Brigham Young's Masonic Connection And Nauvoo Plural Marriages(1) By Tim Rathbone Brigham Young's Masonic connection pre April 1842 In his early manhood Brigham Young was a Journeyman house painter and glazier also a competent Yankee farmer and handyman.(2) On Oct. 8, 1824, he married Miriam Works of Aurelius, Cayuga County New York where he had resided for eighteen years. In 1829, they settled in Mendon, Monroe County. It was not until Brigham Young's twenty-second year that he became serious and religiously inclined. Soon after this Brigham Young joined the Methodist church. Some historians have asserted that Brigham Young, became a Freemason because of his occupation, as a journeyman by joining Milnor Lodge No. 303, in Victor, N. Y. (3) in the 1820s'. Ray West Jr. declared: "Brigham Young, in 1830 was a Methodist and a Mason . . . it is likely that Masonry held a stronger grip on his emotions than Methodism. Comradeship he could understand. Masonic ritual intensified his relationship with his fellow workers, heightened the sense of belonging to a group less bounded than either the family or the nation.(4) Leonard Arrington writes: "For a short period he (Brigham) had been a Mason in western New York before he joined the Mormons. . . he received the first three degrees, there is no indication that Brigham was particularly interested or active in Masonic affairs." (5) "I would like to know whether Brigham Young, the Mormon, was a Mason? ... There is no evidence that Brigham Young";(6) belonged to a Lodge in New York; as some have claimed. (7) Milnor Lodge 303 was warranted at Victor, Ontario County, in 1818 the warrant remained in effect until 1835. Milnor Lodge sent membership returns to The Grand Lodge regularly until 1830. Of the forty names listed on these returns, Brigham Young's is not among them. (See Figure 1 Show Transparency Milnor Lodge Returns) (these are the Milnor Lodge returns). Ontario Lodge 23 warranted in 1792 in Canandaigua Ontario County, which warrant remained in effect until 1832. Made membership returns to The Grand Lodge, from 1804 to 1828, without mentioning Brigham Young in any way. (8) It is credible to say that Brigham Young was aware of the Anti-Masonic activity in Upper New-York State. He may have attended Lectures or read any of the Masonic exposes available. While this is probably not conclusive evidence it is sufficient, to prove that Brigham Young was not a Freemason in Western New York State. The most compelling evidence that Brigham Young was not a Freemason at this time is that of his own testimony. In his biographical utterances and writings; not once does he mention anything about being a Mason; or Masonic persecutions before his conversion to the church in 1832.(9) Heber C. Kimball first met Brigham Young in the fall of 1826 in Mendon N. Y.; Heber became Brigham's closet associate. Heber C. Kimball received the first three degrees of Masonry in the Lodge at Victor, New York. Milnor Lodge No. 303.(10) On September 14, 1825 and in 1826, before receiving all of the rights up to the Royal Arch Masonic Degree. Kimball along with five others petitioned for admission to the Royal Arch Chapter in Canandaigua, just before Anti-masonry shut down the Lodges in the Burned-over District. Shortly after this the Morgan Affair broke out and the Masonic Hall in Canandaigua was closed by antiMasons . . . It seems that the Masons were persecuted and the same unjust proceedings were heaped upon them by the anti-Masons that have been upon those who hold the Priesthood. Kimball stated: "Not as many as three of us . . . could meet together, unless in secret, without being mobbed. I have been driven from my houses and possessions with many of my brethren belonging to that fraternity . . . by mobs." (11) Heber C. Kimball who converted to Mormonism in the 1830s' spoke openly about his Masonic association before his conversion. There is no record of His Masonic activities until December 1841 in Nauvoo, Illinois. Brigham Young's Masonic connection post December 1841 In the Fall of 1839, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, John Taylor and other members of the Twelve left for a mission to the British Isles.(12) During this mission Brigham and Heber's friendship grew stronger as they labored together in England. On July 1st 1841 Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and John Taylor returned to Nauvoo; "were cordially welcomed by the Prophet Joseph, their families and the Saints." (13) Immediately upon their arrival Joseph Smith took Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball and John Taylor to his house for dinner. Joseph took them into his personal confidence and revealed to them the Principle of Plural Marriage.(14) Brigham's in later years spoke of his feelings at the time. "(W)hen I saw a funeral, I felt to envy the corpse its situation, and to regret that I was not in the coffin, knowing the toil and labor that my body would have to undergo; and I have had to examine myself, from that day . . . lest I should be found desiring the grave more than I ought to do." (15) The small village of Commerce The Twelve left in 1839, had become the thriving metropolis of Nauvoo, with new converts arriving weekly. Along with this influx of converts came one John C. Bennett (16) . In September 1840 Bennett moved to Nauvoo rapidly rising to a position of power within the Church's Hierarchy. While the Twelve were away in England; as a councilor in the First Presidency. Bennett became Joseph's secret confidant more "than perhaps any man in the city." (17) In the Spring of 1841 Alexander Neibaur arrived in Nauvoo. He was Joseph's private tutor in things esoteric; Hebrew, German, and Greek the Kabbalah and Ancient Jewish Mysticism. (18) On June 28, 1841 John C. Bennett petitioned Bodley Lodge No. 1, of Quincy, Illinois for a dispensation to establish a Lodge at Nauvoo. The Lodge denied Bennett's request.(19) Now that the Twelve had returned from England Bennett's influence with Joseph Smith was waning; he was no longer Joseph's "Secret Confident." From July 1841 to January 1842 Joseph Smith meet twenty three times with the Twelve and others, in Quorum meetings and private councils(20). At these meetings Joseph instructed members of The Twelve in the new doctrines of: Baptism for the Dead, Plural Marriage, Sealings and, In May 1842 the full Endowment. Bennett continued to promote the formation of a Masonic Lodge in Nauvoo "for the Benefit of the Saints.(21)" In October of 1841 James Adams,(22) and John C. Bennett, and others(23) petitioned the Grand Master of Illinois for a dispensation to establish a Lodge in Nauvoo. On October 15th Grand Master Jonas granted a special dispensation for the formation of a Lodge at Nauvoo. (24) With the granting of this dispensation the Masons needed a place to meet. On November 8th Brigham Young dedicates the Baptismal font at the Nauvoo Temple Lot. This is the first font built and dedicated for the baptism for the dead in this dispensation. On the 21st "Kimball, Taylor and Young baptized about forty persons in the font, for the dead, Bros. Richards, Woodruff and George A. Smith confirming. These were the first baptisms for the dead in the font."(25) On December 13th 1841 Joseph Smith opened his office in the Red-Brick Store. The Red-Brick store would become the most important building in Nauvoo.(26) "That Joseph's private office . . . or the Lodge room that is where the Masonic fraternity meet occasionally, for want of a better place." (27) On December 30, Brigham Young along with forty one others petitioned the Lodge for the degrees of Masonary. The Lodge meet to identify Masons living in Nauvoo and to read the petitions. (28) On January 6th 1842 the Masons met in the Lodge room to discuss the purchase of furniture for the Lodge; specifically seats, an altar, and desks.(29) In Brigham Young's diary the following entry appears: (See figure 2 Show Transparency) This entry in Brigham Young's diary has baffled historians for years; (30)written in an esoteric masonic cipher that Brigham Young not yet a Mason knew about. The Royal Arch Masonic Cipher passed on in secret from Mason to Mason. Several variations of this cipher are available in any number of Masonic exposes.(31) Altered for Brigham Young's purposes on this day of days, The entry reads as follows: I WAS TAKEN INTO THE LODGE, J. SMITH WAS AGNESS.(32) An expanded version might read: I, BRIGHAM YOUNG WAS TAKEN INTO THE LODGE ROOM, JOSEPH SMITH WEDDED AND SEALED AGNESS COOLBRITH SMITH.(33) This doubly encrypted entry written in Royal Arch Code; makes uses of the characters: "W. A. S" and "S. A. W." as an acronym FOR WEDDED AND SEALED AND, SEALED AND WEDDED. The January 6th 1842 entry contained a cipher within a cipher Joseph Smith's history records the following on this day: "Truly this is a day of days . . . in which the God of heaven has begun to restore the ancient order of His kingdom . . . a day in which God has begun to make manifest and set in order in His Church those things which . . . wise men desired to see . . . a day in which those things begin to be made manifest, which have been hid from before the foundation of the world . . . a kingdom of Priests and Kings . . . all of which is to come to pass in the restitution of all things.(34) This sealing to Agness is the conceivable explanation for this otherwise cryptic entry. This is the first fully dated account of a sealing. This is Joseph's sixth marriage the first of many to take place in the Lodge Room with Brigham Young officiating as a sealer (35). This sealing takes place six months after the death of Don Carlos Smith. On his deathbed Don Carlos asked Joseph to marry Agness. Agnes was the first widow Joseph married. Since Agnes was the widow of Joseph's brother, this would be a strict Old Testament, Levirate marriage in harmony with the scripture found in Matthew 22:24. If a man die, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. This is a Levirate marriage. Presumably, the marriage to Joseph was a sealing for time. Perhaps an early proxy marriage in which Agnes was sealed to Don Carlos for eternity. With Joseph standing in as proxy for his dead brother; followed by Agnes being sealed to Joseph for time. (36) The sealing was a foreshadowing of what would occur five months later in the same room. When Joseph Smith would introduce the Endowment. This entry sets the pattern for One The Sealings of Husband and wives and Two The concealing of sealings and plural marriages in a cipher or code. Willard Richards, William Clayton, Wilford Woodruff and others occasionally encrypted their entries in some form of Taylor shorthand.(37) One month after this event on February 3, the investigating committee of the lodge met to discuss the favorable reports received respecting Joseph Smith, Brigham Young and others who were elected to the Lodge(38) . On the evening of March 15th, Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon received the first and second degrees of Masonry. They Received the third degree the next night.(39) On March 17th The Lodge accepted Brigham Young's petition for membership.(40) On April 7th the Nauvoo Masonic Lodge commenced initiations into the First Degree of Masonry. Initiating Brigham Young, Willard Richards and D. S. Hollister as Entered Apprentice Masons. On the 8th these three became Fellow Crafts masons; on the 9th admitted to the sublime degree of Master Masons. (41) Brigham Young's Diary and History, are silent concerning these events. In Brigham's History the following appears: "I attended a special Conference. On the 8th, in company with Elders Kimball O. Pratt, Richards, Woodruff, and George A. Smith, and Wight, we ordained 275 Elders, being the most ordained in one day since the foundation of the Church. The 9th Attended the funeral of Ephraim Marks: Bro. Joseph delivered an address on the occasion. 2 p. m., Attended City Council." (42) On April 12th, Joseph and The Twelve meet in the Lodge room.(43) On the 13th Brigham Young, Joseph Smith and others attended the Lodge for possibly the last time (44). On May 3rd. Joseph requested Lucius Scovill and others "to work and fit up" the upper room "preparatory to giving endowments to a few Elders."(45) On the 4th Joseph Smith organized the Quorum of the Anointed or Holy Order of the Priesthood. This is the realization of the Day of Days alluded to previously on January 6th. On this the Day of Days Joseph Administered to Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Willard Richards and six others what would later be called the Temple Endowment. (46) Alexander Neibaur brought into Joseph's confidence became aware of the Anointed Quorum. Teaching Joseph the principles and ideas of the Royal Wedding, the Nature of God expressed in the presentation of the endowment.(47) Oddly Neibaur, Joseph's teacher never became initiated into the Quorum. On May 17th, John C. Bennett a talented charlatan, whose true intentions became revealed resigned from the church. Bennett possibly Bodley Lodge No. 1 at Quincy petitions Grand Master Jonas to suspend the dispensation of the Nauvoo Lodge.(48) Until now initiating Mormonism's leading men into the Masonic Fraternity was a priority. Now the emphasis shifted from Terrestrial Masonry to what Brigham Young would later refer to as Celestial Masonry(49) or endowment work. From this time on Brigham Young's involvement with Masonry diminishes. According to the Deseret New he owned a copy of: JOSHUA BRADLEY'S SOME OF THE BEAUTIES OF FREE-MASONRY.(50) This book is the masonic equivalent of the Latter-Day Saints A Marvelous Work and a Wonder(51). In his diary only one reference to masonry exists. (See figure 4 Show transparency). From around Oct. 7th 1843, Brigham lists some "articals wanted from home Bucks dictonery Butterworth concers hym Book mason apron over coat cobbs dictionary." (52) On April 5th 1844 Brigham Young attended the dedication of the Masonic Hall.(53) From this time on Brigham Young attended several meetings of the anointed quorum; He Received further instruction and responsibilities as president of the Quorum of the twelve Apostles. Leaving him no time for concerns not directly related to the Building up of the Kingdom. The welfare of the immigrating Saints and the raising of money to build the Temple. Brigham Young married four women after Joseph Smith taught him the doctrine of plural marriage up to the time of Joseph's death. The first Lucy Ann Decker on June 17th, 1842 and the last Clarissa Decker on May 8, 1844.(54) On the 27th of June 1844 at Carthage jail Joseph and Hyrum Smith were martyred.(55) Brigham was on a mission to the east promoting Joseph Smith's presidential campaign. When he learned of the death of the Prophet and Patriarch he returned to Nauvoo. Brigham Young's priority was to organize the Saints and complete the Temple. PLURAL MARRIAGES POST AUGUST 1844 The example of sealing that Joseph Smith set for Brigham Young on January 6th, 1842 would continue for the next seventeen months until the completion of the Temple. Members of the Anointed Quorum wanted to be sealed to their spouses both those living and dead. Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball recorded eighteen sealings from September 2, 1844 to April 1, 1845. Heber C. Kimball was witness to several of theses sealings(56) . Fifteen women were sealed to Brigham Young in secret. Brigham Young recorded them in code in his diary in two distinct ways. First as discussed previously. The doubly encrypted January 6th 1842 entry as acronyms of "S. A. W." FOR SEALED AND WED OR "W. A. S." FOR WEDDED AND SEALED. Heber C. Kimball adopted this practice in one or two instances. The second he recorded as "M E" MARRIAGE FOR ETERNITY AND "M T" MARRIAGE FOR TIME. Capitalized and underlined at the top of the diary pages when these marriages or sealings took place.(57) Some examples are: "I Seald Br John P. Greene my sister Rhodia Young and to Mary Eliza Nelson, as he was dying" (Young) From Young "in the evening went to Br H. C. Kimballs, saw Sister Williams and seald hir to hir husband G. W. Br H. C. Kimball stod as procksey. (Young) From Young "I Saw Sister Louisa B. Smith H. C. Kimball & Silva L. Smith &c. &c. grate is the worth of the Lord in these Last days From Kimball "Saw Silvester Smith and Bat. B. Nobles [Joseph B. Noble?]." I was bound to Silvia Smith Sept the 19 1844 by B Young. Young Sept 20 1844 went to the temple cauld at Sister Evens seald hir up to hir husban Horres hir oldest son stod as proxy lad hands on sister Durly the Lord is with me continuly Sealed to Eliza this day. (58) M E Sept 10th 1844 this day I visited Br Isac Chace Br H. C. Kimball was with me Br & sistr Chase with their daughter Clanicy was at home, we had a good visit Br H. C. K. (Young) 10 Tuesday. to Br. Cheaces [Ezra Chase?] They ware sealled. These sealings took place in different locations for example in Brigham's upper room in bedrooms and in one instance on Br. John Greene's death bed. At least four of these marriages were proxy marriages for Joseph Smith with either Brigham or Heber standing in for the dead prophet. Brigham Young Masonic Connection Post 1846 On April 10, 1845, Brigham Young advised Scovil to suspend the work of the Masons in Nauvoo, meetings continued until June. Activities were probably not suspended completely until after the general exodus of the Saints to the West.(59) Heber C. Kimball requested Scovill to get the Masonic hall set up for a printing office, and to stop making Masons, only as time shall permit. (60) After the removal of the saints to the west Brigham Young denounced the practice of Masonry. Saying: "such mystic ties that would cloak a man's iniquity . . . as devilish ties . . . the ties of the Masonic Lodge oblige a brother to conceal the inquiry of a brother? Pure friendship becomes weakened . . . the very moment you undertake to make it stronger by penal oaths and secrecy. (61)" However, there are at least three Photographic Portraits taken of him in which he wearing a Masonic pin (square and compasses) in the bosom of his shirt. (See figure 5 Show Transparency) It is likely that he was sending a message to those who had eyes to see. Namely two president's of the United States James Knox Polk who served as President from 1845-49 and James Buchanan who served from 1857-1861.(62) These two masons at the time Brigham posed for these photographs. Brigham made remarks about masonry to some of his associates in private: "I could preach all about the Endowments in public and the world know nothing about it. I could preach all about Masonry & None but a mason know any thing about it. And the mane part of Masonry is to keep a secret. (63) Brigham Young believed that the Government of the United States; and the masons conspired together to destroy the Mormons in Utah. Which destruction began with the Murder of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. Lucius Scovil & G. A. Smith proposed . . . "to Go to England & obtain five Charters for lodges which would give us a grand lodge which would make us independent of all other Grand lodges in the world. President Young Said I have no doubt but that thing Could be done & we Could take our young men into the lodge but then I would aske what Good Could It do? What good Could result from It I think no good at all . . . Presidet Young said . . . get a grand Lodge Esstablished in Utah that if we accomplished it, it would have a tendency to bring down all hell upon us as far as they had the power. (64) Brigham Young renounced masonry yet he believed the Masonic myths. In one instance incorporated the Hiram Abiff myth into a sermon he delivered at the dedication of the St. George Temple. "It is true that Solomon built a Temple for the purpose of giving endowments, but from what we can learn of the history of that time they gave very few if any endowments, and one of the high priests was murdered by wicked and corrupt men, who had already begun to apostatize, because he would not reveal those things appertaining to the Priesthood than were forbidden him to reveal until he came to the proper place. (65) CONCLUSION In Conclusion: 1. The evidence I have presented here proves beyond a reasonable doubt that Brigham Young was not a Mason in New York in the 1820s'. 2. That the January 6, 1842 diary entry is in fact a plural marriage of Joseph Smith and possibly the first proxy marriage of this dispensation. 3. That he did in fact become a Mason in April 1842 in Nauvoo illinois. 4. After his initiation it is apparent from his writings, he became committed to the Anointed Quorum and his interest in Masonry as an institution decreased. 5. After the Death of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young although publicly renouncing Masonry as an institution of the devil. Believed in some Masonic myths and incorporated them into his teachings and sermons. AFTERWARDS In the Twentieth Century the following is church policy about the sequence in which Temple ordinances for the dead are performed. 1. With Temple Ready when a Temple patron arrives at the Temple if the ordinance data is complete work is to be performed in the following order: Baptism, confirmation of the Holy Ghost, Ordain to Priesthood if Male, Endowment, then Sealings. 2. Since the 1960's to simplify Temple Work. If the information of a family or family member is not complete the following occurs: Baptism, confirmation of the Holy Ghost, Ordain to Priesthood if Male, then Sealings of children to parents without parents work being done. Husbands to Wives before the endowment work is done. As the records become available i.e.: Christening records from one parish and Marriage records from another parish are brought together then the family members can be endowed. The work is considered complete. 3. If a spouse has been married more than once the Spouse of either sex can be sealed to all of the other spouses they were married to. The fore going examples are perfectly acceptable. Basically Temple patrons do the best they can do with the information they have obtained and go on from there. To complete the Temple work worthy of all acceptation before the Lord. The ordinance is not effective until the work is completed or until the parents work is done. Return of Milnor Lodge No 303 Held at Victor County of Ontario & state of New York from Dec. A. L. 5824 to Dec A. L. 5828. Milnor Lodge Records, vol. 66, Archives of the Grand Lodge F. & A. M., State of New York. Members Names Date of Amount of Total Remarks Inita Mem Initiatio Annual tions ships ns Dues Asahel Mour W. M. $1.00 $1 00 Asahel Bougtetand S. W. 1.00 1 00 O. J. Lewis J. W. 1.00 1 00 Wm. Bushnell Tres 1.00 1 00 North Campbell Sect 1.00 1 00 John Powell S. D. 1.00 1 00 Saual Gilis J. D. 1.00 1 00 Hiraum Brooks 1.00 1 00 Mores Watkins 1.00 1 00 Wm. Guyant, Tyler 1.00 1 00 Jacob Lobdale 1.00 1 00 Cleo. Boughton 1.00 1 00 Peter Perry 1.00 1 00 Czra Wilmurth 1.00 1 00 Thos. Ingersoll 1.00 1 00 Israel M Blood 1.00 1 00 Solm Griswold 1.00 1 00 Jer Peichwedron 1.00 1 00 Thos Beach 1.00 1 00 Joseph Olney 1.00 1 00 John Ladd 1.00 1 00 B. D. Turner 1.00 1 00 Philip Moore 1.00 1 00 Jabez Felt 1.00 1 00 removed from the state Enos Gillis 1.00 1 00 John Lusk 1.00 1 00 Asa Patridge 1.00 1 00 Jared Boughton 1.00 1 00 Issac Marsh 1.00 1 00 John Moore 1.00 1 00 John Brace 1.00 1 00 5825 5825 Ira Hart May 26 Oct 20th $1.00 $0.50 1 50 Wm Harris "26 "20th 1.00 0.50 1 50 Lyman Wilmarth July 28 Sept 23 1.00 0.62½ 1 62 5826 Heber Kimball Sept 23 Sept 14 1.00 0.13 1 13 5826 Calab Wilcox Feby. 16 May 18 1.00 0.25 1 25 Samuel H Lee June 16th Sept 14 1.00 .13 1 13 Z. T. Gillitt June 16 Nov. 8th 1.00 1 John West August 17 Nov. 8th 1.00 1 Joel Redway August 17 1.00 1 not a member $42.13 This is a list of the Masons who resided in Nauvoo in the Winter of 1841-42; and who were responsible for forming the Nauvoo Lodge. Not all Masons who lived in Nauvoo were Mormons. These members then reported Themselves to hail from the Lodges appended to their names respectively; to wit: New York in alphabetical order. 17 Masons. Benjamin Brown, Forest N. Y. Auston Cowles, Friendship 272 N. Y. Hiram Clark, Queen of Sheba N. Y.; Wm. Felshaw, Hoozack, N.Y.; Elijah Fordham, Hiram, No. 10, N. Y,; Lewis Hyde, Peembroke N. Y. E. Jenkins, Mt. Moriah N. Y. H. C. Kimball, Victor, No. 303, N. Y.; in Nauvoo he would become a member of the Anointed Quorum and of the Council of 50. Henry King, Sylvan 229 N. Y. Lyman Leonard, Binghamton, N. Y.; George Montage (Montague), Frankfort N. Y. John Patten, Friendship, No. 173, N. Y.; Hezekiah Peck, Friendship, No. 173, N. Y. Asahel Perry, Augusta, N. Y. J(oseph). Rose, St. Johns 21, N. Y. Hyrum Smith, Mount Moriah, No. 112, N. Y.,; in Nauvoo he would become a member of the Anointed Quorum and of the Council of 50. John Smith, Harmony, N. Y.; New York by Lodge Asahel Perry, Augusta, N. Y. Lyman Leonard, Binghamton, N. Y.; Benjamin Brown, Forest N. Y. George Montage, Frankfort N. Y. Auston Cowles, Friendship 272 N. Y. John Patten, Friendship, No. 173, N. Y.; Hezekiah Peck, Friendship, No. 173, N. Y. John Smith, Harmony, N. Y.; Elijah Fordham, Hiram, No. 10, N. Y,; Wm. Felshaw, Hoozack, N.Y.; E. Jenkins, Mt. Moriah N. Y. Hyrum Smith, Mount Moriah, No. 112, N. Y.,; Lewis Hyde, Peembroke N. Y. Hiram Clark, Queen of Sheba N. Y.; J. Rose, St. Johns 21, N. Y. Henry King, Sylvan 229 N. Y. H. C. Kimball, Victor, No. 303, N. Y.; Ohio in alphabetical order. 12 Masons. Charles Allen, Nova Cesarea Harmony, No. 2, Ohio; Caleb Baldwin, Concord, Ohio; John C. Bennett, Friendship 89, Ohio.; S. Commer, Urbanna Ohio; D.(avision) Hibbard, New England, Ohio; A. Lambert, Sciota 28, Ohio; David Pettegrew, Nova Cesarea Harmony, No. 2, Ohio.; Noah (or Noble) Rogers, Morning No. 83, Ohio., Joshua Smith, Center Star, Ohio.; L. N. Scovil, Morning Star, No. 83 Ohio.; Wm.(William) Vanansdall, (or Vanansdell) Gallia, Ohio.; Newell. K. Whitney Meridian Orb, No. 10, Ohio; Ohio by Lodge Joshua Smith, Center Star, Ohio.; Caleb Baldwin, Concord, Ohio; John C. Bennett, Friendship 89, Ohio.; Wm. Vanansdall, Gallia, Ohio.; Newell. K. Whitney Meridian Orb, No. 10, Ohio; Noah Rogers, Morning Star No. 83, Ohio., L. N. Scovil, Morning Star, No. 83 Ohio.; D. Hibbard, New England, Ohio; Charles Allen, Nova Cesarea Harmony, No. 2, Ohio; David Pettegrew, Nova Cesarea Harmony, No. 2, Ohio.; A. Lambert, Sciota 28, Ohio; S. Commer, Urbanna Ohio; Missouri 1 Samuel Henderson, Tyro No. 12, Missouri; Michigan 1 Mark Aldrich Warsaw Detroit No. 1 Michigan Maine 2 James W. Cummins, (or Cummings), Maine, Me; Samuel Rolfe, Blazing Star, Maine.; Upper Canada 1 Christopher Williams, Fort George, Upper. Canada. Vermont 2 Samuel Miles, Rainbow, Vermont; Daniel S. Miles, Morning Dawn, Vermont; Virginia 2 John E. Mikesel, Blazing Star No. 5, Virginia George Miller, Widows No. 60, Virginia.; In Nauvoo he would become a member of the Anointed Quorum and of the Council of 50. Iowa 1 A. C. Graves, Harmony, 11 Iowa; Illinois 3 L. B. Adams, Franklin 22, Illinois; Thomas C. King, Bodley 1, Illinois; M. Plumb, Franklin 22, Illinois; Pennsylvania 1 G. Heberling, LaFayettte, Pennsylvania; THE FIRST LINE READS: I WAS TAKEN INTO THE LODGE OR I SAW TAKEN INTO THE LODGE I SAY TAKEN INTP THE LODGE 1 I SAW AKEN IN P GE LPDGE 2 I SAW AKEN IN P GE LPDGE 3 I SAW AKEN IN P GE LPDGE 4 I SAW AKEN IN P GE LPDGE 5 I SAY AKEN IN P GE IPDGE 6 I RAX AKEN IN O GE LODGE 7 I SAY AKEN IN P HE LPDGE 8 I SAU AKEN IN P GE LPDGE 9 J WAU ADCP NP Q FC MQKFC 10 E JAL AFCT ET U DC SUODC 11 I UAY AMEP IP R GE NRDGE 12 X T TYVG XG H WV FHBWV 13 ECD E A AFCQ OQ R NM PRLNC 14 J Z K T HM I UAV ADMQ SQ P RC NPLHC 15 E JAM AFCT ET U DC SUODC 16 I JAZ AMCP IP R GE NRDGE 17 E A AFCP EP Q DC OQKDC 18 E JAM AFCT ET U DC SUODC 19 E IAM AFCT ET U DC SUODC 20 E WAK AFCT ET U DC SUODC 21 THE SECOND LINE READS: J SMITH SAW AGNESS OR J SMITH WAS AGNESS J SMITH WAS AGNEWW 1 J UMI H SAW AGNESS 2 J UMI H SAU AGNESS 21 J WMI H SAW AGNESS 3 J UMI H SAU AGNESS 4 J VMI H SAV AGNESS 7 J SMI H SAY AGNESS 6 J WMI H TAW AGNETT 5 J ZOI H JAJ AGPEJJ 17 J YOI H UAY AGPEUU 12 R LGE Q WAL ADTCJJ 11 E ZX D T TWGV 13 O GE N A ADQC 14 S VGI P YAV AHQCC 15 J R MGE Q JAM ADTCJJ 16 N GE M A ADPC 18 R MGE Q JAM ADTCJJ 19 J YMITH SAW AGNEJJ 8 R MGE O JAM ADTCJJ 9 R KGE O JAK ADTCJJ 20 N UGE O SAU ADPCSS 10 There are many publications available that publish The Royal Arch Masonic cipher. Numbers are keyed to the following books and articles: Numbers: 5,6,7,11,12,13,14,15,16, and 17 can be found in Voohis, Harold V. B. "Masonic Alphabets" Proceedings of the Chapter of Research of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the State of Ohio, Volume V, 1952 pp. 103-130. Number 1,8,9,20, and 21 comes from Art Dehoyos private research notes from the day Art Decoded this entry May 21, 1991. Number 4 is found in: "Report of Seceding Freemasons, or, A Summary of Freemasonry," The Proceedings of the United States Anti Masonic Convention, Held at Philadelphia, September 11, 1830 (New York: The Proceedings of the United States Anti Masonic Convention, Held at Philadelphia, September 11, 1830 (New York: Skinner and Dewey, 1830), pp. 44-45. Number 19 found in: Richardson, Jabez Richardson's Monitor of Free Masonry; Being a Practical Guide to the Ceremonies in all degrees Conferred in Masonic Lodges, Chapters, Encampments, etc. 1860 reprint ed., Ezra Cook, 1975. Number 3 found in: Bernard, Elder David. Light on Masonry: A Collection of All the Important Documents on the Subject of Speculative Freemasonry . . . Utica: William Williams, 1829. Pp. 138, 139. Number 2 found in Quinn, D. Michael, Early Mormonism and the Magic World View, S.L.C. Signature books, 1987, page 10 of the photographs between page 228 and 229. Number 10 found in: "Secret Codes in Early Mormon History," Mormon Heritage, No. 2 January 1986. P. 1. Excerpts concerning Brigham Young's and Heber C. Kimball's diary of sealings and plural marriages from Sept 2, 1844 to April 1, 1845. Brigham Young Journal (1801-1877) Journal #2 July, 1837- Mar. 1845 1 April 1845. Heber C. Kimball diary Church Archives also Kimball, Stanley B. On The Poters Wheel: The Diaries of Heber C. Kimball, S. L. C. Signature Books: 1987. Sept 2 monday went on to the hill got my bugga ficks at Br Pecks took tea with Br Joseph Young saw Br. J. P. greene he was sick (P57) Br Willard Richards a sick man in the evening went to Br H. C. Kimballs, saw Sister Williams and seald hir to hir husband G. W. Br H. C. Kimball stod as procksey (Young) September 7, 1844 7 I Seald Br John P. Greene my sister Rhodia Young and to Mary Eliza Nelson, as he was dying the names of my staff 4 adicamps Isac Morley first Jefferson Hunt 2 Secretary 12 Garde Alfus Cutter Br John McGewin came to my house to Board or live with me (p62) (Young) M E Sept 10th 1844 this day I visited Br Isac Chace Br H. C. Kimball was with me Br & sistr Chase with their daughter Clanicy was at home, we had a good visit Br H. C. K. and I stopped at Br Geans (Young) 10 Tuesday. I was sick. Went B. Young. He and my self went to the foot of Main St. The Ospray Landed thare. Elder hide left for Ohio, Elder rigdon left. We held a council at B. Young. Judg Demming met with us. Went to Br. Lyons Elder Limon sick. From thence went to Br. Geens, then to Br. Cheaces [Ezra Chase?] They ware sealled. All writght. Held council at B. Youngs concerning Legion & Arsnal. Kimball potter wheel. p. 86. September 18 & 19th 1844 Marriage of Louisa Beaman and Patty sessions Young M J Charles. C. Rich, Jothan Dunam and others of the officers of the Legon wensday 18 w I have been in councel with the 12 and Brs Whitney G. Miller we have had a good visit to gether read Br. W. Smith J J. Adams & O. Hydes letters Thomas Morris Rcd on tithing for one Boad 2.00 (Young) 18 Wensday. Elder B. young Received a letter from Wm. Smith one from Elder grant. Spent the after noon at Sarah Allies [Alley, a recent convert] with my wife, Elder B. Young, Erastus Snow, B. Nobles, and thare wives. (Kimball pg., 86) thursday 19 Staed at home all day my wife is quite sick I Saw Sister Louisa B. Smith H. C. Kimball & Silva L. Smith &c. &c. grate is the worth of the Lord in these Last days (p69) Sept 20 1844 went to the temple cauld at Sister Evens seald hir up to hir husban Horres hir oldest son stod as proxy lad hands on sister Durly the Lord is with me continuly Sealed to Eliza this day. (Young) 19 Thursday. Went to Br. Wm. E. Murray, Elder Winchesters, and carried the leter El. B. young had received from Elder Grant, concerning Elder Winchester. Saw SIlvester Smith and Bat. B. Nobles [Joseph B. Noble?]. (Kimball pg., 86) I was bound to Silvia Smith Sept the 19 1844 by B Young (Kimball not in Kimball) 20 Friday Sept. Went to the Temple. Elder Claton rote me a leter to Sister Ruth Seyers. Sister Evens was sealled to hur husband fore time and Eternity. took dinner with Sarah Ally. It rained hard and become cold. (Kimball pg., 87) I was Bound to on the 30 of Sep 1844 by B Young. (Kimball not in Kimball) Oct the Sept the 30 1844 Mary Ellen Harris by B Young (Kimball not in Kimball.) (p72) M E Oct the 3 t 1844 Brother H. C. Kimball and my self was at Br Steven Marcoms Sister Eliza Snow & Betsey Fairchildes was there We took diner with them went to the temple (Young) 4 Br H. C. Kimball and my self was at the Seventis hall paid sister Feany a short visit sister Amy Wicks was there Br Horten & wife put up there for conference went up to the Temple in the fore noon went to see Sister Clark lent hir Seventy five dollars in gold Heber sealed to sister Clary Blake (Young) 3 of Oct. Thursday. in the morning went to Mr. Weathers store laid in for gorc[er]ies. El B. Young and myself went to Br. Marcoms [markham]. Spent some time at the Temple. (Kimball pg., 89) M E Oct 8th 1844 this day ended our confrance we have organized eleven Quorums of Seventis have had a first rate conference Br. Kimball and my self stoped at Sister Knoous saw Sister Sarah Ally and Clary Blacke (Young) 9 was at Br Isac Decker Sister Rebecca Holman was there on a visit Br H. C. K. ---(Young) 10 At E Snow P. P. Pratt and sister Amey Parker was there (p75) M E Oct 10th 1844 Br H. C. Kimball & my self are at Br Ezra Chases from 10 am til 1/2 past 3 P. M. H. C. K. Sharlot Chase Ba (y) Y Diana Chase was there we had a good visit-(P79) M E (Young) 10 Thursday. Spent the day in visiting the sick. father Ezra chase was sealed to his wife by B. Young. (Kimball pg. 90) Oct the 10 1844 I stood as Proxey Oct the 10 1844 I stood as proxy J Smith and was bound to Nancy Mariah Winchester by B Young. (Kimball not in Kimball.) Oct 31 th 12 a. m. at sniveley Br P. P. Pratt was with me Hanahett Snively & Susanah Snively was at home we took diner. Br Kimball was with me at the temple (p80) (Young) November the 5 1844 Ellen Sanders. B. Young 20 Next March. (Kimball not in Kimball.) M. T. November 7th 1844 7Th at Br J. B. Nobles Br A. Lyman Sister Olive Frost & my self & others was there Marriage of Mary Ann Clark & Margaret & Mary Paerce M E (Young) Wenesdy 15th of January 1845 went to the temple & stone Quarry at Br J. B. Nobles saw sister Mary ann Clark and went to Seventies hall in the evening and at Br Aaron Jonson went to the high counsel was there visiting (Young) 16 I went to the temple spent the most of the day with Br H. C. Kimball in coricting his history went to Robert Peares in the after noon with H. C. K. (Young) 17 went to the temple and to doctor Richards to see about the record of the church in the evening Brs Kimball J. Taylor & G. A. Smith was at my uperroom in the evening (Young) Janury 22 th 1845 went Br Richards Printing office at Br Woodard visiting yesterday John Mc Cuingham aganst Br R. Person Daughter Thursday Jan 30th 1845 went to the temple and other places held a councel with the City Counel high councel Ad Poles & others had a good meeting was at Br Snows in the evening stoped at Br Woodwards she gave me a purse (Young) April 1st 1845 this day I comenced revising the History of the church Br G. A. Smith was with me, we took grate delight in perusing the history of the church in is infancy I cauld at Br L Young in the morning Sister Dianita Walker was there (Young) 1. 1 I would like to thank the follow individuals for providing me with the information I have requested. Jennifer Somerwitz the Librarian at the Livingston Masonic Library New York, New York, who provided me with information on Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball. Art Dehoyos and Kent Wahlgren for sharing their knowledge of Masonry and Masonic publications with me. Art has recently been named to the Southern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite Masonic committee to standardize and rewrite Masonic Rituals. Much like the L. D. S. Temple Committee. Kent is working on a Masonic Bibliography prior to 1850 which presently consists of 50,000 titles. Also To Todd Compton for sharing his knowledge of Agness Coolbrith Smith; from his forthcoming Book from Signature books on Joseph Smith's Plural Wives titled In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith. 2. 2 BRIGHAM YOUNG MANUSCRIPT HISTORY. (Hereafter cited B.Y.M.H.) pp. 1, 2. Located in the L.D.S. Historical Department ("hereafter cited as H.D.C.) see Also DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY, 1936. Biographical information in this paper about Brigham Young is derived mostly from his Manuscript History (B.Y.M.H.) or his Diaries located in the H.D.C. with photocopies available at the U. of U. Marriott Library. 3. 3 William, Denslow 10,000 Famous Freemasons. Volume 4 p. 357. 4. 4 West Jr., Ray B. Kingdom of the Saints- The Story of Brigham Young and the Mormons New York: The Viking Press 1957. pp. 29, 31. See also West statement regarding the founding of the Nauvoo Lodge. "Some of his own leaders, such as Brigham Young, Heber Kimball, and Joseph's brother Hyrum, were former Masons. Bennett convinced him that it would be to the benefit of the Mormons to establish a Masonic lodge in Nauvoo." pp. 114, 115. See Also: Hirshon, Stanley P., The Lion of the Lord: A Biography of Brigham Young, New York: Alfred A. Knopf 1969. p. 134. "...Young,.. and several other Master Masons founded a lodge and within six months initiated into it almost every male Mormon, boys included." Also Kerr, Howard and Crow, Charles L. eds., The Occult in America New Historical Perspectives, Urbana: University of Chicago Press, 1983 p. 158 note 20. "But other leading Mormons, including Heber C. Kimball, Brigham Young and Smith's brother Hyrum, had earlier been Masons." 5. 5Arrington, Leonard, Brigham Young: American Moses, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1985 p. 99. The references provided in the footnote do not support his thesis of Brigham Young's New York Masonic Activity. see p. 452. Leonard Arrington and Michael Homer both rely on Kenneth W. Godfrey's Article, 'Joseph Smith and the Masons," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 64 (Spring 1971): 79-90. Brigham Young's is not mentioned on page 81-82 of the Godfrey article as being a Mason in New York. Brigham Young's name is mentioned on page 90 of the Godfrey article, in relation to putting more emphasis on temple work and less on Masonic activities. "Similarity of Priesthood in Masonry:" The Relationship Between Freemasonry and Mormonism." Michael W. Homer Dialogue Vol. 27, No. 3, Fall 1994. p. 67. Hereafter cited as Similarity. See Also Buerger, David John, "The Development of the Mormon Temple Endowment Ceremony" Dialogue Winter 1984 pg. 42. There is a extremely remote possibility that Brigham Young may have been a renouncing Mason who resigned from Masonry during the Morgan affair. I am indebted to Kent Wahlgren for the above observation. At the present time I have been unable to verify the following source. James J. Tyler, "John Cook Bennett, Colorful Freemason of the Early Nineteenth Century," reprint from Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Ohio [n.p., 1947], 8) Which also allegedly suggest Brigham Young was a Mason in New York prior to 1830. 6. 6 Outlook Letters, Sept. 1925. 7. 7 Information supplied to me by Jennifer Somerwitz the Librarian of the Grand Lodge of New York from there Research file on Brigham Young. Correspondence Somerwitz to Rathbone, February 2, 1996 and February 20, 1996. 8. 8 William, Denslow 10,000 Famous Freemasons. Volume 4 p. 357. 9. 9 An extensive search of the following sources was conducted: The Papers and personal Diaries of Brigham Young, his Manuscript History Journal of Discourses, 26 volumes. (Liverpool, England: Latterday Saints' Bookseller's Depot, 1854-86) hereafter cited as J.D's, his unpublished sermons, Collier, Fred C. The Teachings of Brigham Young Collier's publishing Co., S.L.C. 1987, Jessee, Dean C. "the Writings of Brigham Young." Western Historical Quarterly 4 (July 1973): 273-294, and Walker, Ronald W., and Esplin, Ronald K. "Brigham Himself: An Autobiographical Recollection." Journal of Mormon History 4 (1977): 19-34. In the sources cited above not once does Brigham Young make any references to being a Mason prior to joining the Church in 1832. Brigham Young was a candid and outspoken man, and would have mentioned this association in a public or private utterances if one had existed. 10. 10 "The following members then reported themselves to hail from the lodges appended to their names respectively; to wit: ...H. C. Kimball Victor 303 N. Y.". Hogan, Mervin B. Ph.D. 33 Founding Minutes of Nauvoo Lodge, U. D. Des Moines, Iowa Research Lodge Number 2, February 1971. p. 8. Hereafter cited as Minutes. See also attached document Return of Milnor Lodge No 303 Held at Victor County of Ontario & state of New York from Dec. A. L. 5824 to Dec A. L. 5828. Milnor Lodge Records, vol. 66, Archives of the Grand Lodge F. & A. M., State of New York. Kimball notes the following "It appears that none of the thirty-nine (of forty) members ever joined the Mendon Mormons." Kimball, Kimball p. 22 n. 8. 11. 11 Helen Mar Kimball 5 Woman's Exponent, XII, 126. See Also Kimball, Stanley B., Heber C. KimballMormon Patriarch and Pioneer, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1981. pp. 12-13, 22 n 8, 64, 83-85. See Also Cannon, Mark W. "The Crusade Against the Masons, Catholics, and Mormons: Separate waves of a Common Current." B.Y.U. Studies 23 (Winter 1961). Hogan, Mervin B. "The Cryptic Cable Tow Between Moromnism and Freemasonry", 24 February 1970, Paper delivered at the Arizona Research Lodge No. 1, F.& A.M.. pg. 23. 12. 12 see Allen, James, Esplin, Ron, and Whittaker, David; Men With a Mission 1837-1841 The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in The British Isles, S.L.C.: Deseret Book, 1992. Chapters 4-13. 13. 13 History of Brigham Young or Manuscript History of Brigham Young p. 66. H.D.C.. 14. 14 Bachman, Daniel, "A Study of the Mormon Practice of Plural Marriage Before the Death of Joseph Smith." Master's Thesis, Purdue University, 1975. pp. 179-181. 15. 15 J.D's 3:266 Brigham Young July 14, 1855 Provo. 16. 16 John C. Bennett (1804-1867) was a Peddler of Masonic rituals and a Charlatan who meddled in Esoteric Masonic teachings. 17. 17 Van Wagoner, Richard S. Mormon Polygamy a History, S. L. C. Signature Books, 1986. p. 23. 18. "Joseph Smith an Kabbalah: The Occult Connection Owens, Lance S., Dialogue Vol. 27, No. 3, Fall 1994. p.117-197. 19. 19 Homer Similarity, p. 27, 28. 20. 20 Meetings were held on July 9, 19, Aug. 10, 31, Oct 7, 9, 10, 29, 30, Nov. 7, 14, 20, 28, 30, Dec. 1, 12, 13, 15, 19, 26, 27. Jan 1, and 2. 1842. H. B. Y. H.D.C. 21. 21 West Jr., Ray B. Kingdom Bennett convinced him that it would be to the benefit of the Mormons to establish a Masonic lodge in Nauvoo." pp. 114, 115. 22. 22 Wahlgren, Kent "James Adams: Early Springfield Mormon and Freemason," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 75 (Summer 1982): 121-36. 23. 23 At this Time there were approximately 52 Masons in Nauvoo. Enough to form a Lodge. In fact at the time there were little more than 100 Masons in Illinois not counting the Nauvoo Masons. see Homer "Similarity" pg. 27. See attached list of Nauvoo Masons. 24. 24 Hogan Minutes p. 3. 25. M. H, B. Y. pg. 71,72. 26. 26 Jessee, Dean C. ed. The Papers of Joseph Smith Vol. 2, Deseret Book 1992. pp. 337,338. H.C. Vol. IV Pg. 470. 27. 27 H.C. Vol. 5, p. 1. May 4, 1842. In Jessee Papers this notation is not found. Until the dedication of the Masonic hall in April 1844. 28. 28 Hogan, Minutes p. 4-9.Additional Meetings were held On Jan 3rd 1842, Jan 6th, 20th, Feb. 3rd, Feb. 17th, March 15th, and 17th. Hogan, Mervin "Lietunant General Brigham Young" paper May 17, 1976 Research Lodge Salt Lake City. 29. 29 Hogan, Minutes p. 9. 30. 30 Thomas Bullock made one of the first recorded attempts to decode it; others have attempted to decode it over the years; and failed. See "Secret Codes in Early Mormon History", Mormon Heritage, No. 2 January 1986. Hereafter cited as "Codes". 31. 31 This cipher was available in any number of sources: in books pamphlets, broadsides and newspapers. During the Anti-Masonic activity in upstate New York. Which could be altered for an individuals purposes. I am indebted to Kent Wahlgren for this observation. There are numerous publications available which publish The Royal Arch Masonic code see for example: Voohis, Harold V. B. "Masonic Alphabets" Proceedings of the Chapter of Research of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch Masons of the State of Ohio, Volume V, 1952 pp. 103-130. This article is an excellent overview of various Masonic codes and alphabets used by various Masonic Fraternities throughout time. Royal Arch code can be found in the following publications: Allyn, Avery. A Ritual of Freemasonry... Boston: John Marsh and Co., 1831. Duncan, Malcolm C. Duncan's Masonic Ritual and Monitor.. . New York: Dick and Fitzgerald, n.d. "Report of Seceding Freemasons, or, A Summary of Freemasonry," The Proceedings of the United States Anti Masonic Convention, Held at Philadelphia, September 11, 1830 (New York: The Proceedings of the United States Anti Masonic Convention, Held at Philadelphia, September 11, 1830 (New York: Skinner and Dewey, 1830), pp. 44-45. Richardson, Jabez Richardson's Monitor of Free Masonry;Being a Practical Guide to the Ceremonies in all degrees Conferred in Masonic Lodges, Chapters, Encampments, etc. 1860 reprint ed., Ezra Cook, 1975. Bernard, Elder David. Light on Masonry: A Collection of All the Important Documents on the Subject of Speculative Freemasonry... Utica: William Williams, 1829. pp. 138, 139. An interesting note regarding Bernard's book, William Morgan's Freemasonry Exposed, 1827; reprint ed., Chicago: Ezra Cook Publications, inc. (n.d.), and the Book of Mormon. All three books were taken to R. R. Lansing Clerk of the District Court of the United States, for the Northern District of New York, in Utica for copyright registration. Morgan's copyright was recorded August 14th, 1826 Bernard's on April 13th 1829, and Joseph Smith's for the Book of Mormon on June 11, 1829. 32. 32 Art Dehoyos decoded the Jan. 6, 1842 Brigham Young Diary Entry on May 21, 1991. (p.65) January 6th 1842 Brigham Young Journal (B.Y.D. 2) H. D. C. photocopies available at the U. of U. Marriott Library. This is the only entry of it's kind in Brigham Young's diary. We do not know who taught Brigham this cipher. My best educated guess would be Heber C. Kimball. Who possibly witnessed the marriage. 33. 33 See also Bennett, John C. The History of the Saints pg 256. Boston Leland & Whiting 1842. I will semi-state two or more cases, among the vast number, where Joe Smith was privately married to his spiritual wives-in the case of Mrs. A**** S****, by Apostle Brigham Young;" See also Quinn Latter-Day Saint Prayer Circles BYU Studies vol. 19 Fall 1978 No. 1 pg 88. 34. 34 H. C. Vol. 4 pg. 492-493. Jessee, Dean C. ed. The Papers of Joseph Smith Vol. 2, Deseret Book 1992. pp. 352. 35. 35 "I Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner was sealed to the Prophet Joseph Smith as his plural wife Elder Brigham Young officiating. This ceremony was performed in an upper room of the red Store used as a Masonic Hall in Nauvoo, Ill. Mary E. Rollins Lightner, wit., Mary R. Rollins, J.E. Vanderwood." See Record Book, p. 33, in CA. However, the Autobiography 20 gives March as the month of marriage. For the Masonic Hall, cf. Mary's statement, "While in Nauvoo I was very busy painting and giving lessons. I painted Masonic aprons of two degrees, by Joseph instructions." Letter to Emmeline Wells, Nov. 21, 1880, partially quoted in VW 39; see VW's notes at U of U, Box 10. 36. 36 Compton, Todd Compton In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith. forthcoming SLC Signature Books. Chapter on Agness Coolbrith Smith. 37. 37 Mormon Heritage, No. 2 January 1986. "Codes" p. 5. 38. 38 Hogan, Minutes, p. 10. 39. 39 Kimball, Stanley B. On The Potters Wheel: The Diaries of Heber C. Kimball, S. L. C. Signature Books: 1987.,pg. 103. 40. 40Hogan, Minutes, p. 14. 41. 41 Quinn, D. Michael states in The Mormon Hierarchy Origins of Power, Signature Books, Salt Lake, 1994, p. 114, notes "Young, ... had been initiated into Freemasonry just weeks before this meeting. Hogan in Minutes, p. 1 notes the following: "Brigham Young, John Taylor and Wilford Woodruff, who successfully followed Joseph Smith as President of the Mormon Church, received the Degrees of Masonry within the Lodge. see also Hogan Minutes, pp. 14-16. Hogan,"Lieutenant General Brigham Young" U of U, 1976. 42. 42 B. Y. M. H. p. 74,75. 43. 43 Kenny Woodruff vol. 2 pg. 170 April 12 1842. 44. 44 Hogan, Minutes p. 17. 45. 45 Homer, Similarity. pp. 33,34. 46. 46 Ehat, Andrew "Joseph Smith's Introduction of Temple Ordinances and the 1844 Mormon Succession Question." M. A. B. Y. U. 1981. This thesis recounts events leading up to the meeting of the anointed Quorum. However it misses the significance of the January 6th, 1842 entry. ALSo documents and details every meeting of the anointed quorum during the lifetime of Joseph Smith. For a more through list of these meetings see Quinn, Hierarchy, pp. 491-517. The Temple ordinances were restored through the Prophet Joseph Smith as follows: Marriage 1834 Washings and Anointings, Washing of feet Kirtland Temple, Far West Marriage 1838. Nauvoo 1840 - November 1841 Baptism for the Dead, Marriages for time and Eternity, Apr. 5 1841. Oct. 27, 1841. Dec. 11, 1841, Sealings, Proxy or Live January 6, February 8, end of Feb. 1842, March 9, 1842, Apr. 1842, May 4 & 5th Aaronic & Melchizedek portion of the endowment, and again on May 26th, 1843, Second Anointings September 28, 1843. (See Chart) 47. Neibaur and his wife Received their Endowments in the Nauvoo Temple on Jan, 5. 1846 on Jan 22nd was sealed to his wife and on the 24th a friend or possible plural wife Mrs. Seibel received her endowment. Neibaur Diary. H. D. C. Typescript in my possession. 48. 48 On August 11th the Nauvoo Lodge was suspended until an investigation could be made in October of the same year. 49. 49 Young, Ann Eliza Webb, Wife No. 19: Or, The Story of a life in Bondage, (Hartford, CT: Dustin, Gilman and Co., 1876), p. 371. John C. Bennett's Masonic influence wanes and that of the Things that Alexander Neibaur, taught Joseph Become important. That is the teachings of the Jewish Kabbalah and Hermetism of the ancients. see also Lance Owens and Kabbalah Dialogue, Brooke, John R., The Refiner's Fire, Cambridge press 1994. 50. 50 See the Deseret News, Nov. 27, 1875, p. 3. Brigham's copy is in the possession of the Daughters of the Utah Pioneers museum in Salt Lake City. BRADLEY, JOSHUA. SOME OF THE BEAUTIES OF FREE-MASONRY; Being Extracts from Publications, Which have Received the Approbation of the Wise and Virtuous of the Fraternity: With Introductory Remarks, Designed to Remove the Various Objections Made Against the Order. Rutland, VT: Fay & Davison, 1816. 14 cm. vi, 318 pp. Brigham Young owned a copy of this substantial Masonic work, printed in New York, which contains a few Mormon/Masonry parallels: ... they traced the Great Architect of the universe through the walks of his power. . . . Through all his realms the kindling ether runs, And the mass starts into a million suns; Earths, round each sun, with quick explosions, burst, . . . Orbs wheel in orbs, round centres, centres roll, And form, well balanc'd, one revolving whole; Onward they move amid their bright abode, Space without bounds, the bosom of their God! (22-23) Bradley makes considerable mention of the concept of the seven days of creation in connection with the Masonic temple ritual (23, 70-71). "The Bee-Hive is an emblem of industry, and recommends the practice of that virtue to all created beings" (95). The "All Seeing Eye" (97). Bradley was also author of Accounts of Religious Revivals in Many Parts of the United States,. . . (Albany, 1819). 51. 51 Conversation with Kent Wahlgren March 13, 1996. Richards, Legrand. A Marvelous Work and a Wonder, S. L. C.: Deseret Book 1958. 52. 52 C Cockrram of Pitts Cambelite Preacher John Edwards Johnson R. C. Gordan Warsaw Ill A. Ennis Holliday Bing Rd   articals wanted from home Bucks dictonery Butterworth concers hym Book mason apron over coat cobbs dictionary Mr J. B. Parken Palmira Mo he wants an Elder to mount stirling Br Browning 1 mile this side Palaske then to Augustia   Peter Maughen Alston Brigham Young J 662 October 9, 1840 to June 26, 1841 & March 2, 1843- July 26, 1844 April 1, 1845 Journal # 3 130 pp,. holograph Interrupted narrative small faded pages. H.D.C. Photocopies in U of U Marriott library. 53. 53 B. Y. M. H. p. 101. 54. 54 See: Jeffrey Ogden Johnson, "Determining and Defining "Wife": the Brigham Young Households," Dialogue 20 No. 3 (Fall 1987), 57-70 55. 55 President Young said the people of the United States ...Joseph & Hyrum Smith ware Master Masons and they were put to death by masons or through there instigation and he gave the sign of distress & he was shot by masons while in the act. And there were delegates from the various lodges in the Union to see that he was put to death.... They have got the blood of the prophets upon their heads & they have got to meet it. Kenny, Woodruff Vol. 5 January 22, 1860. pp. 482-484. There is no evidence to support Brigham Young's allegation that "delegates from the various lodges in the union came to see" that Joseph and Hyrum were murdered. Masons involved in the assignation of Joseph and Hyrum Smith were members of the Warsaw Lodge No. 21. Oaks, Dallin H. and Hill Marvin, Carthage Conspiracy, Urbana, Ill. University of Illinois press, 1975, 1979 3rd printing. pp. 66,67. 56. 56 I believe that Heber C. Kimball was also a witness to Joseph's marriage to Agness on January 6th, 1842. It is conceivable that Heber and not Brigham wrote the Entry in Brigham's diary. 57. 57 See Jeffrey Ogden Johnson, "Determining and Defining "Wife": the Brigham Young Households," Dialogue 20 No. 3 (Fall 1987), 60. see attached Document titled" Excerpts concerning Brigham Young's and Heber C. Kimball's diary of sealings and plural marriages from Sept 2, 1844 to April 1, 1845." 58. 58 Brigham Young Journal (1801-1877) Journal #2 July, 1837- Mar. 1845 1 April 1845. Heber C. Kimball diary Church Archives and also Kimball, Stanley B. On The Potters Wheel: The Diaries of Heber C. Kimball, S. L. C. Signature Books: 1987. 59. 59 Juanita Brooks, ed., On The Mormon Frontier: The Diary of Hosea Stout ( Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1964), I, 18, n. 41. 60. 60 Kimball, Stanley B. On The Potters Wheel: The Diaries of Heber C. Kimball, S. L. C. Signature Books: 1987.,pg. 103. 61. 61 Journal History, March 6, 1847. 62. 62 James Polk -Sept. 4, 1820, Columbia Lodge No. 31, Columbia, Tenn. James Buchanan-Jan. 24, 1817., Lodge No. 43, Lancaster, Pa. Kane, Joseph Nathan, Facts About the Presidents, Ace Books New York, 1976, p. 540. 63. 63 Kenny, Scott, Ed. Wilford Woodruff Journal Vol. 5 Midvale, Signature Books 1984 p. 418 January 22, 1860. 64. 64 President Young said the people of the United States had sought our destruction and they had used every Exertion to perfect it. They have worked through the masonic institution to perfect It. . . There are other Masons sent to this territory for the same purpose to Esstabllsh a lodge here & try to get an influence with some here to lay a plan to try to murder me & the leaders of the Church But they will not accomplish it. Kenny, Woodruff Vol. 5 January 22, 1860. pp. 482-484. 65. 65 JD 18:303-304-305 Brigham Young January 1, 1877 St. George.