Study Guide for Chapter 30 Text Exam – Biology II (Biology 103) Know the function of the following plant structures: stomata; cuticle; & tracheids. Which species most likely directly gave rise to the land plants? Be able to identify plant features found within members of the bryophytes group. Do Lycophytes (club mosses) have seeds? What adaptation allowed plants to pause their life cycle until environmental conditions are optimal? Which gymnosperm possesses a form of vascular tissue (vessel) that is similar to that found in the angiosperms? The drug ephedrine is derived from a species of _?_. In a pine tree, the microspores and megaspores are produced by the process of _?_. Know terms associated with a male portion of a plant. In double fertilization, one sperm produces a diploid _?_, and the other produces a triploid _?_. What is the closest and oldest known living species of the original angiosperm? Sperm in bryophytes have flagella on them. What does this suggest as to the requirements for reproduction? Why is heterospory considered to be an advanced character which enhances genetic diversity? Vascular refinements allowed plants to grow taller because they no longer had to deal with diffusion to meet their metabolic demands. What other stress shaped plant life strategies as they became even taller? Ferns appear to be the most advanced of the seedless vascular plants. What feature provided the foundation for establishment of seeds in more advanced plants? Which feature of the male gametophyte eliminated the requirement of water for fertilization to occur? What is double fertilization and what does it produce? What stressor has had the largest impact on the morphology and life strategies of viridiplantae? In what way is Volvox an example of an organism with primitive traits (like Chlamydomonas) that yet demonstrates some structural advances similar to Viridiplantae? Which stage is the most dominant in the bryophyte life cycle? What do whisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns have in common? The extinct "bridging" group of plants which connected seedless vascular plants from those with seeds were the _?_. What is the name of the break in the integuments surrounding the megasporangium which allows entry of sperm for fertilization? Where does a fruit come from? (structure) Plants lacking well-developed conducting systems such as mosses, liverworts, and hornworts have been called _?_. (broad clade name) Which plants are characterized by a conducting system, the possession of cuticles, specialized stems, and roots, stomata, and, in many species, seeds? Bryophytes, like ferns and certain other tracheophyte plants, require _?_ to reproduce sexually. The colorless rootlike projections of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, which anchor them to the substrate are called _?_. This condition occurs only in tracheophyte plants that have microspores and megaspores; it is called _?_. Know the proper term for the tissue that transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots. Carbohydrates are transported away from the green parts of the plant by what type of vascular tissue? Name a process unique to angiosperms. (deals with reproduction) Fertilization in angiosperms leads to the formation of a diploid zygote and the typically triploid primary _?_. What is a major problem for the survival of organisms on land? Plants as well as brown, green, and red algae show a basic life cycle which involves the alternation of generations between a _?_ & _?_. The gametophyte is green and nutritionally independent in which plant groups? To reproduce sexually, bryophytes require free _?_ external to the plant. Hornworts differ from mosses and liverworts in containing a photosynthetic _?_. Seeds occur only in what type of plants? The most abundant group of seedless tracheophyte plants are the _?_. In only one of the five phyla of seed plants, at the time of pollination, the ovules are completely enclosed by sporophytic tissues. These plants are the _?_. Be able to identify the gymnosperm used for production of lumber, resin, turpentine, etc.. Endosperm, the nutritive tissue of the fruit, is the product of a union between _?_ & _?_. Stomata are openings used by plants for the passage of what three gases? Secondary xylem and phloem in tracheophyte seed plants allow for increased growth where? Be able to list the characteristics of conifers. You attend a seminar given by your biology professor. She refers to the third whorl in a complete flower. You know she means the _?_ structures of the flower. You attend a seminar given by your biology professor. She refers to the fourth whorl in a complete flower. You know she means the _?_ structures of the flower. Be able to list in correct order the relative size of gametophytes from largest to smallest for the plant groups: ferns; mosses; and angiosperms.