Biology Level 2

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Biology Level 2
MIDTERM Study Guide 2015
(Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, & 11)
You can bring in one 8x11 sheet of paper with whatever information you would like.
It needs to be an original and will be collected after you take your test. Bolded topics
are the short answer and essay questions.
Chapter 1 The Science of Biology
Hypothesis
Theory
Experiment
Variables - dependent and independent
Control
What is biology?
Characteristics of living things
Homeostasis
Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life
Atom- Why are they considered neutral?
Protons, Neutron, and Electrons – What are they? Where are they located?
What charge do they have? What mass do they have?
Isotopes
Compound
Element
Molecule
Covalent bond
Ionic bond
Valence electron
Water: Chemical structure, polarity
Solvent
Solute
Monosaccharide
Nucleic acid
Protein
Lipid
pH scale- What is an Acid? What is a Base?
Activation energy
Catalyst
Enzymes -How are they named?
What are the 4 groups pf organic compounds found in living things?
Explain the “Lock and Key” theory of enzymes
Chapter 3 & 4 –The Biosphere & Ecosystems and Communities
What is ecology?
Biosphere- What and where is it?
Consumer
Producer
Carnivore
Omnivore
Herbivore
Decomposer-Why are they the final consumer in a food chain?
Food chain
Food web
Water cycle
Nitrogen fixation
Limiting nutrient
What is the difference between biotic factors and abiotic factors? Know examples of each
Niche
Predation
Symbiosis
Mutualism
Commensalisms
Parasitism
Succession –primary and secondary
Chapter 5 Populations
Population density- determine given numbers of organism and living space.
Range of a population
Carrying capacity
Immigration
Emigration
Limiting nutrient/ Limiting factors
Growth factor
Compare and contrast density-dependent factor and density-independent factor.
Know examples of both.
Explain how organisms move into and out of an area.
How can population size change?
What is demography?
Chapter 7 Cell structure and Function
Robert Hooke’s experiment
Schleiden’s and Schwann’s experiments
Role and function of cell organelles
(Nucleus, Mitochondria, chloroplasts, microtubules, and microfilaments, cytoplasm, cell
membrane, cell wall, ribosome)
Prokaryotes- Know examples
Eukaryotes- Know examples
Compare and contrast prokaryotes with eukaryotes
Cell theory
Differences in Animal and Plant cells
Cell wall
Cell membrane
Organ
Tissue
Organ system
Osmosis- define and describe
Diffusion- Be able to define and describe why it occurs
Active transport verses Facilitated Diffusion- What are they? How do they differ?
Hypertonic verses Hypotonic: Be able to explain what happens in both types of
solutions to blood cells.
Chapter 8 Photosynthesis
What is an autotroph? Know examples
What is a heterotroph? Know examples
Parts of the ATP molecule
What is ATP
Difference in ATP and ADP
When is energy released?
Ingenhousz’s experiment
Chemical equation for photosynthesis: Reactants and Products
The role of chloroplasts and chlorophyll in photosynthesis
Granum
Thylakoids
Stroma
Photosystem I, Photosystem II, Calvin cycle
What affects the rate of photosynthesis?
What is the relationship between an autotroph and a heterotroph?
Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration
Cellular respiration: Where it takes place, reactants and products
Glycolysis
Kreb cycle
Electron transport chain
Aerobic
Anaerobic
NADH
One molecule of glucose produces how many ATP?
Oxygen debt “repaying”
Products of the Kreb cycle
ATP generation where and how much is generated
Lactic acid fermentation
Alcohol fermentation
Be able to explain the role of oxygen in photosynthesis verses cellular respiration.
Chapter 10 Cell Division and Growth
What are the problems with growth for a cell?
Cell Cycle parts G1, G2, G3, S and M -Know what happens where
Know the following phases in order and what happens in each. Be able to label parts
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase , Cytokinesis
Cyclin
p53
Centromere
Centriole
Spindle
Sister chromatid
Factors that affect cell growth
How will skin cells near a cut behave?
Chapter 11 Genetics
Gregor Mendel’s experiments
True breeding
Dominate gene
Recessive gene
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Punnett square- What are they used for and be able to interpret
Genotype
Phenotype
Haploid number
Diploid number
Mitosis compared to meiosis
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