BI 232 - lbap232skarda

BI 232
CH 18 Cardiac
Name: _______________________________
1. Homer fox, a patient with acute severe pericarditis, has a critically low stroke volume. What is the name for
the condition causing the low stroke volume and what causes it?
2. Jimmy is brought to the clinic complaining of a sore throat. Culture of a throat swab is positive for strep,
and Jimmy is put on antibiotics. A week later, the boy is admitted to the hospital after fainting several times.
He is cyanotic. What is your diagnosis?
3. After a bout with bacterial endocarditis, scar tissue often stiffens the edge of the heart valves. What
condition will this cause? How would this be picked up in a routine exam?
4. Mrs. Hamad, who is 73 years old, is admitted to the coronary care unit with a diagnosis of left ventricular
failure resulting from a myocardial infarction. Her heart rhythm is abnormal. Explain what a myocardial
infarction is, what may cause it, and why the heart rhythm is affected.
5. Excessive vagal stimulation can be caused by severe depression. How would this be reflected in a routine
physical examination?
6. Mrs. Suffriti has swollen ankles and signs of degenerating organ functions. What is a likely diagnosis?
7. Mr. Langley is telling his friend about his recent visit to his doctor for a checkup. During his story, he
mentions that the EGG revealed that he had a damaged mitral valve and a heart murmur. Mr. Langley
apparently misunderstood some of what the doctor explained to him. Help explain the misunderstandings to
Mr. Langley.
8. Jane Doe, a 14-year old girl undergoes a physical exam before being allowed to go on a trip to Washington
DC, with her Girl Scout troop. As doctor, you find a loud heart murmur at the second intercostal space to the
left of the sternum. Jane said that she has frequent “breathlessness” and you perform an angiogram that reveals
a patent ductus arteriosus. Explain to Jane the location and function of the ductus arteriosus in the fetus and
relate the reason for her breathlessness.
9. The major coronary vessels are on the surface of the heart. What is the advantage of this location?
10. Since the SA node is at the top of the atrial mass, the atria contract from the top down. How does this
increase the efficiency of atrial contractions? Do the ventricles have a similar arrangement? Explain.
11. What is the purpose of prolonged contraction of the myocardium?
12. What is the functional difference between ventricular hypertrophy due to exercise and hypertrophy due to
congestive heart failure?
13. How does hypothyroidism affect heart rate?
14. Of the following congenital heart defects, tell which produce mixing of oxygenated and unoxygenated
blood, and which increase ventricular work load?
a. Ventricular septal defect;
b. Pulmonary stenosis:
c. coarctation of the aorta:
d. tetralogy of Fallot: