Name:________________________________________________________ 9______ Chapter 22: Plants with Seeds 22-1 Seed Plants- The Spermopsida 1. Name two benefits for plants to live on land. a. b. 2. Name and describe four difficulties for land plants. a. b. c. d. Seeds Plants- Designed for Life on Land 3. Explain how seed plants evolved to live on land. 4. Plants “knew” that such adaptations would be beneficial and changed accordingly. True False Roots, Stems and Leaves 5. The three main organs in a plant are ____________________, ___________________, and ____________________ Organ Roots Function 1. Miscellaneous How do roots develop? 2. 3. Stems 1. In order for stems to be tall, stems must be: Leaves 1. How did leaves evolve? How are most leaves adapted to the dryness of air? Vascular Tissue 7. A two –way plumbing system that allows water to be moved from roots to leaves and compounds produced in the leaves to be sent down to the roots take place in two specialized tissues called _____________________ and ___________________________. Vascular Tissue Xylem Function At maturity they are __________________. Phloem At maturity they are __________________. Reproduction Free from Water 9. All seed plants have a gametophyte/sporophyte 10. The gametophyte size of seed plants are dominant generation. small/large. 11. _______________________ and _____________________ are the specialized reproductive structures of seed plants. 12. The male gametophyte is contained in a tiny structure called pollen/ovule. 13. List the different ways pollen can be carried to the female gametophyte. 14. Fertilization/Pollination is the carrying of pollen to the female gametophyte. 15. Define embryo. 16. What is the function of the seed coat? 17. What is a seed? 18. What are two ways seeds provide food for people? 19. Draw and label Figure 22.5 and describe what this picture is depicting. Description: 22-2 Evolution of Seed Plants 1. It is important to remember that Earth’s environments did not remain ____________________ through time. Over a period of millions of years, landmasses moved and mountain ranges rose. In some cases, plant species continued to ___________________ in ways that enabled them to survive as their environment changed. Such species survived for _____________________ periods. In other cases, plant species could not survive changing environments. These species became ________________________. 2. Why did many species of mosses and ferns become extinct? Seed Ferns 3. How are the first seed-bearing plants related to ferns? How are they different? Gymnosperms 4. A number of leaves have evolved into specialized male and female reproductive structures called _____________________________. 5. Why is the seed of a gymnosperm considered “naked”? 6. Describe some characteristics of cycads. 7. Describe some characteristics of ginkgoes. Conifers: Cone Bearers 8. The most common conifer are cycads/ginkgoes/evergreens. 8. Conifers grow on ______________________________, _______________________________, and in ___________________________________. Adaptations Leaves of conifers are: Why are they considered “evergreen”? Reproduction Male cones are called: How long does it take for a seed on the female cone to mature? Female cones are called: Angiosperms: Flowering Plants 9. What is the difference between the seeds of gymnosperms and angiosperms? 10. Angiosperm seeds are contained in a protective wall that develops into a ______________________. 11. Angiosperms can be divided into two subclasses: monocots and dicots. Monocot Dicot Examples Leaves Flowers Vascular bundles in stem Vascular bundles in root Stem thickness 12. Suppose you found a plant whose leaves have parallel veins and whose flowers have six petals. Is this plant a monocot or a dicot? What is your reasoning?