water’s surface, where latent heat is absorbed. Condensation in the form of a cloud forms at the top of the jar, where latent heat is released. 6. Explain why latent heat was released and absorbed in the areas that you labeled on the diagram. The conversion of liquid water to a gas requires energy to break the attractive forces between water molecules. When the process is reversed, the energy reenters the air. 7. You could also introduce the concept of condensation nuclei by using matches to add smoke particles to the jar, and then sealing it quickly.

What the teacher will do:

a. Remind students of the difference between evaporation and vaporization b. Ask students the following questions: 1. Is water evaporating or vaporizing inside the bowl (bin)? 2. Are there any condensation nuclei inside this closed system? 3. Why is the water condensing? 4. Why did we heat the water prior to beginning the experiment? 5. Which part of our experimental set-up represents the troposphere? 6. Why don’t we see cloud formation occurring? c. Help students understand the process of cloud formation better by comparing cloud formation to the cloud that forms when you boil a kettle of water on the stove. The mist that comes out of the spout is called “steam,: but it is really a mixed cloud composed of water droplets, not water vapor. Another example of cloud formation is the cloud that forms when you exhale on a cold day.

After activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Analyze class data; making sure to note the importance of multiple trials, and repeatability in scientific investigations. b. Discuss the following questions: 1. How does this lab model the flow of matter in the water cycle? (Hint: Trace the flow of water through the hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere) 2. Describe the conditions that are necessary for cloud formation. 3. Predict what would happen if you repeated this activity with hotter water. c. Complete a concept map using the following terms: water cycle, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, water changes from liquid to gas, water changes from gas to liquid, water falls as rain, snow, sleet, or hail

Extension:

• GIZMO: Water Cycle Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 28

Student Effect of Evaporation on Cloud Formation NGSSS: SC.912.E.7.1 SC.912.E.7.3

Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the different biogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon. Differentiate and describe the various interactions among Earth systems, (Also addresses SC.912.E.7.4, SC.912.E.7.5, SC.912.E.7.6)

Background:

Evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, rivers and other bodies of water on earth are an important part of the water cycle process that forms clouds. As the sun’s energy heats up earth’s bodies of water, water evaporates and rises through the lower layer of our atmosphere (troposphere) as a gas. This evaporated, gaseous, water rises and eventually cools and condenses back into small liquid droplets that collect around many small particles in the troposphere called condensation nuclei. This process eventually leads to the formation of clouds and is an important step in the water cycle.

Specific Problem Statement:

What is the effect of the amount of evaporation time on cloud formation?

Safety:

• Use caution when handling glassware during this lab. • Also use mitts or gloves when handling hot-plate and hot beakers.

Vocabulary:

Fahrenheit, Celsius, Condensation, Evaporation, condensation nuclei, density, water cycle, radiation, conduction, convection, troposphere, states of matter, humidity, atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere

Materials (individual or per group):

• Clear plastic bowl(or other plastic bin) • Hot-plate (sufficient hot-plates to heat up all of the students’ water) • 250-ml. beaker • Thermometer • Clear plastic wrap • • • • • Self-sealing plastic bag (baggy) Ice cubes or crushed ice Tape 150 to 200 ml. of water minimum 50 or 100 ml. graduated cylinder

Procedures:

1. Using a graduated cylinder pour 150 mL of water into a 250-mL beaker. Record the initial volume. 2. Turn your hot plate to high setting (or as recommended by your teacher). Allow a few minutes for the plate to heat up. 3. Now, insert the thermometer inside the beaker and heat the water until the temperature reaches, approximately 23.8

temperature. transfer. 0 Celsius) and record the temperature. Make sure that the thermometer does not contact the bottom of the beaker when measuring the 4. Carefully remove the beaker from the hot plate and pour all of the heated water into a clear plastic bowl (or other plastic bin) making sure that no water is lost during the Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 29

Student

5. Immediately cover the top of the bowl, loosely, with the clear plastic wrap (do not make it drum tight). Make sure that there are no areas where evaporated water can escape from after the wrapping is complete (in other words, make sure that there is a tight seal between the wrap and the sides of the plastic bowl or bin). Use the tape to seal around the wrap. 6. Now fill the self-sealing plastic bag (zip-loc) with ice cubes or crushed ice (half full is good enough) and close it. 7. Place the bag of ice on top of the center of the plastic wrap over the bowl. Push it down, a little, until the plastic wrap and bag of ice sags and almost touches the water. 8. Observe the bottom surface of the plastic wrap directly under the ice cubes every 5 minutes for the 30 minutes. Record what is happening at the surface of the plastic bag, making sure to note if any of the water has condensed or precipitated. 9. After the 30 minutes have passed, carefully remove the plastic wrap and record the remaining water volume leftover in the plastic bowl. Record final water volume.

Observations / Data:

Time (minutes) Observations (Condensation and Precipitation) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Initial Volume (water) ml Final Volume (water) ml Heated Water Temperature 0 C

Data Analysis/Results:

1. Identify your independent and dependent variables. 2. Why is there less water at the end of the experiment than at the beginning? Where did the missing water go? 3. Did the amount of condensation increase with time? 4. How does an increase in evaporation affect cloud formation? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 30

Student

5. Predict if more, or less, clouds will be formed if water temperatures on earth’s surfaces were higher? 6. How do higher water temperatures affect our weather? 7. What might have occurred if you had introduced dust or pollution particles into the covered plastic bowl?

Conclusion:

Finalize lab report using the “Power Writing Model 2009”; the following questions should be answered: 1. What was investigated? 2. Was the hypothesis supported by the data? 3. What were the major findings? 4. How did your findings compare with other researchers? 5. What possible explanations can you offer for your findings? 6. What recommendations do you have for further study and for improving the experiment? 7. What are some possible applications of the experiment? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 31

Teacher Icy Boil: Can you boil water with ice? NGSSS: SC.912.P.10.4

Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation, and explain the connection of heat to change in temperature or states of matter. (Also addresses SC.912.N.1.1, SC.912.N.1.6, SC.912.P.8.1)

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

• Relate pressure and temperature and boiling point by using examples of the effects of pressure and temperature changes in everyday life. • Examine the effect of pressure on the boiling point of liquids. • Identify that the scientific method can be used to solve problems in both science and other (everyday) situations. • Observe the relationship of pressure and boiling point.

Prerequisites:

• Prior to this activity the student should be able to: Identify and explain the phases of matter • Understand the relationship between temperature and pressure • Explain that gas molecules expand or contract depending on temperature and pressure • Relate a change in atmospheric pressure to weather patterns

Materials: (per group)

• Boiling flask • Stopper • Ring stand • Bunsen burner • Wire gauze

Procedures: Day of Activity

• • • • Tape Baggie Ice Water

Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Present the title question “Can you Boil Water with Ice?” to your students, possibly as a home-learning assignment, and let them come up with answers. Have them justify their answers using scientific principles. Record answers in a journal. b. Guide a discussion that allows student participation. Have them explain their reasoning. c. Display a box of cake mix. Pass out copies of the baking instructions that clearly indicate a difference of baking temperature and time and, in some cases, ingredients at high altitude. d. Read together and ask students to point out any information that could be relevant to the original question. Allow students time to extend their thinking and record their responses in a journal. e. Review the following concepts: 1. concept of energy; include the energy transfer processes of convection and conduction 2. the differences between the pressure and temperature Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 32

Teacher

3. the role of pressure in weather systems.

During activity: After activity: What the teacher will do:

a. In order to emphasize the importance of observation and inferences as part of the scientific method this activity should be approached as a guided inquiry 1. 1. Through the students telling and recording WHAT is happening, you will be showing the students what observations are. Only after the students have answered WHAT is going on, can they start to try to answer WHY/HOW the event is occurring. b. Engage in class discussion during the following times: Water boils, steam is produced - Discuss with the students the temperature that the water is at right now. Why? How do they know? (212 0 F, 100 0 C) Record the temperatures on the board. 2. Heat source removed - Talk about what is happening to the temperature of the water as it is sitting in the flask. (It is going down). Compare it to a cup of hot cocoa cooling. 3. Baggie of ice place on flask - "Is the ice heating up the water?" The students should know that the ice is NOT heating the water. So what is causing the water to boil? c. Discuss the difference between observations (Using senses to tell WHAT is happening) and inference (Using the information from the observations to try to answer WHY or HOW it is happening) d. Discuss lab safety procedures, including the flask opening never being pointed at anybody.

What the teacher will do:

a. Have the students compare their observations. b. Discuss the real reason for the boiling water using ice. The drop in pressure in the flask allows the water to boil at lower temperatures (even room temperature). Lowering the pressure in the flask drops the atmospheric pressure below that of the vapor pressure of the water and the water boils when this happens. The boiling releases water vapor into the flask to increase the pressure once again.

Extension:

• GIZMO: Freezing Point of Salt Water http://www.explorelearning.com/index.cfm?method=cResource.dspView&ResourceID=426 Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 33

Student Icy Boil: Can you boil water with ice? NGSSS: SC.912.P.10.4

Describe heat as the energy transferred by convection, conduction, and radiation, and explain the connection of heat to change in temperature or states of matter. (Also addresses SC.912.N.1.1, SC.912.N.1.6, SC.912.P.8.1)

Background:

Almost all of the different kinds of “stuff” around you can be sorted into one of three categories: solid, liquid, or gas. This “stuff” is matter. Temperature affects which state of matter something is. If you put an ice cube in a hot frying pan, the solid water will warm up until it reaches its melting point temperature, then melt, and then that puddle of liquid water will heat up until the boiling point is reached, and then the water will all turn to steam (gaseous water). The process works in reverse, too: cooling steam results in liquid water, and continued cooling would result in ice. Though water exists mostly as a liquid at room temperature and pressure, water in an open container evaporates over a period of time until it all finally "disappears." The water vapor formed during evaporation is like any other gas: it exerts pressure, and it expands & contracts with temperature changes. You may have noticed that in a closed system, such as in a sealed bottle of water, water does not appear to evaporate. When placed in a closed container, water does evaporate until the air in the container is saturated with water vapor. When the air is saturated with water vapor, the molecules in the vapor condense to a liquid as fast as the liquid evaporates, and the two processes (evaporation and condensation) continue at equal rates. This is called an equilibrium. The evaporation and condensation are proceeding at the same rate, so there is no net change. In a closed container, the pressure due to the water vapor reaches a maximum value (for a given temperature) called vapor pressure. Vapor pressure is the pressure caused by a liquid's own vapor. As the temperature of the water increases, its vapor pressure increases. When the vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure on the liquid, the liquid will boil. At high altitudes, the boiling point of liquids is lower than at sea level. In Denver, Colorado, water will boil at about 94°C. Do not confuse boiling with cooking. Cooking pasta in Denver is a slower process because the water is at a lower temperature. Also, realize that water boiling rapidly is no hotter than water boiling slowly. The temperature of the water remains constant during the boiling process. And, the temperature of a boiling liquid never rises above its boiling point. No matter how much heat is applied, the liquid only boils faster, not hotter.

Purpose or Problem Statement:

Can you boil water with ice?

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 34

Student Safety

: Be sure to tape the stopper into the neck of the flask. If the stopper should come out, hot water spill over the desk.

Vocabulary:

matter, solid, liquid, gas, pressure, temperature, boiling point, convection, conduction, evaporation, condensation

Materials (per group):

• Boiling flask • Stopper • Ring stand • Bunsen burner • Wire gauze • • • • Tape Baggie Ice Water

Procedures:

1. Place the flask on wire gauze as shown in the diagram. 2. Fill the flask approximately half-full of water. 3. Heat the flask until the water boils and steam is produced. Make an observation of what is happening. 4. Predict what the temperature of the water is at this point. How do you know? 5. Verify by using a thermometer to check the water temperature. Was your prediction correct? 6. Remove the burner. Record your observations to what is happening to temperature of the water. 7. Firmly insert the stopper in the flask. Wrap masking tape around the stopper to be sure that it held in place. 8. Remove the wire gauze and place the flask neck down through the ring. Notice that the water is hot, but NOT boiling. (Use heat-resistant gloves to avoid getting burned) 9. Place a closed baggie full of crushed ice directly on top of the inverted flask. 10. Record Observations

Observations/Data:

Record all your observations in the table below: Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 35

Student

Water before heating Water at boiling point Water when heat source removed Water when ice is applied

Data Analysis/Results:

1. Do you think that liquids would boil a higher or lower temperature at, say, 20,000 km above sea level? 2. What effect did adding the ice pack have on the boiling point? 3. Can you make warm water boil by this method? 4. What did the raising of temperature do to the pressure inside the flask? 5. Since the flask does not have a plug, what happens to the vapor? 6. How did the pressure and temperature change after placing the stopper on the flask? 7. Describe the energy gained or lost during the entire process before and after boiling.

Conclusion:

Finalize lab report using the “Power Writing Model 2009”; include answers for the following questions: 1. Have the students come up with a statement relating to the purpose of the laboratory and it’s relation to sudden changes in climatological events 2. How does pressure affect temperature changes inside the flask? 3. What happens to the water vapor inside the flask when the flask is stopper? 4. What factors may have contributed to the water restart the boiling process after placing ice over the flask? 5. Explain the real reason for the boiling water using ice. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 36

Teacher Change of States NGSSS: SC.912.E.5.2

SC.912.P.8.1

Identify patterns in the organization and distribution of matter in the universe and the forces that determine them. Differentiate among the four states of matter. (Also addresses SC.912.P.8.4, SC.912.P.10.4)

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

phase. The purpose of this lab is to investigate how the temperature of water changes through a period of time when heated and to find out if water temperature can be used to indicate a change in

Prerequisites:

• Prior to this activity, the student should be able to: Explain the different states of matter • Interpret phase change diagrams

Materials (per group):

• Hot plate • 250 ml beaker • water • Thermometer • Stop-watch or timer

Procedures: Day of Activity

• • • • Stirring Rod 100 ml graduated cylinder Funnel CBL/ Calculator /Temperature Probe (Optional)

Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Assemble all of the lab supplies for each lab station b. Introduce the problem statement for this lab as per the student version: Can water temperature be used to indicate that vaporization is taking place? c. Review vocabulary (see student version). d. Propose a specific hypothesis to the class (it may be a right or wrong one), or, have the students write their own so that they can address it in the conclusion write-up. 1. Ex. If the water temperature increases to 100 0 Celsius, then the water will begin to change to a gas or If the water temperature stops increasing, then a phase change must be taking place.

During activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Review the following: 1. The difference between evaporation and vaporization 2. Use a stirring rod NOT a thermometer to stir b. To assess student’s learning during the investigations ask the following questions: 1. Are you evaporating or vaporizing water right now? What’s the difference? 2. Has the water reached its maximum temperature yet? How do you know? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 37

Teacher After activity:

3. Why is the water bubbling? What’s inside the bubble? 4. Why doesn’t the temperature rise anymore after a certain point? 5. At what point of a solid-liquid-gas graph (that plots energy absorbed on the x-axis and temperature on the Y-axis) is the water while its temperature is not rising anymore? (Hint: Show students a previously constructed phase change graph and have them point to the spot on the graph where boiling is taking place.)

What the teacher will do:

a. Engage in class discussion (including questions) to assess students in understanding the importance of changes of state: 1. What were the two states of matter for water in this lab? 2. What is water called when it’s in the solid state of matter? 3. Are the molecules in the liquid state of water closer or farther apart than in the water that is being evaporated or vaporized? Why? 4. Are the intermolecular forces harder to break in a solid, liquid, or gas? 5. Is there any other states of matter, other than solid, liquid or gas?

Extension:

• GIZMO: Phase Changes • Interactive Simulation: States of Matter http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/states-of-matter • Changing State http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/9_10/changing_state.shtml

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 38

Student Change of States NGSSS: SC.912.E.5.2

SC.912.P.8.

Identify patterns in the organization and distribution of matter in the universe and the forces that determine them. 1 Differentiate among the four states of matter. (Also addresses SC.912.P.8.4, SC.912.P.10.4)

Background:

All matter can move from one state to another. It may require very low temperatures or very high pressures, but it can be done. Phase changes happen when certain points are reached. Sometimes a liquid wants to become a solid. Scientists use something called a freezing point to measure when that liquid turns into a solid. There are physical effects that can change the freezing point. Pressure is one of those effects. When the pressure surrounding a substance goes up, the freezing point also goes up. That means it's easier to freeze the substance at higher pressures. When it gets colder, most solids shrink in size. There are a few which expand but most shrink. Now you're a solid. You're a cube of ice sitting on a counter. You dream of becoming liquid water. You need some energy. Atoms in a liquid have more energy than the atoms in a solid. The easiest energy around is probably heat. There is a specific temperature for every substance called the melting point. When a solid reaches the temperature of its melting point it can become a liquid. For water the temperature has to be a little over zero degrees Celsius. If you were salt, sugar, or wood your melting point would be higher than water. The reverse is true if you are a gas. You need to lose some energy from your very excited gas atoms. The easy answer is to lower the surrounding temperature. When the temperature drops, energy will be sucked out of your gas atoms. When you reach the temperature of the condensation point, you become a liquid. If you were the steam of a boiling pot of water and you hit the wall, the wall would be so cool that you would quickly become a liquid. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 39

Student Problem Statement:

Can water temperature be used to indicate that vaporization is taking place?

Hypothesis:

If water temperature can be used to indicated that vaporization is taking place, then… (hint for completing the hypothesis: explain how water temperature would or would not indicate that vaporization is taking place)

Vocabulary:

Phase change, boiling, Celsius, freezing, melting, energy, solid, liquid, gas, condensation, vaporization

Materials (per group):

• Hot plate • 250 ml beaker • water • Thermometer • Stop-watch or timer • • • • Stirring Rod 100 ml graduated cylinder Funnel CBL/ Calculator /Temperature Probe (Optional)

Procedure:

1. Turn your hot plate to high setting (or as recommended by your teacher) and allow a few minutes for the plate to heat up. 2. Add 150 ml of water into an empty 250-ml beaker. 3. Measure the initial temperature of the water in ºC and record. 4. Place the beaker on the hot plate and record the temperature every minute. Carefully stir the water before taking temperature reading. Do not allow the thermometer to touch the bottom of the beaker when recording the temperature. 5. When the water starts boiling, continue recording the temperature for an additional three minutes. 6. Carefully remove the beaker from the hot plate, let it cool and then record the volume of the remaining water.

If you have a CBL, a temperature probe, and a TI Graphing Calculator, you can use the following steps and procedure:

Menu. 1. Add 150 ml of water into an empty 250-ml beaker. 2. Turn your hot plate to high setting (or as recommended by your teacher). Allow a few minutes for the plate to heat up. 3. Place a temperature probe into the water inside the beaker. 4. Plug the temperature probe cable into Channel 1 of the CBL System. Connect the CBL System to the TI Graphic Calculator with link cable, using the port on the bottom edge of each unit. Firmly press in the cable ends. 5. Turn on the CBL unit and the calculator. Press PRGM and select CHEMBIO or press Apps and choose DATAMATE Press ENTER. Press ENTER again to go to the Main 6. Set up the calculator and CBL for one temperature probe. a. Select SET UP PROBES from the Main Menu. b. Enter “1” as the number of probes. c. Select TEMPERATURE from SELECT PROBE menu. d. Enter “1” as the channel number. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 40

Student

7. Set up the calculator and CBL for data collection. a. Select COLLECT DATA from Main Menu. b. Select TIME GRAPH from the DATA COLLECTION menu. c. Enter “60” as the time between samples, in seconds. (The CBL will collect the data for a total of 15 minutes.) d. Enter “-1” as the minimum temperature (Y min ). To enter –1 use (-), not –. e. Enter “105” as the maximum temperature (Y max ). f. Enter “5” as the temperature increment (Y scl ). g. Place the beaker on the hot plate and begin data collection. h. Press ENTER on the calculator to begin the data collection. It will take 30 seconds for the graph to appear with the first data point plotted.

Observations/Data

Initial Volume (water)________________ml Final Volume (water)________________ml Table: Temperature of Water Time (min.) Temperature ( 0 C) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 41

Student Data Analysis/Results:

• Construct a graph of temperature (Y-axis) vs. time (X-axis).

Conclusion:

Finalize lab report using the “Power Writing Model 2009”; include answers for the following questions: 1. What was the independent variable in this lab? 2. What was the dependent variable in this lab? 3. Was the water evaporating or vaporizing before the highest temperature was reached? 4. Why was the final volume of water less than the initial volume? 5. What was the highest temperature that was recorded? 6. Explain why the temperature did not continue to increase. 7. At what temperature did the water begin to boil? 8. Does the above boiling temperature agree with your prediction of the highest temperature at which water will remain a liquid? 9. Why didn’t the temperature rise higher once the water boiled for a while? 10. Can water temperature be used to indicate that vaporization is taking place? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 42

Teacher Coriolis Effect NGSSS: SC.912.E.7.2 SC.912.E.7.3

Analyze the causes of the various kinds of surface and deep water motion within the oceans and their impacts on the transfer of energy between the poles and the equator. Differentiate and describe the various interactions among Earth systems, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere. (Also addresses SC.912.E.7.4, SC.912.E.7.8, SC.912.E.5.2)

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

The purpose of this lab activity is to gain an understanding of the “Coriolis Effect”. Students will use simple apparatus to demonstrate the “Coriolis Effect” and, thereby, gain an understanding of how the Earth’s rotation directly affects the direction of wind and ocean patterns on our planet. In addition, the students will be able to relate differences between weather systems in the northern and southern hemisphere.

Prerequisites:

• Prior to this activity, the student should be able to Relate frame of reference in terms of moving objects • Explain the effects of earth’s rotation on surface features

Materials (per group):

• Circular cardboard • Pin or nail • “Chalkable” globe • red, blue, yellow, and green chalk

Procedures: Day of Activity Before activity: During activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Assemble all of the lab supplies for each lab station b. Introduce the problem statement of this lab as per the student version: What effect does the Earth’s rotation have on a moving object? c. Review pertinent vocabulary (see student version). d. Show the following movie clip on the movie of a ball rolling across the surface of a rotating merry-go-round: http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/gifs/coriolis.mov e. Propose a specific hypothesis to the class (it may be right or wrong), or, have the students write their own so that they can address it in the conclusion write-up. 1. Ex. If the rotation of the Earth is counter-clockwise, then the fluids (ocean currents and/or air currents) will be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.(correct) 2. Ex. If the circular disk is rotated counter-clockwise, then the food coloring (ocean currents and/or air currents) will be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.(correct)

What the teacher will do:

a. You may chose to complete either Part I and/or Part II. Part II is another way to model the Coriolis effect. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 43

Teacher After activity:

b. Ask students the following questions: 1. What is the Coriolis Effect? rotating coordinate system.

counter-clockwise? clockwise? experiment? including East-West. The effect of the Coriolis force is an apparent deflection of the path of an object that moves within a 2. What happened to the line when you spun the circular cardboard It spun to the right.

It spun to the left.

3. What happened to the line when you spun the circular cardboard 4. Are winds and oceans affected like the pencil marks in this Yes. Expand on how ocean gyres and wind patterns are affected by the “Coriolis Effect”. Demonstrate that the Coriolis effect in the southern hemisphere is a mirror image of that in the north, that is, air masses curve to the left no matter which direction they move,

What the teacher will do:

a. Engage in class discussion (including questions) to assess students in understanding the importance of the Coriolis effect: 1. How does the Coriolis effect influence our weather patterns on Earth? It affects the direction of global wind systems,such as, the trade winds, prevailing westerlies, and polar easterlies, to name a few.

2. Does the Coriolis effect affect weather patterns? Yes. Relate the flow of the 5 air masses and major wind patterns to the Coriolis effect.

Extension:

• Animation: CoriolisEffect http://www.chemgapedia.de/vsengine/media/vsc/en/ch/16/uc/images/coriolis.gif

• Animation: Coriolis Effect Over Earth's Surface http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es1904/es190 4page01.cfm

• GIZMO: Hurricane Motion Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 44

Student Coriolis Effect NGSSS: SC.912.E.7.2 SC.912.E.7.3

Analyze the causes of the various kinds of surface and deep water motion within the oceans and their impacts on the transfer of energy between the poles and the equator. Differentiate and describe the various interactions among Earth systems, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere. (Also addresses SC.912.E.7.4, SC.912.E.7.8, SC.912.E.5.2)

Background:

The “Coriolis Effect” is an inertial force described by the 19th-century French engineer mathematician Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis in 1835. The effect of the Coriolis force is an apparent deflection of the path of an object that moves within a rotating coordinate system. The object does not actually deviate from its path, but it appears to do so because of the motion of the coordinate system. The Coriolis Effect is most apparent in the path of an object moving longitudinally. On the Earth, an object that moves along a north-south path, or longitudinal line, will undergo apparent deflection to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. There are two reasons for this phenomenon: first, the Earth rotates eastward; and second, the tangential velocity of a point on the Earth is a function of latitude (the velocity is essentially zero at the poles and it attains a maximum value at the Equator).Thus, if a cannon were fired northward from a point on the Equator, the projectile would land to the east of its due north path. This variation would occur because the projectile was moving eastward faster at the Equator than was its target farther north. Similarly, if the weapon were fired toward the Equator from the North Pole, the projectile would again land to the right of its true path. In this case, the target area would have moved eastward before the shell reached it because of its greater eastward velocity. An exactly similar displacement occurs if the projectile is fired in any direction.

Problem Statement:

What effect does the Earth’s rotation have on a moving object?

Vocabulary:

meteorology, weather, climate, air mass, trade winds, prevailing westerlies, polar easterlies, Coriolis effect, jet stream, gyres, surface currents, deflection, apparent

Materials (per group):

• Circular cardboard • Pin or nail • “Chalkable” globe (optional)

Procedures:

Part I: 1. The Coriolis Effect can be easily and cheaply demonstrated with a circular piece of cardboard (e.g. pizza box). 2. Pin or nail the cardboard so that it is allowed to rotate freely. 3. Rotate it smoothly with one hand in a counter-clockwise rotation, and with the other hand draw a straight line from the center towards a particular fixed direction. 4. You should notice a definite spiral to the line, despite the fact that the hand movement was linear. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 45

Student

5. Record whether the line that you drew deflected to the left or to the right when spinning the circular cardboard counter-clockwise. 6. Repeat the demonstration by rotating the opposite direction (clockwise). 7. Record whether the line that you drew deflected to the left or to the right when spinning the circular cardboard clockwise. 8. Repeat steps 3 to 5 two more times. 9. You should be able to draw some conclusions about the direction of apparent deflection in the northern hemisphere versus the southern hemisphere. Part II: 1. Working with a partner, place a globe on a steady, flat surface. 2. Locate the equator, the North Pole, and the South Pole on the globe. 3. Have your partner rotate the globe in a counterclockwise direction at a slow, steady speed. As the globe rotates, use blue chalk to draw a line from the North Pole to the equator. Sketch the line in circle A on the next page. Mark the four compass directions and the equator. 4. Use red chalk to draw a line from the equator to the North Pole while your partner continues to rotate the globe. Sketch this line in circle B. Then add compass directions and the equator. 5. As your partner rotates the globe in a counterclockwise direction, use green chalk to draw a line from the South Pole to the equator. Sketch the line in circle C. Then add compass directions and the equator. 6. As your partner rotates the globe in a counterclockwise direction, use yellow chalk to draw a line from the equator to the South Pole. Sketch the line in circle D. Then add compass directions and the equator.

Observations/Data:

Figure 1: The Coriolis deflection (related to the motion of the object, the motion of the Earth, and latitude) Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 46

Student

Part I: 1. When cardboard disk spun counter-clockwise the lines deflected to the Left/Right? Trial #1: ___________ Trial #2: ___________ Trial #3: ___________ 2. When cardboard disk spun clockwise the lines deflected to the Left/Right? Trial #1: ___________ Trial #2: ___________ Trial #3: ___________ Part II:

Data Analysis/Results:

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 47

Student

Part I: 1. What happens to the line as it gets closer to the edge? 2. What happens if the rate of spin is faster or slower? 3. Is there a difference between the direction of deflection in the Northern hemisphere versus the Southern hemisphere? 4. What is the independent variable in this experiment? 5. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? 6. Why is it important to conduct more than 1 trial in an experiment? Part II: 1. Compare the four sketches. Describe any patterns that were observed. 2. Why was it necessary to rotate the globe in a counterclockwise direction? 3. Suppose that each line represents a wind system. Describe where each one originates and in which direction it moves. 4. Ocean surface currents, which affect weather and climate, move in circular patterns. Use sketches A and C to infer the direction in which these currents move in the northern and southern hemispheres.

Conclusion:

1. What conclusions can be made regarding the way that the Coriolis Effect changes wind and ocean currents throughout the world? 2. Was the hypothesis correct? 3. What factors that affect air movement, climate, and weather exist on Earth but not on the model? 4. Consider current weather systems found world-wide. Describe any rotating patterns you see; are there any noticeable differences between the northern and southern hemisphere? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 48

Teacher Importance of Carbon in Earth’s Processes

(Source: http://www.rsc.org/ )

NGSSS: SC.912.E.7.1 SC.912.E.7.9

Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the different biogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon. Cite evidence that the ocean has had a significant influence on climate change by absorbing, storing, and moving heat, carbon, and water. (Also addresses SC.912.L.18.9, SC.912.P.8.4, SC.912.P.8.12)

Purpose of the Lab/Activity:

• Examine the nature of carbon. • Identify the different types of compounds carbon exists in (e.g. charcoal, glucose, carbon dioxide) • Investigate the biochemical reaction carbon takes part in such as photosynthesis and respiration. • Analyze how carbon and carbon compounds are involved in on Earth, and how these link together to form the carbon cycle.

Prerequisites:

Prior to this activity the student should be able to: • Explain the role of carbon in the process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration • Identify that carbon is a molecule that is cycled • Relate fossil fuels and carbon

Materials (per group):

Station 1: • • • Eye protection Crushed natural chalk Vinegar • Flask Station 2: • 3 boiling tubes • A drinking straw • Boiled water • Phenol red indicator Station 3: • Eye protection • 2 beakers • Universal Indicator solution • Sea water

Procedures: Day of Activity:

• Balloon • Test tube • Limewater (calcium hydroxide solution) • • • • • • • A sprig of

Elodea

Bright light Carbon cycle diagram Tap water (fresh water) Drinking straw Stopwatch Carbon cycle diagram

Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Demonstration of Photosynthesis 1. Gather the following materials: cup of water, apple, blown-up balloon Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 49

Teacher

with “CO 2 ” label, blown-up balloon of different color with “O 2 ” label, cardboard arrow, flashlight and distribute to lab groups. 2. Challenge students to arrange themselves (using the props) to create a model of the overall process of photosynthesis. 3. Have groups document their models by drawing them, and writing a caption that explains each person’s role in photosynthesis. b. Emphasize the following points 1. in photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy 2. chemical energy is stored in the form of glucose (sugar) 3. carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight are used to produce glucose, oxygen, and water 4. the basic chemical equation for this process is

During activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Set a time limit for each rotation; make sure students rotate to appropriate group. b. Monitor students during activity; make sure they are following proper lab protocol. c. Ask the following questions (based on lab rotations): Station 1: Releasing Dinosaur Breath in the Lab 1. What color was the limewater to begin with? Colorless 2. What happened to the limewater when you added the gas from the balloon?

It became cloudy 3. Where did the gas in the balloon come from? The chalk 4. What reaction was responsible for creating it? The reaction of calcium carbonate with acid.

5. What gas was released from the chalk by the reaction? Carbon dioxide Station 2: Plants use Carbon Dioxide 1. What happened to the indicator in the tube containing Elodea?

Went back to red.

2. What does this mean?

CO 2 gone/decreased.

3. How do you know it was due to the Elodea?

Because there was no change in other tube.

4. What caused this to happen?

Photosynthesising Elodea took in CO 2.

Station 3: Exchanging Carbon Dioxide Between the Atmosphere and Oceans 1. What did it mean when the indicator was yellow? That carbon dioxide had dissolved in the water to produce an acid.

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 50

Teacher After activity:

2. Which beaker turned yellow quickest?

Sea water.

highlighted.

The beaker of fresh water.

4. Highlight this part of the carbon cycle on your diagram.

3. Which water absorbs more carbon dioxide before becoming acidic? The arrows indicating exchange of gases at the surface of the ocean should be

What the teacher will do:

a. Analyze class data; making sure to note the importance of multiple trials, and repeatability in scientific investigations. b. Discuss the main points addressed in each of the lab rotations, emphasize the data analysis portion of the lab stations. c. Answer Key for Data Analysis Questions: Station 1: Releasing Dinosaur Breath in the Lab 1. Where did dinosaurs get their carbon from?

Eating plants and/or animals 2. Why could you say that “dinosaur breath” was released from the chalk? How did it get there? Chalk is made of the hard parts of millions of tiny organisms. They used carbon, to make their hard parts (calcium carbonate) which they obtained from the sea water in which they lived in the form of dissolved carbon dioxide (many of these tiny organisms were photosynthesisers). The carbon dioxide in the ocean got there via gas exchange with the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, in turn, got there from animals (including dinosaurs) exhaling. So, the carbon dioxide is released from chalk might have been breathed out by a dinosaur (although, of course the carbon has been through many stages and has been combined in a range of other molecules in between times).

3. Draw a dinosaur on the geological carbon cycle diagram and draw arrows to show the steps from how the dinosaur got carbon to how carbon dioxide got from the dinosaur into the chalk. Station 2: Plants Use Carbon Dioxide 1. Highlight the stage of the carbon cycle on the diagram that this relates to. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 51

Teacher

2. State two ways in which this carbon can be returned to the atmosphere . Decay of plant when dead, respiration by plant. Animal eating plant and respiring/ decaying.

Oceans Station 3: Exchanging Carbon Dioxide Between the Atmosphere and 1. Carbon is in the cycle in solid, liquid and gas forms. Which products show each of these forms (one example of each)? For example; atmosphere – CO 2 , sea water, dissolved hydrogencarbonate ions (HCO 3 ), coal – almost solid carbon, or limestone - CaCO happen very slowly (give examples)?

formation.

3. Which processes are going on outside the window today?

3 .

2. Which processes happen quickly (give examples)? Which ones For example; quick processes – respiration, combustion, slow processes - limestone and coal For example; photosynthesis, respiration, CO 2 dissolving in rain (if it is raining), weathering, consumption, excretion and death.

4. Which processes do you take part in? Respiration, consumption, excretion and death.

formation.

outside the window?

soil.

5. Which processes did dinosaurs take part in? Respiration, consumption, excretion and death plus sometimes burial and rock 6. Coal and natural gas form from ancient plants. What processes affected these plants that probably won’t affect the plants you see The plants outside are unlikely to become buried and formed into rock – most plant materials rot away in the

Extension:

• Animation: Carbon Cycle http://elearn.wvu.edu/faculty/demo/Module_2/carbon_cycle_animation.html

• GIZMO: Interdependence of Plants and Animals , Greenhouse Effect Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 52

Student Importance of Carbon in Earth’s Processes

(Source: http://www.rsc.org/)

NGSSS: SC.912.E.7.1 SC.912.E.7.9

Analyze the movement of matter and energy through the different biogeochemical cycles, including water and carbon. Cite evidence that the ocean has had a significant influence on climate change by absorbing, storing, and moving heat, carbon, and water. (Also addresses SC.912.L.18.9, SC.912.P.8.4, SC.912.P.8.12)

Station 1: Releasing Dinosaur Breath in the Lab Background:

Animals get their carbon by eating plants and/or other animals. When oxygen combines with food in cells during respiration, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere during exhalation. Some of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is stored in the ocean which acts as a carbon sink. Some of this dissolved carbon dioxide is used by marine organisms to make their hard parts of calcium carbonate. Limestone, including natural chalk, is made of the remains of marine organisms that lived and died millions of years ago. When limestone and chalk are formed, carbon can be locked away (as calcium carbonate) for millions of years.

Problem Statement:

Can carbon be released from a sample of limestone?

Vocabulary:

oxygen, carbon dioxide, respiration, calcium carbonate, limestone

Materials (per group):

• Eye protection • Crushed natural chalk • Vinegar (alternatively use dilute hydrochloric acid (1 mol dm -3 ), which has the advantage of not smelling) • • • • Flask Balloon Test tube Limewater (calcium hydroxide solution)

Procedures:

1. Pour limewater into the test tube to a depth of 2 cm 2. Place the crushed chalk in the flask. 3. Add vinegar (or hydrochloric acid) to the flask and quickly place the balloon over the flask neck making sure there are no gaps. 4. When the reaction has stopped (when the fizzing stops) pinch the balloon tightly at the neck so no gas can escape and remove it from the flask. 5. Move the balloon over to the test tube and squeeze the balloon so the gas goes into it. 6. Observe the limewater.

Observation/Data:

1. What color was the limewater to begin with? 2. What happened to the limewater when the gas from the balloon was added? 3. Where did the gas in the balloon come from? 4. What reaction was responsible for creating it? 5. What gas was released from the chalk by the reaction? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 53

Student Data Analysis/Results:

there? the chalk. 1. Where did dinosaurs get their carbon from? 2. Why could it be said that “dinosaur breath” was released from the chalk? How did it get 3. Draw a dinosaur on the geological carbon cycle diagram and draw arrows to show the steps from how the dinosaur got carbon to how carbon dioxide got from the dinosaur into

Station 2: Plants use Carbon Dioxide Background:

Carbon exchange with the atmosphere mostly happens through photosynthesis and respiration. During the growing season, leaves take up carbon dioxide. Carbon is stored in the living biomass.

Problem Statement:

How do plants uptake carbon dioxide?

Vocabulary:

carbon dioxide, photosynthesis, indicator

Materials (per group):

• 3 boiling tubes • A drinking straw • Boiled water • Phenol red indicator (which is red and goes yellow in the presence of carbon dioxide) • • • A sprig of Bright light Carbon cycle diagram

Elodea

Safety:

Blow through the straw do

not

suck. Only one person in the group should use the straw. Dispose of the straw at the end of the activity.

Procedures:

1. Pour about 2-3 cm depth of water into each boiling tube (same depth in each). 2. Add a few drops of indicator to each. 3. Breathe out gently through the straw into two of the tubes until the indicator colour changes to yellow. 4. Put the sprig of questions.

Elodea

into one tube. 5. Place all three in bright light and leave them for about 40 minutes. 6. Go back and observe what has happened to the three tubes. Answer the following

Observation/Data:

1. What happened to the indicator in the tube containing Elodea? 2. What does this mean? 3. How do you know it was due to the Elodea? 4. What caused this to happen?

Data Analysis/Results:

1. Highlight the stage of the carbon cycle on the diagram that this relates to. 2. State two ways in which this carbon can be returned to the atmosphere. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 54

Student Station 3: Exchanging Carbon Dioxide Between the Atmosphere and Ocean Background:

The use of fossil fuels and other industrial processes have led to a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this has been linked by many scientists to ‘global warming’ - the Earth’s increasing temperature. Since 1896 it has been known that greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and water vapor for example) help stop infrared radiation (heat) from escaping into space and thus maintain the Earth's relatively warm temperature. The problem is that over the last century human activities have caused the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to rise well above natural levels and this could well lead to elevated global temperatures; records of global average temperatures over the past century suggest that this warming has already begun. Such global warming, of even just a couple of degrees, could lead to major climatic changes, bringing coastal flooding and serious implications for agricultural productivity. In this experiment we will compare the thermal properties of carbon dioxide with those of air. The gas which absorbs the most heat (infrared radiation) is the more effective greenhouse gas because in the atmosphere it would absorb more infrared radiation coming from the Earth’s surface.

Problem Statement:

Does sea water or fresh water absorb more carbon dioxide?

Vocabulary:

carbon cycle, acid, base, solid, liquid, gas

Materials (per group):

• Eye protection • 2 beakers • Universal Indicator solution • Sea water • • • • Tap water (fresh water) Drinking straw Stopwatch Carbon cycle diagram

Safety:

Wear eye protection. Blow gently through the straws; do not suck up water. Dispose of the straws at the end of the activity.

Procedures:

1. Pour 100 mL of sea water into one beaker and 100 mL of fresh water into the other beaker. 2. Put several drops of universal indicator into each. 3. Using the straw, blow gently and consistently into the water, first for the sea water, then the fresh water. For each, time how long it takes the indicator to become yellow. Record the results.

Observation/Data:

1. What did it mean when the indicator was yellow? 2. Which beaker turned yellow quickest? 3. Which water absorbs more carbon dioxide before becoming acidic? 4. Highlight this part of the carbon cycle on your diagram.

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 55

Student Data Analysis/Results:

1. Carbon in the cycle is in solid, liquid and gas form. Which products show each of these forms (one example of each)? 2. Which processes happen quickly (give examples)? Which ones happen very slowly (give examples)? 3. Which processes are going on outside the window today? 4. Which processes do you take part in? 5. Which processes did dinosaurs take part in? 6. Coal and natural gas form from ancient plants. What processes affected these plants that probably won’t affect the plants you see outside the window? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 56

Teacher Greenhouse Effect NGSSS: SC.912.E.7.7 SC.912.E.6.3

Identify, analyze, and relate the internal (Earth system) and external (astronomical) conditions that contribute to global climate change. Predict future weather conditions based on present observations and conceptual models and recognize limitations and uncertainties of such predictions. (Also addresses SC.912.L.17.16)

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

• Create a model demonstrating the greenhouse effect.

• Evaluate the ability of atmospheric gases to limit the absorption of heat in a given space.

• Measure temperature variations using laboratory equipment and record data.

• Recognize the role of humans and our ability to help control greenhouse gases

Prerequisites:

• Prior to this activity the student should be able to: Understand the relation between the atmosphere and the earth’s climate • Compare and contrast the greenhouse effect and global warming • Identify and explain how humans impact climate

Materials (per group):

• 2 empty containers such as fish aquarium, a large beaker, or a flask • Dry ice • Gloves or tongs • Safety glasses

Procedures: Day of Activity

• • • • Heat lamp Four thermometers Heavy duty tape Styrofoam cup of water

Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Set-up required materials by lab groups and emphasize safety precautions listed in student packet. b. Purchase your dry ice the afternoon before, or if possible on the morning of the day you plan to use it. c. You can store dry ice in an insulated cooler as long as the top isn't put on tightly. To keep dry ice from sublimating or disappearing too quickly, you can use insulated gloves to wrap it in layers of newspaper or you can use Styrofoam to insulate dry ice from the warmer air outside the cooler. It's not a good idea to store dry ice in the freezer section of a refrigerator because air circulates constantly in the freezer. Air currents passing over the dry ice cause it to sublimate faster than if it were in a completely still place without wind or air currents. d. Review the following concepts: 1. the sun as the source of all energy in the atmosphere 2. energy transfer to earth (convection, conduction, and radiation) 3. the effects of temperature change on climate e. Engage students in class discussion, use the following questions as a Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 57

Teacher During activity: After activity:

guide: 1. What is the greenhouse effect? How does it work on Earth? 2. How is Earth’s greenhouse effect different from the way a real greenhouse works? 3. What are greenhouse gases? 4. What natural processes increase greenhouse gases? What processes decrease greenhouse gases? 5. How is human activity affecting the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? 6. Explain the carbon cycle and its connection to global climate change. 7. Describe some human activities that may have an impact on Earth’s climate. 8. List several actions that you can take to reduce this impact.

What the teacher will do:

a. Monitor students to make sure they are remaining on task and are following proper lab protocol. b. Review the experimental design diagram by asking individual students in groups to explain the different parts of the experiment. (problem statement, hypothesis, independent variable, dependent variable, constants, control test, experimental test, number of trials) c. Follow laboratory procedural plan; making sure to model proper laboratory safety and use of equipment. d. Create class data table on board. e. Emphasize importance of data collection by groups. Observe the measurements of temperature variations recorded by the students make sure the students are using the thermometers correctly. f. Ask the following questions: 1. How does this lab model reflect the real earth model? 2. What would Earth be like without the greenhouse effect? 3. Explain the role of humans and our ability to help control greenhouse gases? 4. Compare and contrast global warming and the greenhouse effect. 5. What are some possible consequences of global warming?

What the teacher will do:

a. Be sure to emphasize that our planet’s greenhouse effect is a good thing. It keeps our planet at a livable temperature. b. Concerns over global warming and global climate change are still a much debated topic among scientists. Reinforce the idea that many scientific topics are not fully understood, and that scientific views are continually changing as new information is acquired. c. Have the students research how what is the relation between global warming and climate change d. Compose a story of an imaginary carbon atom as it moves through Earth’s ecosystems. Your teacher will describe how your story is to be presented. Your short story must meet the following criteria: 1. Your carbon atom must complete a cycle. In other words, it must end in a location to where it started. 2. Your carbon atom must spend time at least once in each of the following Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 58

Teacher

locations: the atmosphere, a living thing, the ocean, in a fossil fuel such as oil or coal

Extension:

• GIZMO: Greenhouse Effect Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 59

Student Greenhouse Effect NGSSS: SC.912.E.7.7 SC.912.E.6.3

Identify, analyze, and relate the internal (Earth system) and external (astronomical) conditions that contribute to global climate change. Predict future weather conditions based on present observations and conceptual models and recognize limitations and uncertainties of such predictions. (Also addresses SC.912.L.17.16)

Background:

When sunlight strikes the earth’s ground, water, and biomass they all absorb radiation and heat up. Some of this heat is conducted to the air next to the earth and some is re radiated as infrared radiation. In a greenhouse, the heat that is conducted to the air is trapped within the greenhouse walls and so builds up in the relatively small space of the greenhouse. This is one “greenhouse effect”. But it is not the “greenhouse effect” that is warming our planet. If the greenhouse is made up of glass, a second “greenhouse effect” comes into play as well. Glass is transparent to sunlight, but is effectively opaque to infrared radiation. Therefore, the glass warms up when it absorbs some of the infrared radiation that is radiated by the ground, water, and biomass. The glass will then re-radiate this heat as infrared radiation, some to the outside and some back into the greenhouse. The energy radiated back into the greenhouse causes the inside of the greenhouse to heat up. If the greenhouse is covered with plexiglass (plastic) instead of glass, this second effect doesn’t come into play because polyethylene is effectively transparent to infrared radiation. Yet plexiglass covered greenhouses work almost as well as glass ones. This indicates that the primary way that greenhouses heat up is by restricting the flow of warmed air to the outside of the greenhouse. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the same way that glass does. This is all part of the greenhouse effect that keeps the Earth warm. The greenhouse effect happens because of certain naturally occurring substances in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, since the Industrial Revolution, humans have been pouring huge amounts of those substances into the air, including carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrous oxide (NO 2 ), methane gas (CH 4 ) and water vapor (H 2 O). Earth’s natural systems are not able to utilize the large quantities of greenhouse gases effectively, consequently, may be contributing to global warming.

Problem Statement:

How can you model the greenhouse effect caused by Earth’s atmosphere?

Safety:

• Students should notify the teacher if any breakage occurs.

• Do not touch or look straight at the light bulbs. • Handle the dry ice only while wearing gloves or using the tongs.

Vocabulary:

greenhouse effect, global warming, carbon dioxide, radiation, greenhouse gases Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 60

Student Materials (per group):

• 2 empty containers such as fish aquarium, a large beaker, or a flask • Dry ice • Gloves or tongs • Safety glasses • • • • Heat lamp Four thermometers Heavy duty tape Styrofoam cup of water

Procedures:

1. Allow thermometers to acclimate to room temperature. 2. Tape one thermometer to the top of the container. The thermometer may be placed vertically or horizontally. 3. Tape the second thermometer inside the container, near the bottom. 4. Place a heat lamp over the container. 5. Turn on the heat lamp. 6. After three minutes, record the temperature of each thermometer. 7. Keep the heat lamp on, place a chunk of dry ice into the cup of water, and place the cup into one of the containers.

Safety concerns: Handle the dry ice only while wearing gloves or using the tongs. Do not place the dry ice in a closed container.

8. Allow the CO 10. When the CO 2 vapor to fill the container. 9. While this is happening, observe the temperature reading of the outside thermometer and the inside thermometer if you can see it. 2 vapor begins to subside, record the time then temperature of each thermometer and compare the measurements. 11. Leave the heat lamp on and allow all of the CO 2 to leave the container. 12. Three minutes later, record the temperature of the two thermometers. 13. Make observations and conclusions about this experiment.

Observations/Data:

Figure 1: Suggested Equipment Set-Up Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 61

Student

Time Interval 0 minutes of heat exposure 3 minutes of heat exposure After container fills with CO 2 Table 1: Effects of Carbon Dioxide on Temperature

Temperature (

°

C) Without CO 2 With CO 2

Top of Container Bottom of Container Top of Container Bottom of Container After CO 2 subsides Immediately after depletion of CO 2 3 minutes after depletion of CO 2

Data Analysis/Results:

the container? container? 1. Which of the two thermometers had the highest reading after the carbon dioxide had filled 2. What happened to the temperature inside of the container as the carbon dioxide filled the 3. If greenhouse gases become too thick in Earth's atmosphere, describe two major effects that they can have on Earth. 4. Recent satellite data indicates that greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide have increased. This increase may be contributing to warmer ocean temperatures in the northern hemisphere. However, ocean temperatures in the southern hemisphere are slightly decreasing. Infer why. 5. How might increased greenhouse gases affect the water cycle? 6. When green plants photosynthesize, they take carbon out of the atmosphere. Design an experiment in which you could use green plants and other materials used in this lab to study the effects of carbon dioxide on global warming.

Conclusion:

Finalize their lab report using the “Power Writing Model 2009”; the following questions should be answered: 1. What was investigated? 2. Was the hypothesis supported by the data? 3. What were the major findings? 4. How did your findings compare with other researchers? 5. What possible explanations can you offer for your findings? 6. What recommendations do you have for further study and for improving the experiment? 7. What are some possible applications of the experiment? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 62

Teacher Effect of Salinity on the Density of Ocean Water NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.5 SC.912.E.7.2

Describe the geologic development of the present day oceans and identify commonly found features. Analyze the causes of the various kinds of surface and deep water motion within the oceans and their impacts on the transfer of energy between the poles and the equator. (Also addresses SC.912.E.7.8)

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

• Examine the properties of density and the relationship between mass and volume • Utilize science lab equipment to accurately measure volume, weight, and density • Compare the density of water samples of various salinities • Identify factors that affect the density of ocean water • Relate how density differences in bodies of water affect the movement which occurs throughout them

Prerequisites:

• Prior to this activity, the student should be able to: Calculate density given the mass and volume of a substance • Describe ocean water and fresh water; specifying how each contains different amounts of salts that contribute to their respective salinity levels • Explain how density differences in fluids contribute to convection currents that influence deep sea currents • Discuss freshwater systems, such as oceans, aquifers, streams, and rivers

Materials (per group):

• Graduated cylinder • Balance • Sample of “fresh” water (500 mL) • Sample of “ocean” water (500 mL) • Sample of “Great Lake Salt” water (500 mL) • • • • • Salt Yellow, Red, and Blue food coloring 3 – 500 mL beakers 3 – 250 mL beakers Dropper or pipette

Procedures: Day of Activity Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Assemble all of the lab supplies for each lab station as needed. The teacher must prepare the samples of “Fresh, Ocean, and Great Salt Lake” water the day prior to starting this lab (see directions below). 1. Place “fresh” water (tap water) in a large beaker. Label this beaker #1. 2. Also prepare the “ocean” water using the following recipe: 3.5 g of salt + 96.5 g of water = 100 g of salt water. Label this beaker #2. The salinity of this water is expressed as 3.5 parts per hundred. In other words, there are 3½ parts of salt in a total volume of 100 parts of salt water. This is the same as 35 parts per thousand. 3. Prepare a sample of water that is eight times saltier than the “ocean” water sample and call it “Great Salt Lake” water. Label this beaker #3. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 63

Teacher During activity: After activity:

Since you used 3 grams of salt in 97 grams of water in the “ocean” water, “Great Salt Lake” water will use 24 grams of salt in 76 grams of water. 4. Make enough of each type of water so that each group has, at least, 50 to 75 ml. available of each. b. Introduce the problem statement for this lab as per the student version: What are the effects of salinity on the density of ocean water? What are the effects of salinity on convection currents produced in the ocean? c. Review pertinent vocabulary (see student version). d. Propose a specific hypothesis to the class (it may be a right or wrong one), or, have the students write their own so that they can address it in the conclusion write-up. 1. Ex. If the salinity in the sample is higher, then the water will have a higher density or If the salinity is higher in the water sample, then that water sample will sink beneath other water samples with lower salinities and produce a convection current. e. Discuss the difference between fresh water and salt water and how to calculate density. Complete a practice problem on the board.

What the teacher will do:

a. Ask students the following questions: 1. What is salinity? 2. Which of the 3 water samples do you expect will have the highest and lowest salinity? 3. Which number did you plug into your calculator first to calculate density? (Note: students mix up numerator with denominator) 4. Why does the “Fresh” yellow water sample float on top of the other two samples? b. Emphasize that different regions of Earth have different climatic conditions that ultimately affect the density of the ocean water of that area. c. Remind students that they have three different water samples, so it is important to label and verify you are recording the data under the appropriate water sample.

What the teacher will do:

a. Engage in class discussion (including questions) to assess students in understanding the density of ocean water: 1. Compare the appearances for each of the water samples. (Note: Prior to adding the food coloring) 2. What kind of salinity do you think the water would have near the mouth of a river, where the fresh water mixes with the ocean water? 3. During high tide, will the salinity of the mouth of the river increase or decrease? 4. Would you expect high or low salinity in areas of the ocean experiencing a high evaporation rate? 5. How can density differences caused by salinity and temperature affect ocean currents? b. Freezing Fresh and Salt Water: Investigation at Home Ask students to place 150 mL of water in each of two cups. Have them place 3 teaspoons of table salt in one cup; they should add nothing to the Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 64

Teacher

other cup. Have students place the cups in their freezers and check each cup every 20 minutes. Have them record how long the liquid in each cup took to freeze. Also ask a number of students who have access to a freezer thermometer to report the temperature of the freezer at home. Ask all students to make graphs recording the information they collect. In class, start a discussion by asking them which liquid froze first. The fresh water will freeze before the salt solution does.

Extension:

• GIZMO: Density Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 65

Student Effect of Salinity on the Density of Ocean Water NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.5 SC.912.E.7.2

Describe the geologic development of the present day oceans and identify commonly found features. Analyze the causes of the various kinds of surface and deep water motion within the oceans and their impacts on the transfer of energy between the poles and the equator. (Also addresses SC.912.E.7.8)

Background:

The ocean contains many minerals, but the most common one is sodium chloride (NaCl), more commonly known as salt. The saltiness, or salinity, of ocean water is about 35 parts per thousand. To make a sample of water that has approximately the same salinity as the ocean, your teacher used the following recipe: 3.5 g of salt + 96.5 g of water = 100 g of salt water. The salinity of this water is expressed as 3.5 parts per hundred. In other words, there are 3½ parts of salt in a total volume of 100 parts of salt water. This is the same as 35 parts per thousand. Your teacher also prepared a sample of water that is eight times saltier than the “ocean” water sample and called it “Great Salt Lake” water. This sample used 24 grams of salt in 76 grams of water; therefore it has 24 parts per hundred, or, 240 parts per thousand. It is 8 times saltier than, typical, ocean water salinity. The other sample of water that you will analyze is “fresh” tap water which for this lab we will say that it contains 0.1 gram of salt for every 99.9 grams of water (0.1 % by weight). Salinity greatly affects which organism can live in water. Some fish, insects, and plants require fresh water. Fresh water contains some dissolved minerals, such as NaCl, but in much smaller amounts than are found in the ocean. Ocean-dwelling plants and animals have special structures to deal with the water’s saltiness. Some fish have pores through which they excrete excess salt. Since the ocean contains more salt than fresh water, it is denser than fresh water; therefore, fresh water will float on top of ocean water. Saltier water will sink below less salty water. Density is a physical trait of matter. The density of matter can be determined by dividing the volume of that matter by its mass. The formula that expresses density is: D = m/V where D = density, V = volume, and m = mass. For example, if the volume of a sample is 10 milliliters, and the mass of that is 5 grams, its density is: D = m/V where D = 5 g/10 mL then D = 0.5 g/mL

Problem Statement(s):

1. What are the effects of salinity on the density of ocean water? 2. What are the effects of salinity on convection currents produced in the ocean?

Safety:

Use caution when handling glassware during this lab.

Vocabulary:

salinity, density, mass, volume, surface currents, deep sea currents, convection, evaporation, thermocline, fresh water, aquifer, stream, river, estuary, ocean, buoyancy Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 66

Student Materials (per group):

• Graduated cylinder • Balance • Sample of “fresh” water (500 ml) • Sample of “ocean” water (500 ml) • Sample of “Great Lake Salt” water (500 mL) • • • • • Salt Yellow, Red, and Blue food coloring 3 – 500 ml beakers 3 – 250 ml beakers Dropper or pipette

Procedures:

1. Label the 3 small beakers, accordingly. (“Fresh” water, “Ocean” water, “Great Salt Lake” water) 2. Weigh the “Fresh” water beaker. Record your measurements in the data table. 3. Add 50 mL of “Fresh” water from the large beaker with the same label. 4. Weigh the beaker and water sample. Record your measurements. 5. By subtraction, determine the weight of the fresh water. Record your results. 6. Pour the contents of your beaker into the graduated cylinder. Determine the volume of your water sample to the nearest 0.1mL and record in the data table. 7. Repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 using the “Ocean” and “Great Salt Lake” water sample. 8. Find the density of the three water samples and record your results. 9. Add 2 drops of yellow food coloring to the “Fresh” water sample, 2 drops of red food coloring to the “Ocean” water sample, and 2 drops of blue food coloring to the “Great Salt Lake” sample. 10. Drop about 10 to 20 ml. (20 drops) of the red “Ocean” water sample into the beaker containing the blue “Great Salt Lake” sample water. Make sure that you allow the drops to trickle down the side of the beaker as you perform this step (try to avoid any mixing of the 2 colors). Record your observations 11. Drop about 5 to 10 ml. (10 drops) of the yellow “Fresh” water sample into the same blue “Great Salt Lake” sample water. Again, make sure that you allow the drops to trickle down the side of the beaker as you perform this step (try to avoid any mixing of the 2 colors). 12. Record any observations that you see. (Hint: list colors and their locations). It may help with your observations to place a white paper in the background of the beaker.

Observations/Data

Data Table 1: Weight of Sample Beakers Mass (g) Mass (g) Mass (g) Empty beaker “Fresh” water sample (1 % salinity by weight) Difference (Mass of Water) Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Empty beaker “Ocean” water sample (3.5% salinity by weight) Difference (Mass of Water) Empty beaker “Great Salt Lake” water sample (24% salinity by weight) Difference (Mass of Water) Page 67

Student

Data Table 2: Mass, Volume, and Density of Water Samples Mass (g) Volume (ml) Density (g/ml) “Fresh” water sample “Ocean” water sample “Great Salt Lake” water sample

Data Analysis:

• Construct a line graph of density (Y-axis) vs. % salinity by weight (X-axis). • Perform and record all calculations in this section.

Results/Conclusion:

1. Identify your independent and dependent variable. 2. When a river enters the ocean, would you expect to find the fresh river water on top of the ocean saltwater or vice versa? Why? 3. Depending on the weather, the degree of salinity of the Great Salt Lake varies. Explain why this phenomenon occurs. 4. Salinity can also vary in oceans. How may the level of salinity be different for Arctic region versus Equatorial regions? Explain what factors would contribute to the variance in salinity of these areas. 5. Explain why it was important that all three samples be the same temperature through this activity. In what way would temperature affect your density data? 6. Does salinity affect the density of water? 7. Buoyancy refers to how much water a floating object displaces. If you compared how you float in the Great Salt Lake, the ocean, and a freshwater lake, in which body of water would you float highest? The lowest? Based on what you understand about density, explain why this is so. 8. If you were a shipping expert, you would calculate the maximum weight of your ship’s cargo based on the body of water you are traveling. How would the analysis from this activity help in determining the weight capacities of your ship traveling through the ocean versus a river?

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 68

Teacher What’s Under Our Feet NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.1

Describe and differentiate the layers of Earth and the interactions among them. (Also addresses SC.912.N.3.5, SC.912.P.10.4, SC.912.P.10.20)

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

Students will recognize the importance of remote sensing techniques and the role seismic waves play in providing scientists with data regarding the interior of the earth. Students will describe the internal layers of the earth. Additionally, students will recognize the earth’s layers are categorized two different ways: based on the layer’s chemical properties, and based on the layer’s physical properties.

Prerequisites:

Prior to this activity the student should be able to: • Define “remote sensing” • Demonstrate an understanding of the term “remote sensing” by identifying examples information gained by remote sensing • Explain how earthquake (seismic) waves refract (bend) as they move from one layer inside the earth to another • Describe what is meant by chemical and physical properties • Name Earth’s layers based on chemical and physical properties • Explain temperature and pressure as being the controlling factor which determines if a layer will be a solid (high pressure) or a liquid (high temperature) • Perform simple conversion calculations • Perform simple measuring techniques using a metric ruler

Materials (per group):

• 2 sheets of white paper, 8.5” x 11” • pencils (colored preferred) • tape

Procedures: Day of Activity

• • ruler meter stick

Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Copy student lab handouts b. Gather materials needed for the activity. c. Demonstration: The Layered Earth: Egg Model 1. Begin by asking students if they have ever eaten a boiled egg? If they have, they will know that it has are three layers. The earth also has three layers, much like an egg. 2. How are the earth’s layers similar to an egg? (shell=crust, egg white=mantle, yolk=core) d. Review the layers of earth based chemical and physical properties e. Explain how models allow scientists to have a better understanding of concepts f. List the names of the layers of earth that are based on chemical properties g. List the names of the layers of earth that are based on physical properties h. Review conversion methods needed for the lab. i. Review measuring techniques used in the lab.

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 69

Teacher During activity: After activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Remind students the proper way to perform calculations. You may need to help some students round off. b. Remind students the correct method for measuring. Some students may need help. c. Check to make sure students are drawing the layers correctly before they start to label and describe the layers. d. As the students label and describe the layers, emphasize they are creating a model that shows the layers inside the earth based on physical, not chemical properties.

What the teacher will do:

a. Provide a correct final model so students can see what the final product should look like. b. Engage in class discussion (including questions) to assess students in understanding of earth’s layers: 1. Review with students each layer, stating if it is a solid for liquid. 2. Ask students what the controlling factor was for each layer. 3. Explain that the different layers of Earth are the results of interactions that occur within the earth.

Extension:

• Savage Earth Animation: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/savageearth/animations/hellscrust/main.html

• Earth’s Structure Animation: http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/structure.html

• GIZMO: Plate Tectonics Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 70

Student What’s Under Our Feet NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.1

Describe and differentiate the layers of Earth and the interactions among them. (Also addresses SC.912.N.3.5, SC.912.P.10.4, SC.912.P.10.20)

Background:

When an earthquake occurs, the energy it produces travels in waves called seismic waves.

When these waves enter a new material, they are bent (refracted) and move in a slightly different direction. With an understanding of how these waves work and how refraction works, scientists have been able to determine exactly “what is under our feet” even though we have never been deep inside the earth. In other words, scientists have determined what the inside of the earth is like using remote sensing. Scientists can describe the inside of the earth either based on the chemical composition, or based on physical properties. Chemical Composition: The different chemicals making up the layers of the earth are not evenly distributed. Therefore, the Earth has layers with different chemical compositions. 1. Crust- the outer layer. This is the layer you live on. The crust contains large quantities of silicates which substances made of silicon and oxygen combined with another element. The silicates in the crust are combined with aluminum, iron, and magnesium. This thin outer layer varies in thickness from 5 to 50 km. • The Earth has two types of crust: oceanic and continental. Oceanic crust lies underneath the ocean floor and is composed of heavier denser rocks - basalt, a type of igneous rock. Continental crust is beneath the continental land surfaces and is composed of lighter, less dense rocks – granite, also a type of igneous rock. 2. Mantle- the layer below the crust. The most common chemicals found in this layer are silicates, but the mantle tends to have no aluminum but higher amounts of iron and magnesium. This layer has a thickness of about 2,900 km. 3. Core- the innermost layer. The core is believed to be composed of mostly two metals, nickel and iron. The core’s thickness is about 3,400 km. Physical Properties: Pressure and temperatures differences inside the can cause layers to form based on ether being a solid, or being more of a liquid (or at least have liquid-like characteristics). Earth’s surface is solid, but as depth increases, so does pressure and temperature. Deep inside the Earth, temperatures are great enough to melt solids. But even while temperatures may be high enough to melt solids, deep inside the earth the extreme high pressure does not allow the matter to be a liquid – it is squeezed into a solid. Earth can be divided into five layers based on the phase of state of the layer. 1. Lithosphere - solid crust and uppermost part of the mantle 2. Asthenosphere – semi-liquid layer of the mantle below the lithosphere 3. Mesosphere - solid remaining layer below the asthenosphere 4. Outer Core - liquid layer below the mesosphere 5. Inner Core - solid center of the Earth

Purpose:

Create a model of the internal layers of Earth to relate depth to increases in pressure and temperature, which in turn determine if a layer will be in a solid or liquid phase of state. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 71

Student Vocabulary:

remote sensing, seismic wave, silicates, crust, mantle, core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, mesosphere, phase of state

Materials (per group):

• 2 sheets of white paper, 8.5” x 11” • pencils (colored preferred) • tape • ruler • meter stick

Procedures:

1. Tape the two pieces of white paper together, lengthwise so that there is one long, narrow, rectangular piece of paper. The two pieces should overlap no more than 1 inch. 2. With the ruler, find the middle of the page, widthwise. Next lightly draw a line along the length of the page that will split the paper in half. Use the meter stick for this part. 3. Measure 3 cm from a bottom end of the paper and place a dot on the center line at 3 cm. This will represent the exact center of the earth and be the starting point for all measurements. 4. Convert the thickness of each layer from kilometers to centimeters to create a scale for the model. The scale is 175.0 km = 1.0 cm. To convert the thickness to scale simply divide the thickness of each layer by 175. Round off to 0.0 cm. The lithosphere was done as an example; fill in the rest of the table.

Layer Thickness (km) Thickness to scale (cm)

Inner Core 1216 Outer Core 2270 Mesosphere 2240 Asthenosphere Lithosphere 560 100 0.6 5. Measure up 6. Measure up

from the starting point

is the thickness of the inner core.

from the new dot (the dot on the paper)

for the thickness of the inner core. Place a new dot on the paper to let you know that for the thickness of the outer core. Place a new dot on the paper to let you know that is the thickness of the outer core. 7. Continue in a similar manner for the rest of the layers. 8. Draw a line across the width of the paper, using each dot as a guide, to show where the layers are separated from each other. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 72

Student

9. When you are finished, your paper should look something like the diagram on the right (

the paper

). A.

Name

the lines on the diagram are not correct – they are just drawn to give you an idea on how the lines will be oriented on

10. Within each layer (inside of) provide the following information: of the layer B.

Chemical composition

of the layer C.

Phase of state

of the layer D.

Controlling factor

for the phase of state (temperature or pressure) 11. Color in each of the layers a different color. Use colors to help remember different things about each layer. For example, if the outer core is liquid, color the outer core a color that symbolizes liquids.

Observations/Data:

Model of Earth’s Layer; turn in your model as directed by your teacher.

Conclusion:

1. Using full sentences, explain how scientists are able to determine that the earth has different layers. 2. Remote sensing is a powerful tool used by scientists to gather information that cannot be gathered directly. Name and describe two examples of remote sensing that affect you. 3. Contrast the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. 4. Contrast the inner and outer cores. 5. Compare and contrast the crust and the lithosphere. 6. Write a full sentence stating why some layers inside the earth are solid but some layers are liquid. 7. Looking back at the background information at the beginning of this activity, you can see that scientists describe layers of the earth based on chemical composition as well as physical properties. How does the chemistry of the layers affect the physical properties of the layers? 8. If Earth was twice the size it is now, how might the layers inside the Earth be different? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 73

Teacher Sea Floor Spreading NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.2

Connect surface features to surface processes that are responsible for their formation.

SC.912.E.6.3

SC.912.E.6.5

Analyze the scientific theory of plate tectonics and identify related major processes and features as a result of moving plates. Describe the geologic development of the present day oceans and identify commonly found features. (Also addresses SC.912.N.3.5)

Purpose of Activity:

Students will recognize paleomagnetic recordings, the age of the ocean floor, and ocean floor structures as evidence supporting sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics. Students will recognize sea-floor spreading as a process that forms new oceanic crust and is a mechanism for continental drift. Additionally, students will recognize sea-floor spreading as part of a larger plate tectonic process.

Prerequisites:

Prior to this activity the student should be able to: • Describe magnetic polarity • Describe the reversal of the Earth’s magnetic field • Explain convection in terms of temperature and density • Relate convection to plate movement • Explain the process of sea-floor spreading • Recognize that sea-floor spreading is one part of the entire plate tectonic process • Explain how the topographic features on the ocean floor (mid-ocean ridge, rift valleys, deep-ocean trench, abyssal plain) are formed as a result plate movement and interactions • Describe how the age of the ocean floor changes with an increase in distance from a spreading center • Describe how the age of the ocean floor changes with an increase in distance from the shore (moving towards the center of an ocean)

Materials (per group):

• Scissors • Metric ruler • 1 sheet of unlined, white paper • 1 sheet of unlined, colored paper • Colored markers or pencils

Procedures: Day of Activity Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Review the processes involved in plate tectonics: 1. diverging plates 2. converging plates 3. sea-floor spreading 4. subduction b. Review the topographic features formed as a result of sea-floor spreading Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 74

Teacher During activity: After activity:

and subduction: 1. mid-ocean ridge 2. rift valleys 3. deep ocean floor (abyssal plain) 4. deep ocean trench 5. volcanic, coastal mountains c. Review how the Earth’s magnetic field is recorded in volcanic rocks. d. Spending some time before the activity begins will help make the activity valuable: 1. This is a simple lab to perform, but the directions seem a bit daunting due to their length. Therefore, provide a quick explanation of the procedures and provide a finished product so students can visualize the end product. 2. Explain how the end product is a model of an ocean floor. 3. Explain that the model shows the processes involved in forming the ocean floor and in the recycling of ocean floor through subduction at the edge of the oceans.

What the teacher will do:

a. As the lab progresses ask questions that will help students understand the model they are making, such as: 1. What do the lines on the paper represent? 2. Why are the lines symmetrical on each side of the opening? 3. How can you have two of the same polarities next to each other (different volcanic eruptions but the earth’s magnetic field had not changed between the eruptions)? b. Help students realize that the lava records the polarity of the earth’s magnetic field and that this is what they have drawn on the paper. c. Math Application: The Atlantic Ocean is spreading at a rate of 1 to 2 cm per year, and the eastern Pacific sea floor is spreading between 2 and 8 cm per year. 1. Have students use the average rate of spreading for the Atlantic Ocean to calculate how many years the sea floor of the Atlantic Ocean would take to spread 1 km. 1.5 cm/year; 1 km /0.000015km/year = 66,667 years 2. Have students use the average rate of spreading of the Pacific Ocean to calculate how many years the sea floor of the Pacific Ocean would take to spread 1 km. 5.5 cm/year; 1 km/0.000055 km/year = 18,182 years

What the teacher will do:

1. As in the beginning, provide a quick explanation of how the model represents the ocean floor and the processes involved in forming it. 2. Make sure students understand that subduction is occurring at the edge where the strips of paper are moving back down. 3. Have students explain the model to other students. 4. Draw two columns on the board, label one

Process

, the other

Topographic Feature

trench). . Have students volunteer to write a process that was modeled in the activity and an associated topographic feature that was formed as a result of the process (ex.: subduction/deep-ocean Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 75

Teacher Extension:

• Magnetic Reversal Animation: http://www.wwnorton.com/college/geo/egeo/flash/2_3.swf

• Sea floor Spreading Animation: http://www.wwnorton.com/college/geo/egeo/flash/2_5.swf

• GIZMO: Plate Tectonics

Answer Key - Conclusion:

Understanding the Model 1. What feature of the ocean floor does the center slit represent? Any of the following terms are acceptable: mid-ocean ridge, diverging area, spreading center, rift valley or zone.

2. What do the side slits represent? Any of the following: subduction zone, edge of continents, ocean trench, or converging area.

3. What do the lines on the strips represent? Magnetic polarity or orientation.

4. Is earth’s current polarity normal or reversed? Normal.

Analyzing the Model 5. Think about the internal structure of the earth. What part of the earth is underneath the colored paper? Either of the following: mantle, asthenosphere (1)Mountain, volcano, or volcanic mountain, and (2) rift valley.

topographic feature is missing at the side slits? ocean floor near a side slit? center slit. Ocean trench.

6. Think about the topographic features on the bottom of the ocean. What two prominent topographic features of the ocean floor are missing from the model at the center slit? 7. Think about the topographic features on the bottom the ocean. What prominent 8. How does the age of the ocean floor closest to the center slit differ from the age of the The closer the ocean floor is to the center, the younger it is; the farther away from the center (closer to the sides) the older it is.

As distance increases, the rocks become older.

9. Make a general statement regarding the age of rocks as distance increases from the Evaluating Sea-Floor-Spreading 10. What type of plate boundary is represented at the center slit? center slit? records the polarity of the magnetic field of Earth.

Converging.

11. Why does your model have identical patterns of magnetic lines on both sides of the The magma from the mantle moves upward and cools. As it hardens, it 12. The lines of normal and reversed polarity are not all of equal width. What does this tell you about the lengths of time represented by normal and reversed polarity? reversal occurred, sometimes it was shorter.

move the strips in your model. The length of time between magnetic reversals was not the same. Sometimes it was longer before a 13. Explain how differences in density and temperature provide some of the force needed to As the magma heats up, it becomes less dense and moves upward. It hits the lithosphere and moves sideways. As it moves sideways, it drags the plates of the lithosphere with it. Also as the magma moves sideways beneath the lithosphere, it cools. As the magma cools, it becomes more dense and sinks.

the plates comes from? 14. In order for an object to move, energy is needed. Where do you think the energy to move From the heat generated by the fusion occurring in the Earth’s core.

15. What plate tectonic process is occurring at the side slits? Subduction.

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 76

Teacher

16. The Earth is about 4.6 billion years old. Think about what is occurring in your model of sea-floor-spreading. Why do you think the oldest ocean floor is only about 200 million years old? spreading. As the ocean floor moves sideways and runs into continents, the ocean floor plunges beneath the continental plate (subducted). As the ocean floor is subducted, it is exposed to heat, melts and becomes part of the asthenosphere. Therefore, it is melted/destroyed before it becomes very old.

17. Describe the change that is occurring to the size of the oceans as a result of sea-floor The oceans are becoming larger where sea-floor-spreading is occurring.

18. Describe how the process shown in your model explains continental drift. As new ocean floor is being formed and split apart, it pushes the continents apart.

Answer Key – Lab Extension: Sea-Floor Spreading

I. Use the terms below to identify the parts of the sea-floor spreading process and associated land forms. Note: the diagram is not drawn to scale. Place the letter of the term in its correct location. A. Oceanic Plate B. Continental Plate C. Rift Valley D. Ocean Trench E. Subduction F. Volcanic Coastal Mountains G. Convection Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 77

Student Sea Floor Spreading NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.2

Connect surface features to surface processes that are responsible for their formation.

SC.912.E.6.3

SC.912.E.6.5

Analyze the scientific theory of plate tectonics and identify related major processes and features as a result of moving plates. Describe the geologic development of the present day oceans and identify commonly found features. (Also addresses SC.912.N.3.5)

Background:

In this lab you will build a model to help understand the process of sea-floor-spreading and how magnetic reversals are recorded in the ocean floor.

Sea-Floor Spreading

- Along the entire length of Earth’s mid-ocean ridge, the sea floor is spreading, that is, the ocean floor is being split open. This process allows new material to be added to the ocean floor.

Magnetic Reversals

– The earth’s magnetic field has reversed throughout geologic history. Evidence for magnetic reversals can be found at the location of sea-floor-spreading. Where the sea floor is splitting apart, lava moves upward, cools and forms new ocean floor. As the lava cools, it records the magnetic field of the earth. Therefore, we can see the polarity of the magnetic field in the ocean floor. Scientists have studied rocks from the ocean floor and have seen that the Earth’s magnetic field has reversed a multitude of times throughout Earth’s existence.

Problem Statements:

How are the patterns of magnetic polarity found in sea-floor rocks evidence for plate movement?

Safety:

Use care when working with scissors.

Vocabulary:

plate tectonics, sea-floor spreading, paleomagnetism, magnetic polarity, magnetic reversal, mid-ocean ridge, subduction, plate boundary, converging (convergent) plates, diverging (divergent) plates, rift valley (rift zone), deep ocean trench, abyssal plain

Materials: (per group):

• Scissors • Metric ruler • 1 sheet of unlined, white paper • 1 sheet of unlined, colored paper • Colored markers or pencils

Procedures:

1. Beginning at a short edge of the white paper, draw lines parallel to the short side using the values listed for distance in the table below. The lines will vary in spacing and you must also vary the lines in thickness. Use two different colors for marking each polarity. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 78

Student Distance from Edge (cm)

4.3 6.5 7.7 10.0 10.8 14.2 18.6 20.5 24.5 27.5

Magnetic Polarity Age (millions of years)

Normal Reversed Normal 0.5 0.6 Reversed Reversed 0.8 1.1 Normal Normal Reversed Normal Reversed 1.4 1.6 2.2 2.6 2.9 This is only a partial example. Not all the lines are drawn, nor are they drawn correctly. You need to carefully measure and draw all the lines. 2. Fold the paper in half lengthwise and write the word “START” at the top end of both halves of the paper. Using the scissors carefully cut the paper in half along the fold line making two strips of paper. 3. Continue with the next step using the

colored

sheet of paper. 4. Bringing the two short ends together, lightly fold the colored sheet of paper in half, then in half again, then in half again. Unfold the paper, leaving the creases in the paper. Your paper should resemble an accordion, folded into eighths. 5. Fold this sheet in half lengthwise. 6. Starting at the lengthwise fold, draw lines 5.5 cm long in the middle crease and the two creases closest to the ends of the paper. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 79

Student

7. Carefully cut the lines making sure that the paper is still folded 8. After cutting, unfold the paper to show three slits in the paper. 9. Put the two striped strips of paper together so that their “START” labels touch one another. Insert the “START” ends of the strips up through the center slit and then pull them toward the side slits. 10. Insert the ends of the strips into the side slits. Pull the ends of the strips and watch what happens at the center slit. 11. Practice pulling the strips through the slits until you can make the two strips come up and go down at the same time.

Observations/Data:

reversed. 1. Neatly copy the data table below. 2. With your strips of paper fully pulled through the center of the colored paper, record the lines of the magnetic pattern into the top row of your data table. Pay close attention to the width of each line. 3. In the second row, state the type of magnetic polarity each line represents, normal or 4. In the third row, record the age of the rocks directly below each line.

Left Edge Center Right Edge

Magnetic Pattern Magnetic Polarity Age of Rocks Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 80

Student

Example: As in the previous examples, the information in the table is not correct. The example is only showing you the main idea of how to record the information into the table.

Conclusion:

Understanding the Model 1. What feature on the ocean floor does the center slit represent? 2. What do the side slits represent? 3. What do the lines on the strips represent? 4. Is earth’s current polarity normal or reversed? Analyzing the Model 5. Think about the internal structure of the earth. What part of the earth is underneath the colored paper? 6. Think about the topographic features on the bottom of the ocean. What prominent topographic feature of the ocean floor is missing from the model at the center slit? 7. Think about the topographic features on the bottom of the ocean. What prominent topographic feature is missing at the side slits? 8. How does the age of the ocean floor closest to the center slit differ from the age of the ocean floor near a side slit? 9. Make a general statement regarding the age of rocks as distance increases from the center slit. Evaluating Sea-Floor-Spreading 10. What type of plate boundary is represented at the center slit? 11. Why does your model have identical patterns of magnetic lines on both sides of the center slit? 12. The lines of normal and reversed polarity are not all of equal width. What does this tell you about the lengths of time represented by normal and reversed polarity? 13. Explain how differences in density and temperature provide some of the force needed to move the strips in your model. 14. In order for an object to move, energy is needed. Where do you think the energy to move the plates comes from? 15. What plate tectonic process is occurring at the side slits? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 81

Student

16. The Earth is about 4.6 billion years old. Think about what is occurring in your model of sea-floor-spreading. Why do you think the oldest ocean floor is only about 300 million years old? 17. Describe the change that is occurring to the size of the oceans as a result of sea-floor spreading. 18. Describe how the process shown in your model explains continental drift. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 82

Student

S h o w Y o u r r U n d e r r s t t a n d i i n g Name Date Period

Lab Extension: Sea-Floor Spreading

I. Use the terms below to identify the parts of the sea-floor spreading process and associated land forms. Note: the diagram is not drawn to scale. Place the letter of the term in its correct location. A. Oceanic Plate B. Continental Plate C. Rift Valley D. Ocean Trench E. Subduction F. Volcanic Coastal Mountains G. Convection II. Use your own words to describe the process of sea-floor-spreading. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 83

Teacher Earthquake and Subduction Boundaries NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.3

SC.912.E.6.4

Analyze the scientific theory of plate tectonics and identify related major processes and features as a result of moving plates. Analyze how specific geologic processes and features are expressed in Florida and elsewhere

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

• Compare actual earthquake data from two areas where subduction is occurring • Evaluate the relationship between relative age and density of tectonic plates, and the rate of subduction of the plates • Manipulate real data to understand how such data is interpreted and used in support of a scientific theory • Use graphical analysis to determine the direction of movement of tectonic plates

Prerequisites:

The students should have background knowledge about plate tectonics, differences in density of plates, relationship to depth of earthquakes and magnitude, and locating coordinates including direction on a map.

Materials (per group):

• Graph paper (2) • Maps of the tectonic plate boundaries • Ruler

Procedures: Day of Activity Before activity: During activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Students should work independently on this activity. Each student should have one plate tectonic map and one sheet of graph paper specifically designed for the data presented in this activity. b. If the student is unfamiliar with best-fit curves, demonstrate how to draw a straight line through a set of scattered points to make the trend clear. Point out that, because of measurement error, scattered data points are not necessarily a truer indication of the shape of the boundary than the best-fit curve. In reality, a subducted plate does not descend in a perfectly straight line. c. Create an analogy that explains the movement of plates. For example, a boy on a skateboard; when the skateboard moves, so does the boy. This can be related to plate tectonics (the skateboard) and the crust material that moves (the boy) due to those underlying forces. Students should visualize the vastness of these plates and the construction and destruction that they cause on Earth’s surface.

What the teacher will do:

correctly on the graph. a. Make sure the students are working independently. b. Walk around the students and observe if they are plotting the information c. Ask students the following questions: Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 84

Teacher After activity:

1. Can you identify the major plates. 2. Where is the mid-ocean ridges? 3. Compare latitude and longitude. 4. What is the relationship between earthquakes and subduction zones?

What the teacher will do:

a. Engage in class discussion (including questions) to assess students in understanding of the earthquakes and subduction zones: 1. Which of the areas of Tonga or Chile are more susceptible to subduction activity? 2. Explain why these two areas were chosen for this activity. b. Answer Key for Results/Conclusion: 1. At Tonga, the Indian-Australian Plate is subducting under the Pacific Plate. At Chile, the Nazca Plate is subducting under the South American Plate. 2. Tonga is located farther from the East Pacific Rise than Chile. Based this location, Tonga’s plate is made of older, denser material; conversely, Chile’s plate is composed of younger, less dense crust. 3. There are more deep earthquakes at Tonga than Chile. 4. The Pacific Plate is moving westward and the area of Tonga is subducting at a steeper angle. 5. 540 km ÷ 10 million km = 0.000054 km; student must then covert to centimeters (cm) to complete answer (Answer = 5.4 cm/year) 6. Tonga’s rate of Subduction is slower; student explanations will vary however, they must discuss the age and density of crust material of each plate. 7. The subducting plate at Chile is closer to the source of oceanic crust versus Tonga. The area of Tonga contains older rock, is subducting at a steeper angle and has more deep earthquakes than the area of Chile.

Extension:

• GIZMO: Earthquake Recording Station Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 85

Student Earthquake and Subduction Boundaries

(Modified from Glencoe Laboratory Manual: Earth Science ©2006)

NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.3

SC.912.E.6.4

Analyze the scientific theory of plate tectonics and identify related major processes and features as a result of moving plates. Analyze how specific geologic processes and features are expressed in Florida and elsewhere

Background:

Most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries. The deepest earthquakes occur at subduction boundaries where the lithosphere is plunging down into the mantle. Deep earthquakes are defined as having a depth of 300 km or more. Shallow earthquakes are less than 70 km in depth. Earthquakes between 70 km and 300 km are considered to have moderate depth. Behavior of a subducting plate is determined by the age of the rocks composing the plate. Older crust is cooler and therefore denser than younger crust. Older, cooler, denser crust subducts faster and at a steeper angle than younger, warmer, less dense crust.

Problem Statement:

What is the relationship between the relative age and density of the plates and how do these properties affect the rate of subduction?

Vocabulary:

earthquakes, subduction zone, plate boundary, plate tectonics, crust, lithosphere

Materials (per group):

• Graph paper (2) • Maps of the tectonic plate boundaries • Ruler

Procedures:

1. Look at both sets of earthquake data in the Table 1 below. One set of data is for Tonga, and the other is for Chile. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 86

Student Table 1

Long. ° W 176.2 173.8 175.8 174.9 175.7 175.9 175.4 174.7 176.0 175.7 173.9 177.7 174.9 178.5 177.9 179.2 178.7 173.8 178.3 177.0

Tonga Data

Depth (km) Long. ° W 270 35 115 40 260 190 250 35 160 205 60 580 50 505 565 650 600 50 540 350 174.6 178.8 176.8 177.4 173.8 178.0 177.7 174.1 177.7 179.2 178.8 178.1 175.1 178.2 176.0 178.6 174.8 178.2 179.1 177.8 Depth (km) 40 580 340 420 60 520 560 30 465 670 590 510 40 550 220 615 35 595 675 460 Long. ° W 67.5 66.9 68.3 69.3 62.3 70.8 61.7 68.4 69.8 66.5 69.8 67.3 67.7 69.5 68.3 67.9 69.1 69.2 63.8 68.6

Chile Data

Depth (km) Long. ° W 180 175 130 60 480 35 540 120 30 220 55 185 120 75 110 140 95 35 345 125 66.7 68.1 66.7 65.2 67.5 69.7 68.2 67.1 66.2 66.3 68.6 66.4 68.5 65.5 68.1 Depth (km) 210 145 200 285 170 50 160 230 230 215 180 235 140 290 130 2. Copy the Earthquake Summary Table under the Data Section of the lab report. Count the number of shallow earthquakes (less than 70 km) for both Tonga and Chile. Record your values in the Earthquake Summary Table. Repeat counting the number of intermediate and deep earthquakes for each area and record your results in the summary table. 3. Add the numbers in both columns of the Earthquake Summary Table and record your results. 4. Examine the graph paper. There are two graphs: one for Tonga and the other for Chile. Notice the axes. One axis records the depth of earthquakes, and the other records the longitude. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 87

Student

5. Plot the data from Tonga on the Tonga graph and plot the data for Chile on the Chile graph. 6. Do not connect the dots. Instead, draw a best-fit line for the points. A best-fit line is a single line that shows the trend of the data without having to pass though all points. 7. Assume the line you have drawn is the upper surface of a subducting plate.

Observations/Data: Table 2: Earthquake Summary

Earthquake Type Earthquake Depth Tonga Total Chile Total Shallow Intermediate Deep < 70 km 70-300 km > 300 km Total Number of Earthquakes

Plate Tectonics Boundary Map

(Glencoe Laboratory Manual: Earth Science ©2006) Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 88

Student

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 89

Student Observation/Data Analysis:

Write any mathematical equations required in this section.

Results/Conclusions:

1. Locate the Tonga and Chile areas on the map. a. What plate is subducting in each location? b. Under which plate is each plate being subducted? 2. Locate the East Pacific Rise on the map. a. Compare the distance for the Tonga area from the East Pacific Rise with the distance of the Chile area from the East Pacific Rise. What is the difference in distance from the Tonga area and the Chile area? b. Mid-ocean ridges are the source of oceanic crust. If the East Pacific Rise is the source of the subducting crust on both areas, how do the ages of the two subducting plates compare? 3. Look at the values in the Earthquake Summary Table. How does the depth of the majority of the earthquakes at Tonga compare with those at Chile? 4. Look at the graphs. The lines represent profiles of the subducting plates for the two areas. a. Which area is the subducting plate moving westward? b. Which plate is subducting at a steeper angle? 5. For the Chile data, the deepest earthquake occurred at longitude 61.7

the subducting plate? Show your work to receive credit. Explain your answer. comparing the following: a. distance from the assumed source of lithosphere b. age c. angle of descent d. number of deep earthquakes ° W and at a depth of 540 km. If the rocks at the focus began subducting 10 million years ago, and are now 1000 km from their original position, what is the average rate of descent (in cm/year) of 6. Would you expect the subduction rate at Tonga to be more or less than the rate at Chile? 7. Summarize the differences between the subducting plate at Chile and Tonga by Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 90

Teacher Finding an Epicenter NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.3

Analyze the scientific theory of plate tectonics and identify related major processes and features as a result of moving plates. (Also addresses SC.912.E.6.2)

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

• Analyze P waves and S waves to determine the distance from a city to the epicenter of an earthquake. • Determine the location of an earthquake epicenter using the distance from three cities to the epicenter of an earthquake • Recognize how scientist can find the approximate magnitude and intensity of an earthquake.

Prerequisites:

The students should have background knowledge about plate tectonics, differences in density of plates, relationship to depth of earthquakes and magnitude, and locating coordinates including direction on a map.

Materials (per group):

• Calculator • Drawing compass • Ruler

Procedures: Day of Activity Before activity: During activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Fill a balloon with water and tie it tightly. Hold the balloon for all students to see and poke it so that it vibrates. 1. Explain that all earthquakes cause the entire Earth to vibrate in a similar manner, but that most vibrations are so small that they can be detected only with sensitive instruments. 2. Inform students that earthquakes occur all the time, but only those that cause destruction in populated areas are generally reported. 3. Explain that we live on an active planet and that earthquakes are the effects of geological adjustments inside Earth. b. Have students think about disaster movies, news footage or documentaries that include scenes of earthquakes. Have them write a brief description of some earthquake effects.

What the teacher will do:

a. As you observe the recording of the data ask the students the following questions: 1. Why is it important to identify the epicenter of an earthquake? 2. How do you recognize the first P wave on a seismogram? 3. How do you recognize the first S wave on a seismogram? 4. What is the relationship between the P and S wave time difference (

ΔT

) and the distance to the epicenter? 5. Why is it important to know the exact location of the epicenter? 6. Why are there three specifics locations used in order to determine the Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 91

Teacher After activity:

location of an epicenter? 7. What is the relation between the location of the epicenter and the magnitude of the earthquake? b. The student must realize the importance to predict the location of an epicenter in order to be preparing for these natural disasters. c. Use the following terms to create a concept map on the board to review key vocabulary words: earthquake, seismic wave, body waves, surface wave, P wave, S wave

What the teacher will do:

a. Engage in class discussion (including questions) to assess students in understanding of the importance of finding the epicenter of an earthquake: 1. Why is it important to determine the location of an epicenter when it comes to saving lives? 2. If a seismologic station measures P waves but no S waves from an earthquake, what can you conclude about the earthquake’s location? 3. If an earthquake occurs in the center of Brazil, what can you infer about the geology of the area? (Hint: Review Plate Boundary Map) 4. Surface waves are the last to arrive at a seismic station. Why then do they cause so much damage?

Extension:

• GIZMO: Earthquake – Determination of Epicenter Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 92

Student Finding an Epicenter NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.3

Analyze the scientific theory of plate tectonics and identify related major processes and features as a result of moving plates. (Also addresses SC.912.E.6.2)

Background:

Earthquakes are vibrations caused by large releases of energy. These energy releases can occur as a result of fault movements, asteroid impacts, volcanic eruptions, and movements of magma, as well as by explosions. As a result, vibrations can begin both in and on the Earth’s crust. The energy released radiates away from the point of origin, the focus. Commonly, when describing the location of an earthquake, scientists and the media often talk about the earthquake’s epicenter, the point on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus. Earthquake energy can be recorded on a seismograph, producing a seismogram. Seismographs can “pick up” several types of energy waves, which travel through the Earth, and radiate in all directions from the focus. Two of these waves are used to locate earthquake epicenters: • “P”-waves or longitudinal waves: “P” stands for primary. These waves travel fastest and arrive at seismographs first. They are compressional (“push-pull”) waves. • “S”-waves or transverse waves: “S” stands for secondary. These waves travel more slowly and arrive at seismographs after P-waves. They are perpendicular (“side-to-side”) waves. We use travel time graphs (

Figure 3

) to show how long it takes each type of seismic wave to travel a distance, measured on Earth’s surface. The difference between the S wave arrival time and the P wave arrival time corresponds to the distance of the seismograph from the focus of the earthquake. However, these waves can arrive at a seismograph from any direction! Thus, one seismograph is not enough to determine the epicenter of an earthquake. A second seismogram, recorded in a different location, can narrow down the possible location to some degree, but at least three seismograms are required in order to accurately plot the epicenter. In this lab, you will. You will use the P and S wave arrival time difference to determine distance to epicenter, then use a compass to record the distance radius measured by each station. Remember, accuracy is important. Take care to make accurate measurements!

Problem Statement:

How is the epicenter of an earthquake determined?

Vocabulary:

primary wave, secondary wave, surface wave, focus, epicenter, lag time, seismograph, seismogram

Materials (per group):

• 3 seismograms from the same earthquake • Safe drawing compass • P and S wave travel time curve • • Map for plotting the earthquake epicenter Straight edge Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 93

Student Procedures:

1. Examine

Figure 1

, which shows seismograms of an earthquake recorded at three different locations. Note that the first set of zigzags at each city indicates the arrival of P waves, and the second set of zigzags indicates the arrival of S waves. In order to determine the time of arrival for each P and S wave, move your finger in a straight line down to the time axis beneath the wave. 2. Estimate to the nearest ten seconds, the times of the first arrival of the P waves and S waves at each station in

Figure 1

procedure to accomplish this: . Then, subtract the S minus P. 3. Now use the S minus P times and

Figure 3:

Earthquake P-Wave and S-Wave Travel Time to estimate the distance from the epicenter for each location. Refer to the following a. Lay a strip of blank paper along the time axis of

Figure 3: Earthquake P-Wave and S Wave Travel Time

. Mark two dots on the edge of the paper corresponding to the S - P time difference calculated for the first location above. b. Keeping the edge of the paper parallel to the vertical lines on the graph, slide the paper along the S and P curves until the two dots lie exactly on the S and P curves. c. A vertical line through the S and P curves at these points should intersect the horizontal axis. This is the distance between the seismograph at this location and the earthquake’s epicenter. d. Record this distance in the

Table 1

under observations. Repeat this procedure for the next two S - P times. 4. Next, find the earthquake’s epicenter, using the distances just obtained and the procedure below. a. Use the scale in

Figure 2

REMAINING length. to set the appropriate radius on your compass. You can do this by opening your compass to a length equal to the Distance to Epicenter determined for San Jose, Costa Rica, as recorded in the observations section. NOTE: You may notice that the distance is LONGER than the scale. Open the compass to the entire length of the scale (3,000 km). Then, move the compass to the LEFT until the point that WAS on 3,000 touches 0. Then, continue opening it the b. Place your compass point on the circle labeled San Jose on your map. Scribe a complete circle around the seismic station. c. Repeat this procedure for New York and San Francisco. d. The circles you should draw should intersect near one point. This point is the epicenter!

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 94

Student Data /Observations: Figure 1: Seismograms Recorded at Three Different Locations for a Single Event

San Jose, Costa Rica

Table 1: S and P Wave Arrival Times First P Arrival First S Arrival

New York, USA San Francisco, USA

S - P

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 95

Student Table 2: Seismograph Location in Relation to Epicenter Seismograph Location Distance to Epicenter

San Jose, Costa Rica New York, USA San Francisco, USA Figure 2: Map of North America for Plotting Epicenter Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 96

Student

Figure 3: Earthquake P Wave and S Wave Travel Time Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 97

Student Results/Conclusion:

1. What is the origin time of the earthquake (at what time did the earthquake occur)? 2. Which seismograph recorded the earliest P-wave arrival? The latest? 3. What does the difference described in question 2 suggest about the relative locations of each seismograph? 4. Where was the epicenter (which State and/or Country?) of this earthquake located? 5. Use your data to determine what type of plate boundary is located here. 6. Which plates are found along this boundary? 7. Describe what might be happening here to cause earthquakes at this location. Be specific! 8. Your circles may not have intersected precisely at one point. Other than error in your measurements, what are the possible reasons for this? Be specific! 9. You have been using the P and S wave travel time curve to determine the distance to the epicenter. You have been asked to use this curve for every earthquake you study. Explain why this curve might not be appropriate in all situations, and justify your answer. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 98

Teacher Fossils as Evidence for Environments and Change NGSSS: SC.912.L.15.1

Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change.

SC.912.E.6.2

Connect surface features to surface processes that are responsible for their formation. (Also addresses LA.910.2.2.3)

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

• Apply the basic principles of uniformitarianism, superposition, and faunal succession. • Compare and contrast the shapes (morphologies) of fossils. • Relate the structure of a fossil to its environment. • Recognize the evidence of change in fossils throughout geologic time.

Prerequisites:

Prior to this activity the student should be able to: • Describe the process of fossil formation • Explain how fossils and rocks contain a record of Earth’s history

Materials (per group):

• Plastic fossil kit by Hubbard Scientific • Attached fossil handout • Geologic Time Chart

Procedures: Day of Activity: Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Begin discussing how fossils provide evidence about an animal ′s physical appearance, behaviors, and interactions with other animals. b. Create a chart on the board with two columns labeled "Fossil Evidence" and "Clues to …?" c. Write the first evidence as "serrated teeth." d. Prompt students to make inferences about this evidence, i.e.,

the animal are a carnivore (eats meat).

Write this answer on the second column “Clues to …?” e. Continue by asking students to discuss reasons for their answers and how these may relate to an animal’s behavior and response to its environment, i.e.,

sharp teeth are needed to tear flesh.

possible behavior. f. Write other "Fossil Evidence" listed in the chart below and encourage students to infer on the properties of animals and provide evidence of

Fossil Evidence Clues to…?

sharp teeth may eat meat extremely long neck reach for food quickly or hard to reach places bones not fully developed possible juvenile mark on bones signs that other animals bit, chewed, or scavenged Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 99

Teacher During activity:

g. Prior to the activity make sure all fossil kits are complete and in identifiable condition. (Teacher must obtain a fossil kit or create one to match the fossil handout. Remind students to handle the fossils kit with care.)

What the teacher will do:

reference sheet. a. Monitor students and assist with classifying organisms using fossil b. Assess student’s by asking the following questions: 1. Why is it necessary to separate the fossils by phylum? 2. Why are the fossils arranged by age? 3. What is the importance of recognizing the evidence of change in fossils throughout geologic time?

After activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Engage students in discussion about how both animal complexity and size changes with time. b. Have students write a summary of what they learned from their fossil exploration. Evaluate these summaries and the presentations and/ or assess through testing how well students comprehend the significance of fossil evidence in understanding evolution. c. Optional: Have students research how landmasses have changed over time. Ask them how it is possible that some of the same fossils that are found in the United States are also present in China. (North Carolina and China were once joined in a single landmass.) Ask them to describe how landmasses were configured at the time their fossil was formed.

Extension:

• Fossil Formation Animation: http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es2901/es290 1page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization • How a dinosaur became a fossil? http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess.earthsys.fossilintro/ • GIZMO: Human Evolution – Skull Analysis Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 100

Student Fossils as Evidence for Environments and Change NGSSS: SC.912.L.15.1

Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change.

SC.912.E.6.2

Connect surface features to surface processes that are responsible for their formation. (Also addresses LA.910.2.2.3)

Background:

Paleontologists (scientists who study fossils and geologic history) have learned a lot about geologic history by studying fossils and rocks. Fossils provide clues about the environment in which they lived. For example, if a fossil has fins, it is assumed it lived in water. Rock layers are formed whenever there is a change in the environment, such as rain, drought, snow, or even a landslide. By studying rock layers and by applying basic principles of geology such as uniformitarianism, superposition, and faunal succession, paleontologists are able to determine the sequences of events that have occurred in an area. Organisms adjust in response to changes in their environment. By carefully analyzing differences in an animal or plant from one rock layer to another, scientists can gather evidence for slow continuous change over a long period time.

Problem Statement:

How do fossils provide clues about Earth’s geologic past?

Hypothesis:

If fossils provide clues about Earth’s geologic past, then… (hint: provide an explanation on how the principles of uniformitarianism and faunal succession would provide scientists with information on Earth’s geologic past)

Vocabulary:

fossils, geology, paleontology, evolution, fossil record, geologic time, Principle of Superposition, Principle of Uniformitarianism, Principle of Faunal Succession

Materials (per group):

• Plastic fossil kit by Hubbard Scientific • Attached fossil handout • Geologic Time Chart

Procedures:

1. Look carefully at the fossil handout. You will see sketches of fossils, the animal’s phylum and genus names, and the geologic time period(s) they lived in. 2. Place your plastic fossils on the table and separate them by phyla. 3. Using the fossil handout as a guide, arrange the fossils from oldest to youngest, within each phylum group. You will now have several groups of fossils. Each group should have its fossils arranged by age. 4. On the “Fossils” column of the

Geologic Time Chart

, neatly sketch each fossil within its correct phylum and time period

. Label each fossil

with its genus name. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 101

Student Observations/Data:

Complete the Geologic Time Chart with sketches of each fossil.

Data Analysis:

Understanding Fossils 1. Which animal phylum only lived in the Paleozoic? 2. Which animal phyla only lived in both the Paleozoic and the Mesozoic? 3. Which animal phylum only lived in the Cenozoic? 4. Which animal phylum lived through the most number of geologic time periods? Evaluating Fossils 1. If a paleontologist finds a rock containing Flexicalymene: a. What time period does the rocks belong to. b. What is the age range of the rock? c. Which geologic principle is being used to date the age of the rock? 2. Imagine a paleontologist finds a rock with both Acanthoscaphites and Tetragramma: a. What geologic time period does the rock belong to? b. What is the age range of the rock? c. Which geologic principle is being used to date the age of the rock?

Conclusion:

Understanding Fossils 1. Explain how the Principle of Superposition can be used to help determine the age of fossils. 2. Explain how the Principle of Uniformitarianism can be used to evaluate the environment in which animals lived.

Interpreting the Fossil Record 1. Look carefully at the animals that belong to the Mammalia genus. What type of environment did they most likely live in? 2. Look carefully at the animals that belong to the Brachiopod phylum. What type of environment did they most likely live in? 3. Look carefully at the animals that belong to the Mollusca phylum during the Mesozoic era. What type of environment might they have lived in? 4. Looking at the animals in each phylum and how they have changed over time. Make a generalized statement of how size changes with time. 5. Looking at the animals in each phylum and how they have changed over time. Make a generalized statement of how complexity changes with time. Fossils as Evidence of Change 1. At the end of the Paleozoic, the super-continent of Pangea formed, closing the oceans that separated the previous land masses. a. Explain how this change in the land and oceans would have affected the environment. b. Explain how the fossils would reflect the change in the environment. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 102

Student Era Period Quaternary Geologic Time Chart Fossils

(Phylum Name)

Arthropoda Brachiopoda Cephalopoda Chordata Echinodermata Mollusca Tertiary Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Pennsylvanian Mississippian Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 103

Student Fossil Handout

(Modified from Hubbard Scientific)

Phylum: Mollusca Genus: Acanthoscaphites Period: Cretaceous Phylum: Chordata Genus: Pisces Period: Tertiary Phylum: Echinodermata Genus: Crinoidea (sea lily stem) Period: Mississippian Phylum: Brachiopoda Genus: Eospirifer Period: Silurian Phylum: Chordata Genus: Mammalia

(horse tooth)

Period: Quaternary Phylum: Arthropod Genus: Flexicalymene Period: Silurian Phylum: Mollusca Genus: Meekoceras Period: Triassic Phylum: Chordata Genus: Mammalia

(horse tooth)

Period: Tertiary Phylum: Cephalopoda Genus: Michelinoceras Period: Ordovician Phylum: Brachiopoda Genus: Mucrospirifer Period: Devonian Phylum: Mollusca Genus: Munsteroceras Period: Mississippian Phylum: Brachiopoda Genus: Neospirifer Period: Pennsylvanian Phylum: Brachiopoda Genus: Oleneothyris Period: Cretaceous Phylum: Mollusca Genus: Pecten Period: Tertiary – today Phylum: Echinodermata Genus: Pentremites Period: Mississippian Phylum: Arthropoda Genus: Phacops Period: Devonian Phylum: Brachiopoda Genus: Spirifer Period: Mississippian Phylum: Echinodermata Genus: Tetragramma Period: Cretaceous Phylum: Mollusca Genus: Turritella Period: Tertiary Phylum: Mollusca Genus: Venericardia Period: Tertiary – today

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 104

Teacher Stratigraphic Column NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.1

Describe and differentiate the layers of Earth and the interactions among them.

SC.912.L.15.1

Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change.

Purpose of Activity:

Students will learn how to evaluate data from stratigraphic columns to discover long-term changes in animals/plants and the environment.

Prerequisites:

• Prior to this activity the student should be able to: Describe the Principle of Uniformitarianism as proposed by James Hutton. • Describe the law of superposition and how it is used to determine the relative age of rock layers. • Describe the principle of original horizontality and how it is used to determine the order of events that have occurred in an area. • Differentiate between unconformities and disconformities. • Describe the environment necessary to form common types of rocks

Materials (per group):

• Samples of 5 different types of sediments such as sand, potting soil, etc. • 5 beakers or cups, plastic preferred • Ruler Extension Activity • Stratigraphic column handout • Ruler

Procedures: Day of Activity What the teacher will do:

a. Prep students for the lab by drawing the following diagram, or a similar one, on the board.

Before activity:

b. Using the diagram above, model how to obtain information from a stratigraphic column using questions similar to the ones below: Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 105

Teacher During activity: After activity:

1. How many strata are in the stratigraphic column? 4 2. How many bedding planes are in the stratigraphic column? 5 – for this example assume that the layers begin at the bottom of D and end at the top of A, but sometimes scientists may not know that. If they do not know for sure, they do not count the top and bottom as being bedding planes. 3. Which layer is oldest? D, due to the principle of superposition 4. Which layer is youngest? A, due to the principle of superposition 5. Which layer formed third? B, due to the principle of superposition 6. Relatively, how old is layer B? older than A, but younger than C and D, due to the principle of superposition 7. Assuming 1cm = 10 million years, how long did it take for layer A to form? 2–0 = 2 ; 2 X 10 = 20 million years 8. If a fossil is found on layer C, how old can we say the fossil is? between 70 – 30 million years old 9. How many years total are represented in this stratigraphic column? 95 million years c. Review the concepts of uniformities and disconformities. d. Review the principles used to determine the relative age of rock layers. e. Review the types of environments that form common rocks. f. Review with students how to analyze the environments represented by different types of rocks. For example, if a stratigraphic column has a layer of conglomerate, and above that layer of conglomerate there is a layer of sandstone, and above the sandstone there is a layer of shale. What would this tell you about past environments? Conglomerate indicates there was once a river in that place. The sandstone indicates there was once a beach (or a desert, but assume a beach for this activity). The shale indicates there was once deep, calm water in that place. g. Review how to sequence the events that occurred in the area where the stratigraphic column was obtained. Continuing with the example above: First there were rivers in that that emptied into a big lake or ocean. The level of the lake or ocean was rising, so eventually the place were the rivers were became a beach. As the level of the water continued to rise, the area was covered by deepening water and the shale was deposited.

What the teacher will do:

a. Prompt students with questions to guide them to higher order thinking. Use the following questions: 1. If the layer is thick, what does that mean in regards to how long or short it took for the layer to form? 2. What type of animals and plants could live in the environment where the rock formed? 3. What type of fossils would be found in the rock layer? 4. Do you think the change in the environment was fast or gradual? 5. What would a stratigraphic column of Miami look like?

What the teacher will do:

a. Ask students what clues a stratigrapher would use to determine the number of strata in an area. b. Have a group of students draw a sequence of layers on the board and Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 106

Teacher

guide a class discussion to analyze the change in the environments. c. Extend students thinking by guiding them to consider the changes in the animals/plants that would occur as the environment changed. Where would the animals go? d. Relate the change in environments to the concepts of extinction and evolution of animals/plants.

Extension:

• Earth’s History Animations: http://www.wwnorton.com/college/geo/earth2/content/chapter_12/animations.asp

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 107

Student Stratigraphic Column NGSSS: SC.912.E.6.1

Describe and differentiate the layers of Earth and the interactions among them.

SC.912.L.15.1

Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change.

Background:

Stratigraphy is a branch of geology that deals with the layers of rock that make up the earth’s crust. A stratigrapher studies how layers of rocks were formed, how layers represent changes in the environment, and how the layers of rock at one location correlate (match up) to layers of rock at a different location. Scientists draw stratigraphic columns to show rocks at the surface of a particular spot, and all the rock layers that lie below the surface. The layers in a stratigraphic column are usually stacked from oldest (bottom) to youngest (top). Careful study of rock layers can give scientists clues as to how animals/plants may have evolved, how weather and climate patterns have changed, and the relative ages of animals/plants and events.

Problem Statement:

What information can be determined from analyzing stratigraphic rock layers?

Hypothesis:

If stratigraphic rock layers provide information about the formation of rocks and changes in the environment that formed them, then…

(hint for completing the hypothesis: explain what stratigraphers would look for in rock layers and how those items would provide information on how the rocks were formed and under what type of conditions)

Safety:

Use safety goggles and aprons to protect eyes and clothes from sediments. Use caution if using glass beakers.

Vocabulary:

stratigraphic column, unconformity, fossil, relative age, law of superposition, principle of original horizontality, disconformity, uniformitarianism, correlation, strata, bedding planes, James Hutton, absolute age

Materials (per group):

• Samples of 5 different types of sediments such as sand, potting soil, etc. • 5 beakers or cups, plastic preferred • Ruler

Procedures:

1. Create a stratigraphic column.

b. Compact the sediment. layers in your column. a. Choose one of the sediment types and place it into the bottom of the beaker 2. Repeat (a) and (b) until there are 5 layers of sediment in the beaker. There is no specific order for the sediments. Each layer should have a different thickness from the other 3. Measure and record the thickness of each layer in the data table labeled – Sample A. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 108

Student

4. Assuming 1 cm= 10,000 million years, determine the age range for each layer and record it in the Sample A data table. 5. Determine how long it took each layer to form. 6. Exchange columns with another group. 7. Repeat steps 4 and 5 with the other group’s column and record your results in Sample B data table.

Observations/Data:

Record your data from Part I in the tables below.

Stratigraphic Column (Sample A) Stratum (layer) Width (cm) Age Range of Stratum (m.y.a.) Stratigraphic Column (Sample B) Stratum (layer) Width (cm) Age Range of Stratum (m.y.a.)

A A B C B C D D E E

Conclusion:

1. Using the data collected in the stratigraphic column of Sample A, answer the following questions: a. How many strata are in the stratigraphic column? b. How many bedding planes are in the stratigraphic column? c. Which layer is oldest? d. Which layer is youngest? e. Which layer formed third? f. Relatively, how old is layer B? g. Assuming 1cm = 10 million years, how long did it take for layer A to form? h. If a fossil is found on layer B, how old is the fossil? i. How many years total are represented in this stratigraphic column? 2. Carefully look at Sample A and compare it to Sample B. Answer the following questions about the data collected in the stratigraphic column of Sample B: a. Which layer is oldest? b. Which layer is youngest? c. Which layer formed third? d. Relatively, how old is layer B? e. Are the answers to questions a – d of Sample B the same as the answers for Sample A? Explain why or why not. f. Assuming 1cm = 10 million years, how long did it take for layer A to form? g. If a fossil is found on layer B, how old is the fossil? h. Are the answer to questions f – g of Sample B the same as the answers for i. Sample A? Explain why or why not. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 109

Student

3. If each layer in the stratigraphic columns contained fossils, explain how the relative ages of the fossils could be determined. 4. If each layer in the stratigraphic columns contained fossils, explain how the absolute ages of the fossils could be determined. 5. If each layer contained fish fossils, how might each fossil be different from the one found in the layer below it? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 110

Student Extension Activity Background Information:

1. Review the chart in step 1 of the procedures to become familiar with the different rock types listed and the environments in which they form. 2. Then research Florida’s environmental history and provide a short summary describing some of the events that have taken place throughout Florida’s history.

Problem Statement:

What type of rock(s) will be present in a stratigraphic column sample from Miami?

Hypothesis:

If Miami…

(complete the rest of this section with information about Miami’s environmental past)

, then…

(complete the rest of this section with information on the type of rock that would match the environmental conditions provided in the “if” section)

Materials:

• Stratigraphic column handouts • Ruler

Procedures:

1. Using the table below, carefully analyze the stratigraphic columns and the principles used to determine the relative age of the rock layers on the handouts labeled Stratigraphic Column 1 and Stratigraphic Column 2.

Rock Environment in which the Rock Forms Symbol of Rock Type

Shale Shale forms in deep, calm water. Sandy Shale Sandstone Shale forms in moderately deep, calm water, between deep water and the shore. Sandstone forms in several environments, but for this activity assume a beach environment. (Scientists would determine if the sand formed at a beach or in a desert environment.) Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 111

Student

Limestone Can be deep ocean environments, or a coral reef in a warm shallow sea. Conglomerate Areas where water flow is not consistent; where it may flood or be a trickle, such as a river. 2. Complete the following information for Stratigraphic Column 1 and Column 2: a. Provide the name the rock type represented in each layer. b. Provide information about the probable environment that formed each rock layer. c. Measure and record the thickness of each layer. d. Assuming that 1 cm= 50,000 million years on these stratigraphic columns (note, this is a different value form what was previously used), determine the age range for each layer. e. Determine how long it took for each layer to form.

Data Analysis:

1. How many strata are in the stratigraphic column 1? 2. Which layer is oldest for column 1? 3. Which layer is youngest column 1? 4. How many strata are in the stratigraphic column 2? 5. Which layer is oldest for in column 2? 6. Which layer is youngest in column 2?

Conclusion:

7. Provide a summary of the possible sequence of changes that might have occurred in the environment of stratigraphic column 1. 8. Provide a summary of the possible sequence of changes that might have occurred in the environment of stratigraphic column 2. 9. Describe the types of fossils that might be found in Miami.

each type

of rock. 10. Each rock layer represents a long range of time. The bottom of the layer would be considered older than the top of the same layer. How might the fossils of the same animal type be different at the bottom of a layer from the top of a layer? 11. Miami used to be under water. Draw a sketch of a possible stratigraphic column for 12. Describe the difference in fossils that would be found in the layers in the Miami column. 13. If global warming continues, think of how Miami might be affected. Draw a stratigraphic column for Miami that has at least one an additional layer showing the effects of global warming. 14. Describe the difference in fossils that would be found in the additional layers for Miami if global warming continues.. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 112

Student Observations/Data:

Stratigraphic Column 1

Name of Rock Environment of Rock Formation Stratum (layer)

A B C D

Width (cm)

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction

Age Range of Stratum (m.y.a.)

Page 113

Student

Stratigraphic Column 2

Name of Rock Environment of Rock Formation Stratum (layer)

A B C D E F Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction

Width (cm) Age Range of Stratum (m.y.a.)

Page 114

Teacher Evolutionary Implications of the Geologic Time Scale NGSSS: SC.912.L.15.1

SC.912.L.15.8

Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change. Describe the scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth. (Also addresses SC.912.E.6.2)

Purpose of the Lab/Activity:

1. Model the immensity of Earth’s history and evaluate life’s changes throughout those millions of years. 2. Analyze characteristics of fossils. 3. Compare placement of fossils and determine relative ages. 4. Develop a model evolutionary tree based on the morphology and age of fossils.

Prerequisites:

Prior to this activity the student should be able to: • Explain how fossils and rocks contain a record of Earth’s history • Describe geologic dating methods and the geologic time scale.

Materials (per group):

• 5 meters of nylon cording • White unlined paper • Tape • Ruler • Fossil sheet

Procedures: Day of Activity: Before activity: During activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Read aloud the attached article “Reflections on an Oyster”. (Reading strategy in which a teacher sets aside time to read orally to students on a consistent basis from texts above their independent reading level but at their listening level.) b. Engage in class discussion. Use the following questions as a guide: 1. What kind of organisms tend to form fossils? 2. What structures lead to the formation of fossils? 3. Describe the environments likely for the formation of fossils. 4. Explain why the fossil record is incomplete.

What the teacher will do:

a. Monitor students to make sure they are remaining on task and are following proper lab protocol. b. Using an analogy for students to visualize that the Earth is 4.6 billion years old. Of this the Phanerozoic Eon is only the most recent 542 million years. If we could compress the Phanerozoic Eon into one year, dinosaurs would appear in mid-April and die out in late October. Humans would not appear until the very end of the year, approximately two hours before midnight on New Years’ Eve. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 115

Teacher After activity:

c. Ask the following questions: 1. Which era is longest? The shortest? 2. In which eras and periods did dinosaurs, mammals, flowering plants and birds appear on Earth? 3. Which lived on Earth the longer time, dinosaurs or mammals? Calculate the range of time for each. 4. What major group flourished only after the dinosaurs became extinct? How do you know? 5. Where did life exist during the early part of the Paleozoic Era? What fossil evidence leads to this conclusion?

What the teacher will do:

a. Lead a class discussion by asking the following questions: 1. What does the geologic time scale indicate about the change in life forms over time? 2. Explain the incompleteness of the fossil record. 3. Why is it difficult to interpret the rock record of Precambrian Time? 4. Did more history-shaping events seem to have occurred early in Earth’s history or later on? Explain. 5. How do extinction events influence the development of life on Earth? 6. Compare and contrast gradualism and punctuated equilibrium.

Extension:

• A Brief History of Life: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/beta/evolution/brief-history-life.html

• Fossil Evidence: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/beta/evolution/fossil-evidence.html

• Tour Through Time: http://www.fieldmuseum.org/evolvingplanet/POST/EP_v8.swf

• GIZMO: Human Evolution – Skull Analysis Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 116

Teacher Reflections on an Oyster

by Olivia Judson Blog (NYtimes.com) An oyster shell sits on the table in front of me. But I’m not about to have an oyster feast: I won’t be squeezing a lemon, grinding pepper and lifting the shell to my lips. This isn’t because I’d choke, though the animal from this shell would be far larger than one throatful. It’s because this oyster died more than 20 million years ago, and the shell is empty. It has none of the beauty of a modern shell. Inside, the lining has changed from pearly iridescence to smooth, gray stone. The outside is free from the weeds and dirt that cover a living shell, and the colorful markings that would once have adorned it have gone. There is no smell of the sea. Indeed, the seabed where this animal once lived is land now. For a fossil, 20 million years is young. The oldest animal fossils are around 570 million years old; the last dinosaurs vanished 65 million years ago. But 20 million years is still long enough for the world to have looked noticeably different from the way it does today. When this oyster was alive, the Himalayas and the Rocky Mountains were just starting to rise up; the Grand Canyon had not yet formed. South America — where this oyster’s from — was an island. As I run my hands over the rough crenellations of the shell’s outside, as I feel the weight of the stone in my hands (and it is heavy — 1.3 kg, or nearly 3 lbs.), I can’t help feeling a kind of reverence for this fragment of the fabric of the past. It’s hard to become a fossil, to leave a tangible record of your presence on the Earth millions of years after you died. Most of us swiftly get recycled into other beings. After all, the competition for corpses is fierce. Species of bacteria, worms, ants, flies, beetles and even some butterflies have a taste for rotting flesh. And that’s without mentioning larger scavengers, like vultures, hyenas and mongooses. The disappearance of a body can be rapid. To give one of my favorite examples, in the tropical forests of the Congo, an adult male gorilla — all 150 kg (330 lbs.) of him — will be reduced to a pile of bones and hair within 10 days of his death. Within three weeks, there will be nothing left but a few small bones. And this is without the help of creatures like hyenas, which pulverize and eat the bones of all but the largest animals. (That’s why hyena scat is white: it’s the remains of powdered bone.) But evading Nature’s undertakers is only the first step in becoming a fossil. If you want to be preserved for millions of years, you also have to choose the right place to die. If you’re lucky, you’ll have a quick burial in, say, the silts and sediments of a river bed, or under volcanic ash. For many environments can never yield fossils. Die on top of a mountain, for example, and your fossil hopes are slim. The reason is that mountains don’t bury, they erode. (You might get frozen in ice, in which case you may last as long as the ice does, which may be several thousand years; but it won’t be several million. Ice is for those with modest ambitions for immortality.) Likewise, if soil is too acidic, bones dissolve. That’s why forest animals leave few fossils: forest soil tends to be acidic. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 117

Teacher

Even if you manage to die in the right place, you’ll have a better chance of surviving in death if you have the sort of body that can leave hard remains. In the fossilization stakes, animals with shells — like oysters — have an advantage over those without (jellyfish, say). All this means that the fossil record of the Earth is inherently skewed. For instance, river deltas are great places to get buried and preserved. So animals that lived in or near them are much more likely to make it into the fossil record than most other creatures; as a result, we have river delta fossils in much greater numbers than most other types. But during life, those animals were by no means the most numerous. As one friend put it, it’s like making an inventory of current North American wildlife based on what you find at the mouth of the Mississippi. In light of this, the fossil record we do have becomes the more amazing. Yes, it has limitations. Yes, there are many organisms that we can never know about, for we will never know they existed. They breathed, and changed the atmosphere; they preyed on other beings; their carcasses became food, and altered the composition of the soil; but they left no physical trace, no clues to what they looked like, to the lives they led, the mates they seduced, the songs they sang. Yet it is not surprising that the fossil record is incomplete — how could it be otherwise? What is remarkable is that we know as much as we do about the lives of the organisms of the past. The sciences of taphonomy — how bodies decompose and eventually become stone — and paleontology have allowed us to piece together many details of ancient ecosystems. And recent years have yielded up an astonishing wealth of “transitional forms” — organisms with bodies that are in between those of, say, dinosaurs and birds, fish and amphibians, or even whales and their nearest living relations, the hippos. But as I sit here at the threshold of the new year, contemplating this oyster, what strikes me most powerfully is that the impact of ancient organisms is with us still. As I wrote some months ago, life has altered the chemistry of the oceans and the air. It has even enriched the variety of minerals found here. Of the 4,300 or so different minerals on the planet, perhaps 2,800 exist only because of the activities of living beings. A planet that has never been home to life would have simpler rocks, less interesting geology. The beings of the past have built the Earth as we know it today. They have even flavored the wine we drink. The grapes that form the basis of Chablis, the wine that the French often drink with oysters, are grown in soil that once was seabed. Look closely at the chalky soil of the Chablis vineyards, and you will find fossil oysters. All of which makes me wonder: what will our legacy be? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 118

Student Evolutionary Implications of the Geologic Time Scale NGSSS: SC.912.L.15.1

SC.912.L.15.8

Explain how the scientific theory of evolution is supported by the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and observed evolutionary change. Describe the scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth. (Also addresses SC.912.E.6.2)

Background:

Three concepts are important in the study and use of fossils: (1) Fossils represent the remains of once-living organisms. (2) Most fossils are the remains of extinct organisms; that is, they belong to species that are no longer living anywhere on Earth. (3) The kinds of fossils found in rocks of different ages differ because life on Earth has changed through time. The history of the earth is broken up into a hierarchical set of divisions for describing geologic time. As increasingly smaller units of time, the generally accepted divisions are eon, era, period, epoch, age. The Phanerozoic Eon represents geologic time from the end of Precambrian time, approximately 544 to 570 million years ago (mya), until the present day. As such, the Phanerozoic Eon includes the Paleozoic Era, the Mesozoic Era, and the current Cenozoic Era. The Phanerozoic Eon and constituent eras are then further divided into 12 geologic periods. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 119

Student Division

Holocene Epoch Pleistocene Epoch Pliocene Epoch Miocene Epoch Oligocene Epoch Eocene Epoch Paleocene Epoch Cretaceous Period Jurassic Period Triassic Period Permian Period Carboniferous Period Devonian Period Silurian Period Ordovician Period Cambrian Period Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction

Time Period (millions of years ago)

0.008-Present 1.8-0.008 5-1.8

Event(s)

Sea levels rise as climate warmed; first civilizations Modern humans, mammoths, saber toothed cats; Mass extinction (10,000 years ago) large animals and birds caused by the end of the last Ice Age First hominoids 24-5 38-24 First dogs and bears Early formation of European Alps 54-38 65-54 146-65 208-146 248-208 280-248 360-280 408-360 438-408 500-438 540-500 First whales, rodents appear First hooved mammals Feathered dinosaurs, earliest known butterflies, snakes; high volcanic activity 65 mya—large extinction—dinosaurs, 50% marine invertebrates—due to asteroid impact or volcanism First birds (Archaeopteryx), first flowering plants; dinosaurs dominant First dinosaurs and mammals, true flies first appear; breakup of Pangaea “Age of Amphibians” amphibians and reptiles dominant; continents merge into super-continent of Pangaea; 248 mya—largest mass extinction—50% all animals, 95% all marine species, many trees—due to glaciation or volcanism First winged insects, first reptiles, cockroaches “Age of Fishes” fish and land plants abundant and diverse; first amphibians; sharks, bony fish First jawed fish; centipedes, millipedes Primitive plants; North America under shallow sea Earliest primitive fish Page 120

Student

Fossils are traces of organisms that lived in the past. When fossils are found, they are analyzed to determine the age of the fossil. The absolute age of the fossil can be determined though radiometric dating and determining the layer of rock in which the fossil was found. Older layers are found deeper within the earth than newer layers. The age and morphologies (appearances) of fossils can be used to place fossils in sequences that often show patterns of changes that have occurred over time. This relationship can be depicted in an evolutionary tree, also known as a phylogenetic tree. There are two major hypotheses on how evolution takes place: gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. Gradualism suggests that organisms evolve through a process of slow and constant change. For instance, an organism that shows a fossil record of gradually increased size in small steps, or an organism that shows a gradual loss of a structure. Punctuated equilibrium suggests that species evolve very rapidly and then stay the same for a large period of time. This rapid change is attributed to a mutation in a few essential genes. The sudden appearance of new structures could be explained by punctuated equilibrium. The fossil record cannot accurately determine when one species becomes another species. However, two hypotheses regarding speciation also exist. Phyletic speciation suggests that abrupt mutations in a few regulatory genes occur after a species has existed for a long period of time. This mutation results in the entire species shifting to a new species. Phyletic speciation would also relate to the punctuated equilibrium hypothesis regarding evolution. Divergent speciation suggests that a gradual accumulation of small genetic changes results in subpopulation of a species that eventually accumulate so many changes that the subpopulations become different species. This hypothesis would coincide with the gradualism model of evolution. Most evolutionary biologists accept that a combination of the two models has affected the evolution of species over time.

Problem Statement:

According to the fossil record does the earth and its life forms change?

Vocabulary:

fossil, geologic time scale, eon, era, period, epoch, age, absolute age, phylogenetic tree, gradualism, punctuated equilibrium, speciation, mutation, morphology

Materials (per group):

• 5 meters of nylon cording (rope or twine will work just as well) • Colored pieces of yarn/string (markers may be used instead of yarn/string) • Scissors • White unlined paper (art paper roll that can be cut into 14” x 48” pieces is best) • Tape • Ruler • Fossil sheet Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 121

Student Procedures:

Part 1: The Geologic Time Line Rope 1. The rope is 4.6 meters long and, on the rope, each millimeter represents one million years. Mark one end of the rope by tying an orange piece of yarn/string at the end. This will represent the present time, and the orange string will also represent the existence of Homo Sapiens during that time period. 2. Next tie a red piece of yarn (or mark the rope with a red marker) at the following locations on the rope: a. 65 millimeters from the “now” end (this will represent 65 million years ago) b. 250 millimeters from the “now” end (this will represent 250 million years ago) c. 570 millimeters from the “now” end (this will represent 570 million years ago) 3. Complete the table below: a. Since many of the events occur between a set of years (example: between 408 360), use the oldest time to represent the beginning of that time period. b. Tie the corresponding yarn piece at the appropriate place on the timeline

Event Yarn/String Color Time (Millions of years ago) Name of Eon, Era, Period, or Epoch Placement on Geologic Timeline Rope

Earliest primitive fish appear First hooved mammals appear White Brown 540-500 Cambrian Period 540 mm Land plants appear Green First whales appear Blue First dinosaurs appear Mass extinction (end of last Ice Age) Gray Black Mass extinction (Dinosaurs) Mass extinction (95% of marine species) Black Black Bacteria first appears Yellow Part 2: Examining the Fossil Record 1. The diagram you are creating requires a large space. To create your workspace, tape together 8 sheets of standard sized paper or use a pre-cut piece of art paper. 2. Use a ruler to draw the following chart on your workspace. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 122

Student Time Period (2 1/2 inches wide)

Idahoan (present)

Began (years ago) (2 1/2 inches wide)

30,000

Fossils (8 inches wide)

(Each row here must be 5 inches tall) Californian 80,000 Montanian 170,000 Coloradian 320,000 Oregonian 395,000 Texian 445,000 Nevadian 545,000 Ohioian 745,000 Wyomington (oldest) 995,000 3. The groups of "fossils" you will work with are fictitious animals. Each fossil on your sheet is marked with a time period. Cut out each fossil and make sure you include the time period marked below it. 4. Arrange the fossils by age. On your data chart, place each fossil next to the period from which the fossil came from. The term "upper" means that the fossil is from a more recent time period and should be placed closer to the top line of the time period it appears in. Likewise, the term "lower" means that the fossil is from an older time period, and it should be placed toward the bottom of the time periods (near the bottom line). In each fossil column, you may have 3 specimens, one from the main time period, one from the upper and one from the lower. Not all fossils are represented, illustrating the incompleteness of any fossil record. 5. While keeping the fossils in the proper age order, arrange them by morphology (appearance). To help you understand the morphology of the specimen, view the diagram. Arrange the fossils using the following steps: a. Center the oldest fossil at the bottom of the fossil column (toward the oldest layer) b. Through the chart, those fossils that appear to be the same (or close to the same) as the fossils preceding them should be placed in a vertical line c. During a certain period, the fossils will split into two branches. In other words, one fossil from that period will show one type of change, and another fossil will show a different change. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 123

Student

When this happens, place the fossils side by side in the appropriate time period. From that point on, you will have two lineages. 6. Once all the fossils have been placed correctly according to time and morphology, tape or glue the fossils in place.

Data Analysis:

Part 1: The Geologic Time Rope 1. Describe what each of the red yarn pieces represents and explain how each one is significant in the geologic timeline. 2. Explain other significant events that come with the appearance of: a. bacteria in the fossil record. b. land plants in the fossil record. c. the first animals in the fossil record. d. the dinosaurs in the fossil record. e.

Homo sapiens

(humans) in the fossil record 3. Describe the significance of each of the major extinctions that appear in the fossil record. 4. Explain what each of the measurements represents with respect to the fossil record. Part 2: Examining the Fossil Record 1. Give a brief description of the evolutionary changes that occurred in the organism. 2. During which time period did the fossils differentiate into two branches? 3. Explain how the chart illustrates both punctuated equilibrium and gradualism. Use specific fossils from the chart to support your answer. 4. Making the assumption that each fossil represents a separate species. Explain how the chart illustrates divergent and phyletic speciation. Use specific fossils from the chart as examples to support your answer. 5. Examine the fossil that was unearthed in a museum, apparently the labels and other information were lost. Using the fossil record, determine the time period this fossil is likely from. successful? Provide an

explanation

6. Of the two major species that arose from the parent species, which was more to support the answer. 7. For each of the "blanks" on the fossil record, make a sketch of what the animal would look like. Draw this right on the fossil record. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 124

Student Conclusion:

Finalize the investigation by writing a lab report using the “Power Writing Model 2009” and answering the following questions: 1. What was investigated? 2. What were the major findings? 3. How did your findings compare with other researchers? 4. What possible explanations can you offer for your findings? 5. What recommendations do you have for further study and for improving the experiment? 6. What are some possible applications of the activity? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 125

Student

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction

Fossils Sheet

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Teacher Phases of the Moon NGSSS: SC.912.E.5.5 SC.912.E.5.6

other. Explain the formation of planetary systems based on our knowledge of our Solar System and apply this knowledge to newly discovered planetary systems. Develop logical connections through physical principles, including Kepler's and Newton's Laws about the relationships and the effects of Earth, Moon, and Sun on each (Also addresses SC.912.P.12.4, and SC.912.E.7.8)

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

The purpose of this lab is to create, both, a model that demonstrates the cycle of the lunar phases and to also explore the idea that the phases of the Moon vary, depending on the perspective of the viewer. Students will explore, both, the different phases of the Moon as viewed from the earth and above our solar system. Phases of the earth, as viewed from the Moon, will also be examined. Additionally, students will reinforce questions related to the law of gravitational attraction between two masses, such as, “Why do tidal changes in the oceans occur?”

Prerequisites:

• Prior to this activity, the student should be able to: Have an understanding of the theories regarding the Moon’s formations • Know facts that relate the revolution and rotation of the Moon and earth to the lunar phases • Understand that the gravitational force between two objects is related to its masses and the distance between them ( F g =G m 1 m 2 d 2 ) • Know the names of the different types of tides • Understand that tides are caused by the Moon’s gravitational attraction • Know the difference between a lunar and solar eclipse

Materials (per group):

• 2 Styrofoam balls • A light source (flashlight or lamp) • 2 Pencils

Procedures: Day of Activity: Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Review the lab set up with students. b. Review pertinent vocabulary (see student version). c. Introduce “Problem Statements” as in the student version and ask students to develop hypotheses that could be tested with their models. Remind them to use the IF – THEN – BECAUSE format. (e.g., If the phase of the Moon is unseen at night, then the position of the Moon must be on the other side of the Earth, because the Earth is blocking a direct view to the Moon. If a Full Moon is viewed from Earth, then the peak of Spring Tides will occur around midnight, because of the direct alignment between the Sun, Earth and Moon). Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 127

Teacher During activity: After activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Remind students to rotate the Moon so that the one side always faces the Earth as it moves from positions 1-8. b. Make sure that students hold the light source level to the position of the Moon and the Earth. c. Introduce the following questions as appropriate to student engagement and understanding: 1. In real life, is the Earth stationary like in this model, or, is it revolving and rotating in some particular way? 2. Is the Moon stationary, or, is it revolving and rotating in some particular way? 3. What event happens when the Moon’s orbit, occasionally, intersects Earth’s orbital plane during positions 1 and 5? (see student handout)

What the teacher will do:

a. Make sure that students answer the questions required under the “Data Analysis/Results” section of the lab packet b. Assign students the following homework: 1. Finish answering lab questions mentioned above (see results) 2. Write a conclusion using the “Power Writing Model 2009” document. c. Connect the concepts of the lab activity to the NGSSS by asking the following questions: 1. What is the most accepted theory regarding the formation of the Moon? 2. What force holds the Moon and other planets in our solar system relatively close to each other and in their correct orbits? 3. How are tides affected by the Moon? By the Sun?

Extension:

• Web-Based Activities http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Shipparc.htm

• GIZMO: Moon Phases Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 128

Student Phases of the Moon NGSSS: SC.912.E.5.5 SC.912.E.5.6

Explain the formation of planetary systems based on our knowledge of our Solar System and apply this knowledge to newly discovered planetary systems. Develop logical connections through physical principles, including Kepler's and Newton's Laws about the relationships and the effects of Earth, Moon, and Sun on each other. (Also addresses SC.912.P.12.4, and SC.912.E.7.8)

Background:

The relation between the Sun, Moon, and Earth are important in many ways. The Sun provides most of Earth’s energy. The Moon influences tides and reflects sunlight at night. The Moon revolves around planet Earth and appears to change its shape as seen from Earth. This apparent change in the Moon’s shape is referred to as a lunar phase. The influence of the Moon on the Earth’s tides is caused by the gravitational force between the Earth and the Moon. All objects with mass exert a gravitational field that affects other masses around them. This is explained by Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, which describes that the gravitational force between two objects is related to the masses and the distance between them - F g =G m 1 m 2 d 2 .

Analyzing this formula, we can see that the force between the Earth and the Moon is the same and depends on the masses of both, the Earth and the Moon, and their distance. Tides are also affected by the gravitational force between the Earth and the Sun, but because the Moon is much closer, the tides follow a cycle determined by the Moon’s revolution around the Earth. High tides occur simultaneously on both the surface of the Earth directly facing the Moon and the surface directly facing away from the Moon. Low tides occur in areas between these bulges. Because the Earth completes one revolution every twenty-four hours, two high tides and two low tides occur at a given location on Earth each day. When the Sun, Earth, and Moon are in complete alignment higher high tides (and lower low tides) occur. This is caused by the Sun’s added gravitational force acting in the same direction as the Moon’s. These types of tides are referred to as Spring tides and take place during full Moon and new Moon phases. Conversely, when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are at right angles to one another, the gravitational force on the Earth is practically split between the Sun and the Moon. This results in the lower high tides and the higher low tides than the Spring tides. These types of tides are referred to as Neap tides and take place during the quarter Moon phases. The apparent change of the Moon’s shape (lunar phase) is caused by the way the Moon is observed from Earth and by the way sunlight reflects from the Moon’s surface. As the Moon revolves around the Earth, different phases are observed as a result of the Moon’s change in position with respect to both the Earth and the Sun.

Problem Statement:

Earth? 1. How does the position of the Moon on its lunar orbit affect its phases as viewed from 2. How do you think gravitational force between the Earth and the Moon affect tidal waves?

Safety:

Emphasize to students not to play with lab equipment.

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 129

Student Vocabulary:

revolution, rotation, solstice, equinox, sphere, gravity, tide, Moon phases, solar eclipse, lunar eclipse, spring tide, neap tide, new Moon, full Moon, lunar month, perigee, apogee

Materials:

• 2 Styrofoam balls • A light source (flashlight or lamp) • 2 Pencils

Procedures:

1. Begin by placing Diagram 1 – Orbit of the Moon on your lab table, or desk. 2. Insert pencil into one of the Styrofoam balls as in figure 1, to represent the Moon. 3. Have a student hold the light source in the position indicated in Diagram 1. Make sure the light source points to the Moon at all times. 4. Another student should hold the Moon (figure 1) in points 1-8. All group members must make observations comparing the bright side of the Moon with the shaded side of the Moon in each position. 5. Use Diagram 2 - The Moon in Orbit as Viewed from a Polar Perspective to record group observations. a. Using a pencil, shade the appropriate half of each circle (1 to 8) according to your observations in Diagram 1. (Hint: Make sure that the position of the Moon corresponds to the bright side (white side) facing the Sun). b. Darken (with marker) half of the Styrofoam ball (Moon) to represent the shadow observed in Diagram 2. 6. Recreate steps 3 and 4 but with one student representing the Earth, one representing the Sun (holding the lamp or flashlight), and another holding the Moon (painted Styrofoam) and moving from positions 1-8 around the “Earth”. a. Using Diagram 3 - “Phases of the Moon as seen from the Earth”, shade the Moon circles (1 to 8) according to what is observed from the Earth. b. Write the name each phase corresponding to the observed Moon phase. Refer to Figure 2 for additional assistance. 7. Using Diagram 1 or playing out the motion of the Earth and Moon, arrange the Sun, the Moon, and the Earth in order to recreate the events described in Figure 3. Record the types of tides formed in Diagram 2, along with your lunar phases. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 130

Student Observations/Data: Diagram 1 - Orbit of the Moon

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction

Place Sun Here (or light source)

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Student Diagram 2 - The Moon in Orbit as Viewed from a Polar Perspective

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 132

Student Diagram 3 - Phases of the Moon as seen from the Earth

Figure 2 Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 133

Student

Figure 3

Data Analysis/Results:

1. What are the independent and dependent variables for the hypothesis of each of the problem statements? 2. Does lunar position affect the phases of the Moon as seen from Earth? 3. Does the position of the viewer on Earth affect the phase of the Moon? 4. How did your observations compare to Figure 2? 5. Explain the comparison of observing lunar phases as seen from Earth and as seen from space above the Earth’s pole. 6. Knowing that the Moon is 30 Earth diameters (60 Earth radii) away, and its size is about 4 times smaller than the Earth, how can you explain lunar and solar eclipses? Internet Research Questions: 1. Describe how the Moon was formed according to the most accepted theory 2. What is a lunar or synodic month? 3. What is a sidereal month? 4. Does the same side of the Moon always face the Earth in real life? How does this happen? 5. Is the same side of the Moon always facing the Sun? How can you explain your answer, when we always see the same side of the Moon brightened by the Sun? 6. What would happen if the Moon revolved around the Earth along the equator, without any inclination from the Earth’s orbital plane?

Conclusion:

Using one of the problem statements write a report on your experiment using the Power Writing Model. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 134

Teacher Newton’s Laws and Planetary Motion NGSSS: SC.912.E.5.5 SC.912.E.5.6

Explain the formation of planetary systems based on our knowledge of our Solar System and apply this knowledge to newly discovered planetary systems. Develop logical connections through physical principles, including Kepler's and Newton's Laws about the relationships and the effects of Earth, Moon, and Sun on each other.

Purpose of Lab/Activity:

The purpose of this lab is to explore the factors that cause a change in Planetary Motion. It also covers how to apply the laws of motion in order to make conclusions about the relationship between mass and acceleration, graph data and investigate the acceleration of two objects acting on one another.

Prerequisites:

and inertia. • Prior to this activity, the student should have some basic knowledge on Newton’s Laws of Motion, rotational motion, revolution of planets, planetary orbits, acceleration,

Materials (per group):

3 masses, 1 kg each • Beaker • Coin, such as a quarter • Cord • Dynamics cart with spring mechanism • Human-figure toy or doll • Water • Index card • Paper towels • Rubber band • Set of masses, 20g-100g • Stopwatch • Track with pulley • Dynamic cart • String • 16 washers • Hook • Pulley • Timer • Ruler

Procedures: Day of Activity: Before activity: What the teacher will do:

a. Assess previous knowledge through a class discussion using the prerequisite guide. b. Using Newton’s three laws of motion, we can describe the relationship between the motion of objects found in our everyday world and the forces acting on them, in others words explain the causes of the motion of the objects. The three laws of motion are simple and sensible. c. Imagine the effect you would have on a preschool child on roller-skates (blades) versus the effect on a ninth grade skater. 1. Which would accelerate faster? The preschooler.

2. Why? He/she is smaller.

d. Newton's Second Law of Motion allows us to distinguish between a "big push" and a "little push." It also allows us to predict how different masses will move when more or less force is applied. 1. Have the students write a short description about their own experiences pushing or pulling different things. Give them some time to share these descriptions with the members of their groups. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 135

Teacher During activity: After activity: What the teacher will do:

a. During the first and second activities (Part A and Part B), guide the analysis of the demonstration into the property of the object to try to keep the state of motion after the external interaction, ask questions such as: 1. What is the state of motion of the object? 2. What do you expect will happen if we remove suddenly the index card? 3. If we remove the index card slowly, does the coin fall into the water? b. During the third activity, Part C, guide the analysis of the lab with questions such as: 1. How you can measure the time? 2. Explain to the students that they can start record the time when they see the car start moving and stop the timer when they hear the impact of the washers with the floor. 3. How you can calculate the average time for every trial? 4. Is the interval of time proportional with the increment of the number of washers? 5. What is the force that causes the motion of the car? 6. How you can increase the value of the force applied? c. Have students graph the data. Plot total mass (in kg) on the horizontal axis versus average acceleration (in m/s 2 ) on the vertical axis.

What the teacher will do:

a. Lead a class discussion by asking the following questions: 1. What is the relationship between mass and acceleration? Direct the analysis that the acceleration varies inversely with mass. Use the equation of the straight line to explain that we can linearize the graph if the student plotted acceleration versus the inverse of the mass y = mx + b, identify the slope m = force a=F/m, identify the x variable x= 1/m 2. Does this agree with what you have read about Newton’s law of motion? Explain. 3. An equation associated with Newton’s 2 Why? has less mass.

nd Law is F=ma. Do the results of this experiment fit this equation and agree with the inverse relationship between mass and acceleration 4. Which is easier to accelerate, a sport car or a moving truck? Explain A sport car is easier to accelerate than a moving truck because it

Extension:

• GIZMO: Solar System Explorer , Orbital Motion – Kepler’s Law Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 136

Student Newton’s Laws and Planetary Motion NGSSS: SC.912.E.5.5 SC.912.E.5.6

Explain the formation of planetary systems based on our knowledge of our Solar System and apply this knowledge to newly discovered planetary systems. Develop logical connections through physical principles, including Kepler's and Newton's Laws about the relationships and the effects of Earth, Moon, and Sun on each other.

Background:

Using Newton’s three laws of motion, we can describe the relationship between the motion of objects found in our everyday world and the forces acting on them. The three laws of motion are simple and sensible: • The first law states that a force must be applied to an object in order to change its state of motion. • The second law states that the acceleration varies inversely proportional with mass. The equation that describe this law is net force on an object equals the object’s mass times its acceleration. • The third law states that whenever we push on something, it pushes back with equal force in the opposite direction. Newton’s laws, together with his invention of calculus, opened avenues of inquiry and discovery that are used routinely today in virtually all areas of mathematics, science, engineering, and technology. These accomplishments are considered among the greatest achievements of the human mind.

Purpose or Problem Statement:

In this lab you are to test one of the fundamental laws of nature: that the greater the force, the larger the acceleration under which the object will move. Another purpose of this lab is to explore the factors that cause a change in motion of an object, graph data and investigate the acceleration of two objects acting on one another.

Vocabulary:

Newton’s Law of Motion, rotation, revolution, orbits, acceleration, inertia, force, gravity, mass, weight, velocity, frame of reference

Materials:

• 3 masses, 1 kg each • Beaker • Coin, such as a quarter • Cord • Dynamics cart with spring mechanism • Human-figure toy or doll • Water • Index card • Paper towels • Rubber band • • • • • • • • • • Set of masses, 20g-100g Stopwatch Track with pulley Dynamic cart String 16 washers Hook Pulley Timer Ruler Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 137

Student Part A: An Object at Rest Procedures:

1. Carefully fill the beaker about half-full with water. Wipe the lip and the outside of the beaker with a paper towel. 2. Place an index card on top of the beaker so that the card covers the opening of the beaker. Place the quarter on top of the card. 3. Remove the index card by pulling it quickly away. Make sure you pull the card perfectly horizontally.

Data Analysis/Results:

1. What happened to the coin when the card was pulled out from underneath? 2. Is this what you expected to happen? Explain why or why not. 3. What would happen to the coin if the card were pulled out very slowly? Try it, and compare your results.

Part B: An Object in Motion Procedures:

1. Choose a location where you can push a dynamics cart so that it rolls for a distance without hitting any obstacles or obstructing traffic and then hits a wall or other hard surface. 2. Place the toy or doll on the cart, and place the cart about 0.5 m away from the wall. 3. Push the cart and doll forward so that they run into the wall. Observe what happens to the doll when the cart hits the wall. 4. Place the cart at the same starting place, about 0.5 m away from the wall. Return the doll to the cart, and use a rubber band to hold the doll securely in the cart. 5. Push the cart and doll forward so that they run into the wall. Observe what happens to the doll when the cart hits the wall. 6. When you are finished, return the cart to the table or storage place. Do not leave the cart on the floor. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 138

Student Data Analysis/Results:

1. What happened to the unsecured doll when the cart hit the wall? 2. What happened to the doll secured with the rubber band when the cart hit the wall? 3. How could you change the result of the experiment? 4. Compare the experiment with the doll and cart with the experiment with the card and coin. Explain how the results of the two are similar.

Part C: Newton’s Second Law – Acceleration and Force

According to Newton’s Second Law,

F= ma

.

F

is the net force acting on the object of mass

m

and

a

is the resulting acceleration of the object. For a cart of mass

m 1

on a horizontal track with a string attached over a pulley to a mass m 2 (see figure), the net force

F

on the entire system (cart and hanging mass) is the weight of hanging mass,

F net = m 2 g

, assuming the friction is negligible. According to Newton’s 2 nd Law, this net force should be equal to

ma,

where

m

is the total mass that is being accelerated, which in this case is

m 1 + m 2 .

This experiment will check to see if

m 1 g

is equal to

(m 1 + m 2 )a

when friction is ignored. To obtain the acceleration, the cart will be started from rest and the time (

t

) it takes for it to travel a certain distance (

d

) will be measured. Then since

d= (½)at 2

, the acceleration can be calculated using

a = 2d / t 2

(assuming acceleration is constant).

Procedures:

1. Level the track by setting the cart on the track to see which way it rolls. Adjust the leveling feet to raise or lower the ends until the cart placed at rest on the track will not move. 2. Use the balance to find the mass of the cart and record in Table 2 3. Attach the pulley to the end of the track as shown in Figure 1. Place the dynamics cart on the track, attach a string to the hole in the end of the cart, and tie a mass hanger on the other and of the string. The string must be just long enough so the cart hits the stopping block before the mass hanger reaches the floor. 4. Pull the cart back until the mass hanger reaches the pulley. Record this position at the top of Table 1. This will be the release position for all the trials. Make a test run to determine how much mass is required on the mass hanger so that the cart takes about 2 seconds to complete the run. Because of reaction time, too short of a total time may cause too much error in the measurement. However, if the cart moves too slowly, Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 139

Student

friction will increase the error in the measurement. Record the hanging mass in the Table 2 5. Place the cart against the adjustable end stop on the pulley end of the track and record the final position of the cart in Table 1. 6. Measure the time at least 5 times and record these values in the Table 2. 7. Increase the mass of the cart and repeat the procedure.

Figure 1 Data/Observations: Initial release Position Table 1 Final Position Total distance Cart Mass (kg) Hanging Mass (kg) Trial 1 (s) Table 2 Trial 2 (s) Trial 3 (s) Trial 4 (s) Trial 5 (s) Average Time (s) Data Analysis/Results:

1. Calculate the average times and record in Table 3. 2. Calculate the total distance traveled by taking the difference between the initial and final positions of the cart as given in Table 3. 3. Calculate the accelerations and record in Table 3. 4. For each case, calculate the total mass multiplied by the acceleration and record in Table 3. 5. For each case, calculate the net force acting on the system and record in Table 3. 6. Calculate the percent difference between

F net

and

(m 1 + m 2 x a) and

record in Table 3. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 140

Student Cart Mass Acceleration Table 3 (m 1 + m 2 ) F net = m 2 g % Difference Conclusion:

1. Did the results of this experiment verify that of the cart included?

F = ma

? 2. Considering frictional forces, which force would you expect to be greater: the hanging weight or the resulting total mass times acceleration. Did the results of this experiment consistently show that one was larger than the other was? 3. Why is the mass in “F = ma” not just equal to the mass of the cart? 4. When the calculating the force on the cart using mass times gravity, why isn’t the mass Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 141

Teacher Life on Earth…. and Elsewhere: What Makes a World Habitable?

(Adapted from: NASA’S Astrobiology Institute)

NGSSS: SC.912.E.5.5

SC.912.E.7.3

Explain the formation of planetary systems based on our knowledge of our solar system and apply this knowledge to newly discovered planetary systems. Differentiate and describe the various interactions among Earth systems, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere. (Also addresses SC.912.N.1.6, SC.912.L.18.12)

Purpose of the Lab/Activity:

• Assess the possibility of life in the solar system. • Examine the factors necessary for life. • Compare habitability factors of planetary bodies in our solar system.

Prerequisites:

Prior to this activity the student should be able to: • Define life and the characteristics of living things. • Describe the planetary bodies in the solar system. • Explain how sunlight intensity influences surface temperatures and whether organisms can use light as an energy source • Explain the role of bacteria and be able to classify them as living things

Materials (per group):

• Key of habitability factors • Habitability cards

Procedures: Day of Activity: Before activity: During activity: What the teacher will do:

a. To get a sense of student understanding about habitability, ask students, 1. What makes a planet or moon a good home for living things? Have each student write down an answer. b. Review key habitability factors: 1. In general terms what does life need? temperatures).

limit life.

laminate them.

2. What kinds of things might limit life? Life needs food, water, and conducive habitats (e.g., protection from radiation and suitable Extreme temperatures, high levels of radiation such as ultraviolet radiation, and lack of food and water can c. Students should come away from this discussion with a clearer sense of what makes a planet conducive for life. What they need before going on is a rudimentary set of criteria for judging the possibility of life on a planet. d. Prepare habitability cards for each group. To make a set of cards, photocopy them in color and double-sided if possible. Cut them into individual cards. To make them last longer, copy them onto card stock or

What the teacher will do:

a. To investigate the possibility of life in our solar system, have students use Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 142

Teacher After activity:

the Habitability Cards and the accompanying key to assess the habitability of each planet and moon in our solar system. b. On the chart “Searching for a Habitable World”, have each student rank each planet or moon as a likely, unlikely, or possible candidate for life and articulate the reasoning behind his or her determination. From each group’s top three candidates for life; record each group’s analyses on a class chart. c. Conduct a class discussion use the following questions as a guide: 1. What are the five factors considered necessary for a planet to support life? Temperature, Water, Atmosphere, Energy, Nutrients 2. Why is each of these factors important? All of them are important for life.

3. Which factors are essential for life that lives on a planet's surface? For life that lives far beneath the surface? All five factors are essential for life on a planet's surface. However, sub-surface life does not necessarily need an atmosphere to retain heat, provide nutrients, or absorb harmful ultraviolet light. Internal heat can maintain temperatures at levels suitable for life. planet? 4. Which factor might you be able to eliminate and still have a habitable The atmospheric nitrogen and carbon dioxide that many of Earth's surface organisms use to grow are also available beneath the surface. Finally, a planet's crust can shield the sub-surface from harmful radiation from the sun, such as ultraviolet light.

What the teacher will do:

a. Mention that astrobiology involves thinking about whether or not there is extraterrestrial life, where it might be, and how we can learn more about it. b. Class discussion on life on other worlds. c. To get a sense of what your students think when they hear the term “extraterrestrial,”ask them: (Answers will vary) 2. Are there such things as extraterrestrials? 3. What do you mean by extraterrestrials? insects? Why or why not? given and the questions provided as a guide. 1. What is the chance that we are the only life in the universe? 4. Would you be interested in a planet inhabited by microbes, plants, and 5. Do you think there are any forms of life elsewhere in the universe? Why? d. Have students complete a conclusion addressing the problem statement

Extension:

• Detecting Life on Other Planets: http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/nsn09.sci.ess.eiu.detectlife/ Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 143

Student Life on Earth…. and Elsewhere: What Makes a World Habitable?

(Adapted from: NASA’S Astrobiology Institute)

NGSSS: SC.912.E.5.5

SC.912.E.7.3

Explain the formation of planetary systems based on our knowledge of our solar system and apply this knowledge to newly discovered planetary systems. Differentiate and describe the various interactions among Earth systems, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere. (Also addresses SC.912.N.1.6, SC.912.L.18.12)

Background:

If life is playing a game of planetary hide and seek with us, then our job is to find it. But where in this immense solar system should we begin to look, and what should we be looking for? One way astrobiologists narrow the number of possible “hiding places” is to understand what makes a planet or moon habitable. They then look closely at these habitable places. No life beyond Earth has ever been found. Does this mean that life is a rare accident that happened on Earth due to an extraordinary set of circumstances and is unlikely to happen elsewhere? Currently, all other planets and moons seem to lack at least one major requirement for life. Despite this fact, Europa, Mars, and possibly Titan seem to have or have had conditions conducive to life. Most astrobiologists feel that, if extraterrestrial life were found, it would be bacteria- like, living beneath a planet’s or moon’s surface, and using chemical energy for its needs. Finding any kind of life beyond Earth would be a profound discovery. It would help us understand more about how planets and moons can generate the chemistry that leads to life and about the conditions that life can tolerate. Furthermore, it would help provide some important clues to the question of whether life is a rare or common occurrence in the universe.

Problem Statement:

What makes a world habitable?

Vocabulary:

Astrobiologist, planet, moon, universe, habitable, gas giant, atmosphere, energy, nutrients, temperature, meteorite, microbes, permafrost, equator, hydrocarbons, water

Materials (per group):

• Key of habitability factors • Habitability cards

Procedures:

1. Use the habitability cards provided and the accompanying key to assess the habitability of each planet and moon in our solar system. 2. On the chart, rank each planet or moon as a likely, unlikely, or possible candidate for life and explain your rationales behind your determination. 3. As a group, select the top three candidates for life. 4. Provide reasoning behind your choice; these will be placed on a class chart.

Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 144

Student Observations/Data Analysis:

Chart: Searching for a Habitable World

Planet/Moon

Mercury Venus Earth Earth’s Moon Mars Jupiter Jupiter’s Moon Io Jupiter’s Moon Europa Jupiter’s Moon Ganymede Jupiter’s Moon Callisto Saturn Saturn’s Moon Titan Uranus Neptune Pluto Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction

Rationale

Page 145

Student Conclusion:

Finalize the lab report. The following questions should be answered: 1. What are the characteristics that almost all living things share? 2. What do you think is the most abundant life form on Earth? 3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the argument that if all life on Earth requires energy, raw materials, and water, then extraterrestrial life must requires these things too? 4. Describe what a planet or moon must have in order to be habitable. 5. If life exists elsewhere, what do you think it will look like? If tomorrow’s newspaper headline read, “Message Received from Outer Space” what would it mean to you? 6. What would your reaction be if we discovered microbes on another planet? Plants? Insects? Mammals? Intelligent life? 7. If microbial life were discovered on another planet, what implications might such a discovery have? Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 146

Student Key of Habitability Factors Temperature_______________________________________________________________

At about 125°C, protein and carbohydrate molecules and genetic material (e.g., DNA and RNA) start to break down. Cold temperatures cause chemicals in a living cell to react too slowly to support the reactions necessary for life. Thus, life seems to be limited to a temperature range of about minus 15°C to 115°C.

Water_____________________________________________________________________

Life as we know it requires liquid water. It can be available on an irregular basis with organisms going dormant until it becomes available, but, eventually, it needs to be available. On a cold planet or moon, there must be internal heat to melt ice or permafrost. On a hot planet or moon, the water will boil away or evaporate unless it is far beneath the surface.

Atmosphere_______________________________________________________________

Atmospheres can insulate a planet or moon and protect life from harmful ultraviolet radiation and small- and medium-sized meteorite impacts. In addition, atmospheres can serve as an important source of biochemicals. For example, nitrogen from nitrogen gas can be used for proteins, and carbon from carbon dioxide and methane can be used for carbohydrates and fats. Atmospheres also moderate day-night and seasonal temperature swings. However, to serve as an effective shield or insulator, the atmosphere has to be fairly substantial, as it is on Earth, Venus, and Titan. A planet or moon depends on its gravity to hold an atmosphere. A small-sized body such as Pluto or Earth’s moon has too little gravity to hold onto an atmosphere, making life on or near the surface difficult.

Energy____________________________________________________________________

Organisms use either light or chemical energy to run their life processes. At some point, light energy from the sun becomes too dim to be a viable energy source. On Earth, many microbes obtain energy from the sulfur, iron, and manganese compounds present in the Earth’s crust and surface layers. When they absorb such compounds and break them down, they obtain a small amount of energy from this chemical change. This energy is sufficient to power microbial life.

Nutrients_________________________________________________________________

The solid planets and moons in our solar system have the same general chemical composition. As a result, the necessary raw materials to construct and maintain an organism’s body are in place. However, a planet or moon needs to have processes such as plate tectonics or volcanic activity to make these chemicals constantly available. In addition, liquid water is a powerful solvent and is an important vehicle for transporting and delivering dissolved chemicals. Therefore, planets or moons with volcanic activity, plate tectonics, or a way to cycle liquid water have a way to supply the chemicals required by living organisms. Earth and Space Science HSL Curriculum and Instruction Page 147

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ANTI-DISCRIMINATION POLICY

Federal and State Laws The School Board of Miami-Dade County, Florida adheres to a policy of nondiscrimination in employment and educational programs/activities and strives affirmatively to provide equal opportunity for all as required by law:

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

- prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended

- prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin.

Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972

- prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), as amended

- prohibits discrimination on the basis of age with respect to individuals who are at least 40.

The Equal Pay Act of 1963, as amended

- prohibits gender discrimination in payment of wages to women and men performing substantially equal work in the same establishment.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

- prohibits discrimination against the disabled.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)

- prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in employment, public service, public accommodations and telecommunications.

The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA)

medical reasons. - requires covered employers to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave to “eligible” employees for certain family and

The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978

- prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.

Florida Educational Equity Act (FEEA)

- prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, gender, national origin, marital status, or handicap against a student or employee.

Florida Civil Rights Act of 1992

status. - secures for all individuals within the state freedom from discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, handicap, or marital Veterans are provided re-employment rights in accordance with P.L. 93-508 (Federal Law) and Section 295.07 (Florida Statutes), which stipulates categorical preferences for employment. Revised 9/2008

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