HSB4U: Sentence Structure Correct Comma Usage The negative consequences of directed change, a form of acculturation, were evident in residential schools. Directed change was a form of acculturation used in residential schools; it had many negative consequences. According to social science research, positive reinforcement is more effective than negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is more effective in producing behaviour modification than negative reinforcement, say social scientists. Skinner, the originator of operant conditioning, did many experiments on rats and pigeons. Skinner conducted many experiments on rats and pigeons on his way to devising his theory of operant conditioning.