Progressive Presidents Part 1 Define: tenement laws, 1901, ‘05, ‘16 workers compensation Square Deal holding company Department of Commerce & Labor Meat Inspection Act Newlands Reclamation Act Identify Theodore Roosevelt Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire Fair Labor Standards Act arbitration trustbuster Hepburn Act Pure Food and Drug Act US Forest Service Northern Securities Earliest progressive reforms were made at the city level. In some cities, voter support for reforms prompted corrupt political machines to work with reformers. Together they registered voters, improved city services, established public health programs, and enforced tenement codes. Jacob Riis, who exposed the poor living and working conditions in NYC tenements in the 1880s, encouraged state politicians to personally inspect them. In 1882, after accompanying Riis and witnessing the squalor, NY State Assemblyman, Theodore Roosevelt, promoted the NYC Cigar Law to end cigar making tenement-factories that plagued the lower East Side. Though the higher court shot down this law, Roosevelt and other lawmakers fought for additional progressive legislation in their state. In 1901, the new tenement law in NYC required one toilet for every two apartments. It mandated air-shafts between buildings. In 1905, the law expanded demanding that a window be put in inside rooms for ventilation & light. Two fireproof air-shafts were also required. Mandatory fire escapes were made law in 1916. Reformers tried dislodge monopolies that provided city utilities such as water, gas, and electricity in the cities. Mayors in Detroit, and Cleveland started city ownership of utilities to make them more affordable. By 1915, nearly 2 of 3 cities had some form of city owned utilities. Tragedies in the workplace led to reform. On Saturday, March 25, 1911, a match or cigarette ignited a fire on the 8 th floor of the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in NYC. Because exit doors were locked to prevent employee theft, 146 died in the blaze. [Leave spaces for details from power-point notes] The horror of the tragedy roused public outcry. The day after the fire, the Women’s Trade Union League and the Red Cross formed a committee to improve fire safety. They told the city to have mandatory fire drills, appoint inspectors, & unlock exits. State reformers worked to end unsafe working conditions. Other states developed workers compensation or accident insurance for workers injured on the job. By 1920 all but 5 states had some form of payment for workers in workplace accidents. Reformers had to convince the courts that the government had to control conditions at the factory to protect workers. In the 1908 case of Muller v Oregon, the US Supreme Court upheld an Oregon law that limited hours for women laundry workers to ten hours a day. Limiting workday hours began on the federal government level in 1901 under President Theodore Roosevelt. He stared the eight-hour day for government workers. Eve the President stopped work at 5 pm to spend time with family in the White House. In 1902 Pennsylvania mines passed a law for 9-hour workdays. Oregon set a max of 10 hours a day for factories in 1917. National Child Labor Committee formed in 1907 and convinced 30 states to abolish child labor, which was defined as employment of children under the age of 14. Minimum age laws for women and children was adopted by Massachusetts in 1912. Eight other states followed. It wasn’t until 1938 that the federal government intervened on behalf of children at work. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 set maximum-hour work week and age regulations for children. The 40-hour work week started. Minimum wage was set at 40 cents an hour. Minimum ages were set. Those under age 16 were prohibited from working and had to attend school. Children, ages 14 & 15, could work in nonmanufacturing, non-mining, non-hazardous jobs outside of school and during vacations. There was no minimum age for children who worked on farms, after school, or during vacations in simple jobs. Ages 16 to 18 could work full time in non-hazardous jobs. “Teddy” Roosevelt took office after the assassination of President William McKinley. Roosevelt was strong-willed, competitive, energetic, and intellectual, and responded with gusto to the demands for reforms. “I shall see to it,” Roosevelt said in 1904, “that every man has a square deal, no less and no more.” During his second term, his reform programs became known as the Square Deal. Roosevelt TR thought it was his job to see that the country ran efficiently. In 1902 his job as manager was put to the test when the United Mine Workers union called a strike of miners to protest their low wages and demand reduction in work hours and recognition of the union. Nearly 150,000 workers walked out of Pennsylvania anthracite mines where they dug hard coal for fuel. As winter approached prices for coal to heat the nation began to rise. Mine owners continued to refuse to talk to the union. If the strike dragged on too long the nation would face a coal shortage that could shut down factories and leave homes cold in the winter. TR intervened. He insisted that both sides use arbitration or have an impartial third party decide on a solution. He brought owners and union representatives to the White House. The union cooperated. The mine owners did not. They infuriated TR. He threatened to use the army to seize and operate the mines. In 1903, miners were given a 10% raise and an hour reduction from 10 to 9 hours. But the union did not get official recognition. By intervening, TR took the 1st step toward establishing the federal government as a broker between powerful groups in society. Trustbuster Activities see success. Although the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 put a check on big business, it did not have enough clout to enforce the law. TR, who did not oppose trusts, felt that some trusts were not serving the public fairly. He wanted supervise big business without destroying its efficiency. In 1901, three robber barons, James J. Hill, JP Morgan and EH Harriman, created a giant holding company called Northern Securities which controlled the railroads in the Northwest. A holding company is a corporation that holds the stocks and bonds of numerous companies. By doing this, holding companies gain 1 control of smaller companies and thus create a monopoly. In creating a railroad monopoly, Northern Securities charged outrageous fares because there was no competition. Northern Securities Company alarmed Americans and the President. TR decided that the company was in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act and ordered the Attorney General to sue it. JP Morgan was stunned. He went to the White House and told Roosevelt, “If we have done anything wrong, send your man to my man and they can fix it up.” TR responded by taking the case to the Supreme Court. In Northern v the US, the Supreme Court ruled that Northern Securities had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act by eliminating all competition. Roosevelt rejoiced, “The most powerful men in the country were held to accountability before the law.” Now TR had a new nickname: trustbuster or someone who sues big trusts to break them up and make big business fair and accountable. By the time Roosevelt completed his term in 1909, the government had filed 44 antitrust lawsuits. Later the Beef Trust, Standard Oil Trust, and the American Tobacco Company were forced to reorganize or disabled. Department of Commerce & Labor was by TR created in 1903. It had the authority to investigate corporations and issue reports on their activities. TR did not oppose big business. He believed some trusts benefited the economy and that breaking them up could be harmful. He did believe that they needed supervision and control.. In 1904, it investigated US Steel, another JP Morgan company. However, to avoid a lawsuit, the company leaders met with TR and offered a deal. They opened their records Dept. of Commerce in exchange for allowing them to correct any problems were found. Both parties agreed and no lawsuit was ever filed. This agreement gave Roosevelt the ability to regulate big business without having to sacrifice the economy over a break up of a trust. Hepburn Act was pushed through Congress in 1906 to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission. The ICC was could not regulate railroads because it lacked authority. This new act gave the ICC the power to set railroad rates. It made free passes for RR fares illegal. Eventually the ICC rates and regulations limited the competition and prevented new companies from entering the industry. Legislature for Food and Drugs were inspired by Upton Sinclair’s book, The Jungle, which made consumers ill and angry at the meatpacking industry: “There would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was moldy and white-it would be dosed with borax and glycerin (anti-bacterial soap) and dumped into the hoppers and made over again for human consumption…There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms…and thousands of rats would race about upon it.” Roosevelt responded with the Meat Inspection Act in 1906. It said that prepared meat, shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection. The Agricultural Department set up standards of cleanliness in the meatpacking plants. The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was designed to prevent the mislabeling of food and drugs. This new act prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure or falsely labeled food and drugs. Prior to this, contents were not checked. Vendors of medicines often spiked them with alcohol and sold habit-forming drugs without the consumer’s knowledge of the content. Unfortunately both of these acts contained loopholes which allowed manufacturers to sneak under the law. These loopholes eventually had to be plugged by additional legislation. Conservation was important to Roosevelt. Explorers and writers, John Muir and John Wesley Powell, got Congress to establish Yellowstone National Park in 1872. In 1890, Yosemite became a national park. Presidents Harrison and Cleveland preserved some 35 million acres of forestland. In the early 1900s, TR developed a policy for land and water use in the West called the Newlands Reclamation Act. This act authorized the use of federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation in dry states and land development projects. Also, Roosevelt supported saving the national forests. He appointed, Gifford Pinchot, to head the first US Forest Service in 1905 to manage the nation’s water and timber resources. Over 150 million acres of protected forests were added to the US Forest Service. Five new national parks and 55 federal wildlife reservations were set aside. In addition, Roosevelt commissioned the first refuge for birds, Pelican Island. He also established the first 18 national monuments including the Grand Canyon. In the end, Roosevelt changed the role of the federal government and the nature of the presidency. Americans began to look to the federal government to solve the nation’s economic and social problems. The executive branch of government increased its power. The ICC set rates, the Agricultural Department inspected food, the Department of Commerce and Labor monitored business, and the attorney general could sue any company that got out of line. Life was good and the Progressive Movement made it better. 1. Describe the laws that protested city dwellers in tenements. 2. What effect did the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire have on reform? 3. How did the National Child Labor Committee help children who worked? 4. Using five examples of his reforms, how did President Roosevelt earn the title of progressive president? 5. What new agencies were formed to help Roosevelt and the federal government control business? 2 6. List all of the environmental conservation efforts under Roosevelt.