Study Guide for Population Test (Chapters 5.3 and 6) Chapter 5 Section 3 Be able to explain the characteristics of population dynamics: size, density, dispersion and age structure. Know which of the dispersion patterns is most common and why. Be able to define exponential growth and draw a graph showing exponential growth. Be able to define biotic potential and know that intrinsic growth rate (r) is the rate at which a species would grow under ideal conditions (“curvature of exponential growth”). Be able to define logistic growth and draw a logistic growth curve. Be able to define carrying capacity (K) and environmental resistance. Be able to explain that carrying capacity is not a fixed quantity, and can change with an increase or decrease in a limiting factor. Know three revolutions that greatly increased the earth’s carrying capacity for the human population. Be able to explain reproductive time lags and how they might affect the growth curve (overshoot of carrying capacity). Be able to define and give examples of density-dependent and density independent population controls. Be able to define common patterns of growth: stable, irruptive, irregular, and cyclic (boom and bust cycles). Know that cyclic patterns may be created by a top-down control by predator interactions or bottom-up control of resource availability. Be able to give the characteristics of the two major reproductive strategies: r-strategists and Kstrategists and be able to give examples of each. Know the advantages and disadvantages of each, and their typical roles in the process of succession. Also, know how these strategies relate to survivorship curves. Chapter 6 Know the formula to calculate population change. Be able to define immigration and emigration. Know that crude birth and death rates are given per 1000 people. Know basic demographics: world population- 7 billion; US population- 310 million; China 1/5 of world’s population; China and India make up 38% of the world’s population; US population is third largest but only 4.6%. (China, India, USA, Indonesia, Pakistan are top 5 most populous nations). Know UN predictions for population growth by 2050 (see notes). Be able to define replacement-level fertility rate. Be able to explain why the replacement fertility rate is higher in developing nations (2.5) compared to developed nations (2.1). Be able to define total fertility rate. Know total fertility rates: world- 2.9, developed nations-1.9, developing nations- 3.3. Be able to explain why reaching replacement-level fertility rate would not stop global population growth until about 50 years had passed, assuming death rates do not rise. (Population Momentum) Be able to list factors that can affect the birth rate and fertility rate of a country. (See notes and textbook page 128) Be able to distinguish between life expectancy and infant mortality rate. Know the prereproductive, reproductive and postreproductive age ranges. Be able to interpret age structure diagrams, including the how the shape of the age structure diagram correlates to population growth rates. Be able to explain the demographic transition model: know the typical patterns of birth and death rates in the preindustrial (stage 1), transitional (stage 2), industrial (stage 3) and postindustrial (stage 4) periods and the factors that influence any birth/death rate changes. Know how the relative changes in birth and death rates correlate to population growth rates during these different phases. Be able to describe the roles of family planning, reduction of poverty, and elevating the status of women in slowing population growth. Be able to describe China and India’s efforts to control their population growth. Be able to give examples of countries that are experiencing negative population growth, and be able to discuss the implications. (People paradox video) Be able to discuss reasons why experts are concerned that the food production may not be able to keep pace with growing population. (New York Times article) Know what the green revolution is and the limitations of the green revolution on solving food shortage issues. Population Calculation Activity: Be able to determine the doubling time using the rule of 70. Rule of 70 formula will not be given. Remember to use the growth rate as a percentage in this formula. Know the quantities represented by the following variables: k = rate of increase (use as a decimal for the exponential growth rate formula), t = time (typically in years), N = final population number, No= original population, e= the constant 2.71828 (don’t have to memorize- will be using calculators). Be able to calculate final population sizes, growth rates, or time it will take a population to reach a certain size. Will be given the formulas: N= No ekt k = (1/t)ln(N/No) t = (1/k) ln(N/No) Be able to calculate population density. Population Estimation Lab : Be able to explain how to estimate the size of a population by mark and recapture (know formula). Be able to explain why the sample must be randomly selected, and know some design considerations in making sure sample is randomly selected.