Outline 2. Outline for Chapters on Pathogenesis and Medical Aspects of Viruses A. History B. Infectious agent (coordinate with virion description in replication chapter where structure will be detailed). 1. Propagation and assay in cell culture 2. Biological characteristics. Include cytopathic effects of virus and a figure to illustrate CPE C. 3. Description of key antigens 4. Infection in experimental animals, host range Pathogenesis and pathology. Include illustrations of typical pathology and summary diagram of pathogenesis. Define mechanism (molecular) if know. Include relevant natural host and experimental systems. If appropriate, discussion of pathogens could incorporate both natural and experimental infection or, in some cases, it may be clearer to separate the two. In addition to text with the following section, please provide diagrams that illustrate them. 1. Entry into the host. What are the natural (and experimental) portals of entry? 2. Site of primary replication. What are the cells involved (macrophages, epithelium, etc.) and what is know about this stage (are receptors know? are the cell polarized? if so, is entry apical or basal?) 3. If virus spreads in the host, how does it? Is neural, blood lymphatic, etc.? 4. Cell and tissue tropism. Where does the virus arrive after spread? 5. Immune response. What are the data on early responses (macrophages, NK cells, interferon, TNF, etc.) and later responses (B and T cells)? Describe the mechanisms the virus employs to avoid the immune response 6. Release from host. Any data on efficiency, titers, mechanisms, or virus release? 7. Are there animal models or veterinary correlates that provide useful clues to thinking about human disease? 8. Virulence. Any data on relative capacity of closely related strains to cause disease? 9. D. Persistence. Discussion of latency etc., when relevant Epidemiology. Concepts and principles, not all examples 1. Age 2. Morbidity/Mortality 3. Origin and spread of epidemics 4. Prevalence and seroepidemiology 5. New epidemiologic approaches (including molecular approaches, if relevant) E. Clinical features. Outline clinical course. A summary diagram may be helpful F. Diagnosis. G. H. 1. Differential 2. Laboratory Prevention and control. 1. Treatment 2. Vaccines 3. Other – insect control, etc. Perspective. Identify and discuss important issues and problems for future study of this virus. Suggested length: 250-500 words. Note: We encourage additional figures beyond the required ones.