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AP Biology Midterm Exam Review – Due 1/8/15
From Kathryn Weatherhead & Mary Wuerth; Modified by Erica Putnam
Use your text, your notes, and your brain to answer the following questions.
Answer on a separate sheet of paper!
1.
Define the following: isotope, valence shell, covalent bond, ionic bonds
2.
Hydrogen bonds result in .... pH is .....
3.
How many covalent bonds can carbon form?
4.
Hydrogen bonds form between ....
How do hydrogen bonds result in the following properties of water? Cohesion, Adhesion, High specific
heat capacity, universal solvent, heat of vaporization
5.
pH is a measure of ...
6.
What are the differences between catabolic and anabolic reactions?
7.
What is an isomer?
8.
Name the following functional groups:
-OH
-C=O
-COOH
What is a buffer?
Define structural, geometric, and stereoisomers?
-NH2
-SH
-OPO3
9.
What is the general formula for a monosaccharide?
what is the function of monsaccharides?
What are polysaccharides?
What are the functions of polysaccharides?
What are the differences between glycogen, starch, cellulose, and chitin?
10.
What are the structural components of fats, phospholipids, and steroids?
Fats store ....
Phospholipids form ......
Steroids may function as .....
11.
Proteins are polymers of ....... joined by .....
Describe primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins.
Describe the importance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic components in protein folding.
12.
The three parts of a nucleotide are .....
A and G are .........; C and T are ...........
13.
DNA and RNA are built in what direction?.... Read in what direction?
14.
Describe the outcomes and importance of the following experiments:
i. Contributions of Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin on the structure of DNA
ii. Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiments
iii. Hershey-Chase experiment
15.
Energy is defined as ...What is entropy?
16.
Why are cells small?
17.
List eight organelles found in the cell and their functions.
18.
Compare/Contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
19.
Explain the endosymbiotic theory and the evidence for it. (Make sure you include membranes and
membrane bound organelles)
20.
Explain the different environmental conditions that can affect enzyme function.
Make sure you explanation includes cofactors, allosteric sites, activators, & inhibitors
21.
What are the differences between diffusion and active transport?
22.
The three steps in respiration are ....
Glycolysis starts with .... and produces ....
Krebs cycle starts with .... and produces ...
Where do the following occur:
glycolysis
Kreb’s cycle
electron transport chain
Explain the differences between anaerobic respiration, aerobic respiration and fermentation
23.
24.
What are the two major parts of photosynthesis? Where does each part occur?
What enters the light reactions? What is produced?
What enters the Calvin cycle? What is produced?
25.
List the phases of mitosis?
List the parts of the cell cycle.
26.
Define hypoosmotic, hyperosmotic and isomotic.
27.
What is chemiosmosis?
What is photophosphorylation?
28.
What is the difference between meiosis I and meiosis II?
29.
what are the differences between aneuploidy, polyploidy, and structural alterations in chromosomes?
What is the difference between a linked and unlinked gene?
30.
Write at least 1 example of the following types of genetics problems: (monohybrid, dihybrid, sex-linked,
and genes linked on the same homologous chromosome)
Describe the mode of inheritance for the following genetic disorders:
● Sickle cell anemia (include a description of heterozygous advantage)
● Tay-Sachs disease
● Huntington’s disease
● X-linked color blindness
● Trisomy 21/Down syndrome
● Klinefelter’s syndrome
31.
What is the SRY region and what traits are controlled by it?
32
List some differences between viruses and bacteria.
33.
List the tools and techniques of DNA technology.
List some applications of DNA technology.
34.
Describe the three major types of mutations.
Describe some causes of mutations.
Describe sources of variation for prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
35.
What are the differences between the lytic and lysogenic cycle?
36.
Define the following: operon, promoter, structural gene, repressor, inducer, activator.
How do the levels of cAMP regulate metabolic gene expression in bacteria?
37.
Label the following & explain how Eukaryotes regulate each step:
From Ms. Foglia (explorebiology.com)