Colloquium questions BIO4320 Cyanophyta 1. What are heterocysts? Describe the process in heterocysts. Why have heterocysts evolved? 2. What are akinetes? 3. Describe different types of reproduction in Cyanophyta. 4. Which vegetative morphologies are present within this division? 5. What is the difference between false and true branching? 6. What is a filament? 7. Point at the most striking differences between pro- and eukaryote cells. 8. What is the pigment composition within the division? Rhodophyta 1. What is the pigment composition in red algae? How have this division evolved? 2. Describe the difference between a real parenchyma and a pseudoparenchymatous construction? 3. What are the two types of pseudoparenchyma in red algae? 4. What is a uniseriate branched thallus construction? 5. What are the names of sexual cells in red algae? 6. Red algae have evolved a special type of life cycles. Describe a Polysiphonia type and explain why the caropsporophyte has evolved. 7. Some of the red algae are of great commercial interest. Which and why? Stramenopiles 1. What do you understand by the term Stramenopiles? 2. Describe the chloroplast within this group. 3. What is the typical storage product? Phaeophyceae 1. What do you understand by an isomorphic diplohaplontic life cycle? 2. Describe the difference between isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy. 3. Which process takes place in uni- and plurilocular zooidangia? Why is it correct to use the term zooidangium? 4. Why are the brown algae placed under the Stramenopiles? 5. Different thallus construction in brown algae? 6. What is alginate? Mention some of its main uses. 7. What is a gametic meiosis? Where do we find this? Ulvophyceae and Charophyceae 1. Point at differences and similarities between the two classes. 2. What is a haplontic life cycle? 3. What types of mitosis is present in the two classes? 4. What do you means by the terms coenocytic and siphonal? 5. What do you understand by the process called conjugation? In what algal group does this take place? 6. Describe the sexual organs in a stonewort (Charales). 7. Why are the charophyceans considered to be the closest relative to higher plants?