Test -7/10-09-11/psychology, /www.beautifulmindiasstudygroup.com ___________________________________________________________________________ Time: 2.5 Hrs PSYCHOLOGY PERSONALIZED TEST SERIES FOR CSE 2011 Marks: 200 1. What is work motivation? How is it different from other forms of motivation? What are the major differences between the behavioural approach and the cognitive approach to work motivation? Explain how the modern theories of personnel motivation is a good admix of both approaches.(40) Answer: motivation is a driving force. When we try to understand behaviours of living beings, motivation is an important concept that explains why livings being have behaved in certain ways. It differentiates between intentional behaviour and behaviour merely due to situational influences. It is defined as the process by which behaviour is activated, sustained and become directed towards certain goal in the environment. Clark Hull in his ‘’drive reduction theory’’ stressed that motivation always grows out of some need and it drives individual toward the goal that has potential to fulfil that need. Need Drive (drive reduction behaviour) goal Many theorists have used this framework to explain the nature of work motivation or drive (Vroom, Porter). According to them, we work because it is instrumental in fulfilling our needs. We get motivated not for work but its outcome (money ) which is instrumental in fulfilling our primary needs. Here work (due to money) is a secondary drive which acquires its value only because it is connected in satisfying our primary drives. Need Drive Work goal Work motivation is different from other primary motivations like hunger, thrust, sex, in the sense that it is secondary. It does not directly fulfil needs; it fulfils it indirectly. Work motive is a secondary motive.In terms of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation (Ryan and Deci ), work qualifies to be an extrinsic motive. It, however, can take an intrinsic form when our basic needs are adequately fulfilled and we have enough security for them ( Maslow, Herzberg, Ryan). Major differences between the behavioural approach and the cognitive approach to work motivation: The behavioural approach to work motivation stresses the instrumental nature of work motivation and recognizes the value of the outcomes of work (reinforcements motivate). This approach has a close connection with the need theory of motivation. The cognitive model of work motivation however recognizes the importance of cognitive processes in driving people towards work. it is not just outcome but its interpretation that actually motivates a worker. Whether outcomes of the work done like salary, security, service conditions etc are adequate or not; all these have implication for work motivation and perception, expectation, and interpretation play important roles in determining work motivation. Modern theories of personnel motivation: Modern theories like Vroom’s VIE, Porter and Lawler’s model, Adam’s equity theory and several others subscribe to the behavioural as well as cognitive principles of motivation. Vroom for example says that it the valence of the goal that is contingent upon the value (monetary or else) of the person , his perceived instrumentality of the effort and outcomes and the his own expectancy, jointly determine the level of work motivation in the person. Motivation= valence X instrumentality X expectancy Here valence and expectancy are purely cognitive whereas instrumentality is behavioural-cognitive by nature. Adam’s equity model emphasizes the importance of equity perception in motivation. Behaviourally ‘’what we give and what we get’’ at the work place have implications for work motivation but more important is what our co-workers are giving and getting. We compare and contrast the ratio. Equality in ratio gives satisfaction whereas inequality can have different implications for the different individuals. In general inequity causes dissonance which might have different impact on the motivation of the different workesr. This theory too emphasizes the roles of both factors. Lawler’s model more over is a mixture of Vroom’s model, Adam’s model and Herzberg theory of motivation. The theory says that motivation is not linearly translated into performance; it is mediated by ability and skills, and the role perception of the worker at the work place. The outcomes of the efforts are interpreted cognitively and it includes extrinsic as well as intrinsic values. This outcome along with equity feeling determine the ultimate satisfaction of the worker. Motivation(VIE) x abilityperformanceoutcome(intrinsic+ extrinsic) x equity perceptionsatisfaction So, we can say that work motivation is complex by nature. _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is leadership style? Discuss the different styles of leadership and their suitability in different situations prevailing in public and private organizations.(40) ANSWER: By leadership style we mean the patterns of behavior which a leader adopts in influencing the behavior of his followers in the organization. These patterns emerge with the consistent behavior pattern of the leader with his subordinates as visualized by these people. The following leadership styles have been developed: 1. Motivational styles: positive and negative leadership 2. Power styles: autocratic, democratic and free – rein. 3. Orientation styles: employee oriented and task oriented. Motivational Styles: Positive and Negative Leadership Positive Approach to Leadership: When a leader motivates people by offering them rewards monetary or otherwise, for better performance the approach is said to be positive. It assumes that rewards induce people to work hard. The more the reward, the higher is the efficiency. Positive leadership promotes peace. Introduction of a scheme of leave encashment, for example, will certainly reduce the rate of absenteeism in the organization. Negative approach of Leadership: When a leader induces people to work hard by threatening them to penalize if work is not up to the mark, it is said to be a negative approach, the main emphasis is manly on penalties for the shortcomings. For example, if the manager imposes a salary cut for absence from duty, it is the negative approach to improve absenteeism. None of the two approaches, positive or negative, can be used in its entirety. Almost every manager uses both the approaches, off and on, depending upon the situation Power Styles: Autocratic, Democratic and Free – rein Leadership . Autocratic or authoritative or directive leadership: Under this style, the leader centralizes authority and decision making authority in himself and exercises complete control over his subordinates. He structures the complete work situation for his subordinates and the subordinate, in turn, do whatever they are told – nothing less or nothing more. The leader enjoys full authority and assumes complete responsibility. He is power loving and is never devoid of it. Subordinates are not aware of the organizational goals. Here, the leadership is negative because the followers are uninformed, insecure, and afraid of the leader’s authority. He holds over the heads of subordinates the threat of penalties and punishment. Participative or democratic leadership: The participative style is just the opposite of the autocratic style. Under this style, power, and authority are decentralized and the followers are also allowed participation in decision making; or they are consulted on important matters, specially when such matters affect their interests. The subordinates are also encouraged to exploit their potentialities and assume more challenging responsibilities. Participative leaders, thus, given importance to both work and people. People are fully aware of the path and the goals of the organization. Both the leader and the subordinates work unitedly as a social unit. This style improves job satisfaction and morale of the employees. There is a free flow of communication between the superior and the subordinates. Free rein style: Under this style, the leader possesses no authority. Complete authority is given to the subordinates. In this style, the manager simply once determines policy, programmes, and limitations for action, and then the entire process is left to the subordinates. Free – rein on Laissez – Faire style implies the least interference by the leader. The leadership is employee – centered and the group of employee is free to establish its own goals and work out its own problems. The leader (manager) simply maintains contacts with outside persons to bring the information required by the group. Orientation Styles: Employee Oriented and Task Oriented Employee – oriented leadership: Employee – oriented leaders are more concerned about their subordinates. They try to provide better working conditions and environment, satisfy their needs and pay the highest attention to their subordinates’ interests, attitudes, and needs, etc. They solve the subordinates’ problems on the job. In this way, leaders try to get more out of the efforts of their subordinates towards the organizational goals. Production or task – oriented leadership: Leaders following this technique believe that their main concern is only to get the work done and, for this purpose, they keep the subordinates busy all the time; in their zeal to produce more, they ignore the human aspect of the subordinates. They are of the opinion that they can attain results by better planning, engaging better methods and machines, and keeping the employees busy all the time. The above two orientation styles - employee oriented and task - oriented - seem to be related and not apposite to each other. A manager who is more employee oriented cannot be against producing or vice verse. A prudent manager must combine the two styles in varying degree Suitability of Different Styles in private and public organization We have studied different leadership styles with their pros and cons and also with their sub – styles. Which style is the most effective one cannot be answered correctly. Choosing a best style is a wild goose chase. Various research findings fail to suggest a best style, which is universally accepted; it is so because of the complexities of modern organizations. If one considers a particular style to be the best for every kind of organization at every level and with any kind of subordinates, he ignores other important influencing factors like subordinates, individual characteristics, task characteristics, group cohesiveness, cultural differences, customs, traditions, level of education, standard of living, etc. As a leaders style cannot operate in a vacuum and must influence and be influenced by other situational factors, and situational factors differ from organization to organization, place to place, and time to time. (Fiedler).So, no one style may be operative at all places and times. So, no one style may be operative at all places and in all organizations. __________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The rate of economic development of a country is influenced not only by the physical resource but the level of achievement motivation of its people also. Explain (30) _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Examine the role of cognitive factors in causing and controlling stress.(20) __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ergonomics ultimately aims at improving performance; explain.(20) __________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Roles of emotion in advertisement –write a short note (20) __________________________________________________________________________________ 7. “Entrepreneur syndrome”-write a short note.(20) A high degree of achievement motivation led to the expansion of ‘entrepreneurial occupations. Entrepreneurs are the business organizer, managers and salesmen who exercise control over the means of economic production and trade. The characteristic of entrepreneurs(“Entrepreneur syndrome) as demonstrated to a considerable extent by experimental investigations are: 1. A liking for taking moderate though not excessive risk; 2. Confidence in the ability to succeed on tasks; internal locus of control 3. Energetic action directed towards self – achievement; 4. The desire for freedom and individual responsibility, 5. Like feedback and constructive criticism; 6. -tends to be innovative; 7. - is oriented towards the future All the above mentioned characterized are associated with strong achievement motivation. Besides the above mentioned characteristics, entrepreneurs must also possess (McClelland) 1. Skill in organizing; 2. Capacity for long – term planning; 3. Capacity to adapt one’s behavior flexibility to the desires and needs of others; 4. Treat people as individuals; 5. Independent thinking; 6. Firm connection and insight into environmental forces; 7. Perseverance in spite of obstacles; Entrepreneurs may experience achievement only when, through intelligence, foresight and perseverance, they have built up a large and powerful concern. 8. Effective managerial traits -write a short note. (10) Ivaneavich and others have grouped the managerial traits, identified by various researches, as follows: Physical characteristics: Age, appearance, and height Social background: Educational, social status, and mobility Intelligence: Judgement, Knowledge, decisiveness, and fluency of speech Personality: Alertness, dominance, extroversion, independence, creativity, and self – confidence Task related characteristics: Achievement drive, a initiative, persistence, enterprise, and task orientation Social characteristics: Attractiveness, popularity, sociability and interpersonal skills.