Course Information Template

Global Media Industries
Unit Information and Learning Guide
2010 (KDU)
Unit Coordinator
Daniel Chan
School of Media Communication & Culture
Faculty of Creative Technologies & Media
© Published by Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, June 2010.
Originally written by Associate Professor Terence Lee, 2007
Revised May 2009
Revised by Associate Lecturer Daniel Chan, July 2010
This publication is copyright. Except as permitted by the Copyright Act no part
of it may in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording
or any other means be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or be broadcast or
transmitted without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Resources for the unit
Session 1
Unit Introduction
Part 1 – Globalisation and the Media: Concepts and Practices
Session 2
What is Globalisation?
Session 3
Global Media: Key Concepts
Session 4
Global Media: Theories
Session 5
Global Media Corporations and Industries
Session 6
‘New’ Global Media:
Knowledge Economy and Competition
Session 7
Cultural Globalisation: Imperialism or Hybridity?
Session 8
National Media Policies, Culture & Creativity
Part 2 – Global Media Industries: Case Studies
Session 9
Case Study 1: 9/11 & 24/7 News
Session 10 Case Study 2: Rupert Murdoch & News Corp
Session 11 Case Study 3: Global/Regional Media Hub of Singapore 18
Session 12
Review & Final Test
Global Media Industries
Unit Information
This information should be read in conjunction with
the online learning materials which can be found on
your MyUnits page.
Unit overview
Welcome aboard.
Isaac Newton, the Father of Modern Physics, once said, “If I
have seen further it is only by standing on the shoulders of
giants.” In a sense, this statement echoes the Socratic teaching
that true wisdom begins when we acknowledge that we know
In that spirit of keeping an open mind, you will in this unit
discover and explore the complex terrain of globalisation and the
global media industries. You will look at the transnational
industries and consider how they impact upon our society around
us. There is much intense debate and political struggle in this
terrain, and perhaps you may glean some wisdom from looking
at these debates and struggles with a critical perspective, and
then, beyond your degree, you may be equipped to make some
important decisions in your career, as well as be able to
contribute significantly to these industries.
The first part of this unit covers the defining characteristics—or
the concepts and theories—of globalisation and the global media.
It also tackles questions about the merits and shortcomings of the
global media environment, about the impact of cultural
imperialism, and its concentration of power vis-à-vis global
media conglomeration.
Part 2 applies the theories covered in Part 1 by embarking on
three case studies of global media that have a direct relevance to
our society in Australia and the South-East Asia region.
Overall, this unit explores the social, cultural, political and
economic impacts of the global media industries. You will be
challenged to think critically about the social, cultural and
2 MCC314 Unit information
political effects of globalisation and the global
mediascape/industries. So I suggest this: learn from the giants of
this field of study, extrapolate to the future, and, as I always say,
steady as she goes.
Daniel Chan, Associate Lecturer
June 2010
You will need to have completed MCC108 Introduction to
Mass Communication (prior 2010) or MCC108 Introduction
to Communication & Media (2010 onwards), or MCC101
Introduction to Communication, Technology & Policy.
Aims and objectives
Learning objectives
On successful completion of the unit you should be able to:
1. identify and understand the meanings and debates
surrounding globalisation theory;
2. identify and understand the meanings and debates
surrounding global media;
3. demonstrate knowledge about the global media
environment and how it impacts upon culture, society,
politics, the economy and our everyday lives.
4. demonstrate good written and oral communication skills in
different contexts, such as essay writing, tutorial and email discussions/presentations.
5. sustain an interest in globalisation and global media
developments beyond the semester/trimester (i.e. lifelong
Graduate Attributes
This unit will contribute to the development of the Graduate
Attributes found at:
MCC314 Unit Information 3
Unit Coordinator
Your Coordinator is Daniel Chan.
Contact details
Email: [email protected]
Room: EH 2.107 (Murdoch University, in Perth)
Your Coordinator is on campus 2 days a week. Your first point
of contact is your Tutor, who would inform you of their
consultation times during the semester.
Administrative contact
Maureen Mankoo
Room: EH 3.056 (Murdoch University, in Perth)
Tel: +61 8 9360 2346
Fax: +61 8 9360 6570
Email: [email protected]
You will be notified of your Tutor at the beginning of the unit.
Please write your Tutor’s name and contact details here.
Consultation Room:
Consultation Time(s):
Technical help
For technical difficulties contact the IT Service Desk:
[email protected]
or phone 9360 2000
4 MCC314 Unit information
For difficulties with other online materials contact your Unit
How to study this unit
It is essential for this unit, and for the other Communication &
Media units that you pursue during your course of study, that you
regularly spend time reading newspapers and magazines,
watching television news and current affairs, listening to the
radio news and current affairs, as well as accessing the Internet.
Particularly for this unit, your newspaper readership should
include the business, media and IT sections of ‘serious’
newspapers (e.g. The Australian, The Australian Financial
Review, The Straits Times (Singapore), The New Straits Times
(Malaysia), etc.).
Unit details, including this Unit Information Learning Guide, are
available on LMS. If you have not used LMS before, your Tutor
will provide details about access and use in the first few tutorials.
As far as possible, lecture notes will be made available on LMS
after the lecture. However, since lectures are recorded via the
Lectopia system (see below), not all lecture notes are posted
Learning activities
1½ hours each week
Tutorials (1½ hours each week)
Tutorials commence in Week 1 after the introductory lecture. Do
ensure you have signed up online by this time.
MCC314 Unit Information 5
It is vital that you attend lectures because tutorial discussions will
relate to the lecture material. Most lectures during the semester at
Murdoch would be recorded via the Lectopia system. This would
mean that in most cases you should be able to access an audio
recording of each week’s lecture via compatible computers at
home, at work or at University. For more information about
Lectopia, go to:
As there will almost certainly be screenings each week
accompanied with other forms of audio-visual and multimedia
devices, turning up at lecture each week is the only way to get
the most out of your learning experience.
6 MCC314 Unit information
Study schedule
This timetable will help you to plan your study over the semester.
Hint: Check the Academic Calendar and write down exact dates
next to Session numbers.
Positions Paper
27 September 2010, by
Critical Essay
25 October 2010, by
Final Test
The week commencing
8 November 2010
Unit Introduction
What is Globalisation?
Global Media: Key Concepts
Global Media: Theories
Global Media Corporations
and Industries
‘New’ Global Media:
Knowledge Economy and
Cultural Globalisation:
Imperialism or Hybridity?
National Media Policies,
Culture & Creativity
Case Study 1: 9/11 & 24/7
Case Study 2: Rupert Murdoch
& News Corp
Case Study 3: Global/Regional
Media Hub of Singapore
Review & Test
MCC314 Unit Information 7
Resources for the unit
Unit materials
To undertake study in this unit, you will need:
1. Flew, Terry. 2007. Understanding Global Media.
Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
2. MCC314 Global Media Industries Reader
Please purchase these books before the first study session (Week
1) as you will need to commence reading as soon as semester
commences. There are no other set texts, though you are expected
to read widely, consume media news and reports, and consult
various reference texts in your University or local library.
Your Online Unit and Lectopia recordings can be accessed from
your MyUnits page.
Other Media Resources
 ‘Media’ section in The Australian newspaper– available
 Media Watch on ABC1 – available online:
8 MCC314 Unit information
In this unit (as with all Communication & Media units), great
emphasis is placed on the quality and presentation of your written
work. There are a number of good texts where you will find useful
for literacy and essay writing work. The following are
Bazerman, Charles, & Harvey S. Weiner. 1998. Writing Skills
Handbook. 4th Ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Kane, Thomas S. 1998. The New Oxford Guide to Writing.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Taylor, Gordon. 1989. The Student's Writing Guide for the
Arts and Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Clanchy, John, & Brigid Ballard. 1991. Essay Writing for
Students. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.
Marshall, Lorraine, & Frances Rowland. 1993. A Guide to
Learning Independently, 2nd Ed. Melbourne: Longman
You are also advised to consult the Teaching and Learning Centre
(TLC) located at Murdoch University Library for assistance on
essay-writing, referencing and general help in the English
language. Contact the TLC on (+61 8) 9360 2441 or go to: for further information or to make
an appointment.
All of the required and recommended reading, where available, has
been placed in the Reserve section of Murdoch library.
Electronic Course Material & Reserve info
In addition to these books, you should access relevant journals in the
library and also use the databases available online through the
University library:
MCC314 Unit Information 9
Assessment components
You will be assessed on the basis of:
Positions Paper
1,500 – 2,000 words
Critical Essay
2,500 – 3,000 words
In-Lecture Test
700 – 850 words
(semi-essay format)
Active contribution to
Monday of Session 6, by
Monday of Session 10, by
In the lecture of Session
Participation in
Tutorial or LMS
10 MCC314 Unit information
MCC314 Assignment Marking Guide & Criteria
Student Name:________________________
Student No.:__________________
General Guidelines: Your essay must be typed using a 12-pt standard font, double-spaced and full
justified throughout. It must be submitted on time (10% deduction for each day late!), securely
attached with the divisional cover page properly filled out in detail.
Keep to correct word length (not to exceed nor go under prescribed word count).
Content & Argument: Does the essay demonstrate depth of analysis
beyond the superficial? Is there a sustained and coherent argument?
Research & Sources: How adequate are the sources used? Is the range
of sources sufficient? Evidence of engaging with the key texts? Evidence
of extra and independent research? Have the sources been well
Knowledge: How well have the subject and sources/readings been
Criticality: Is the argument persuasive, supported by evidence and
sufficiently critical? Have the subject and sources been treated fairly?
Are counter-arguments addressed? Does the writing go beyond just
Structure: Is the paper sensibly organized and coherent, with clear
headings including Introduction and Conclusion and a logical flow of
ideas? (Remember, you are writing scholarly papers/essays, NOT
commercial reports or stream of consciousness pieces.)
Expression/Style: Is the style, tone, grammar, punctuation and general
use of English adequate and appropriate for a critical paper?
(Consult Student Learning Centre for assistance well before due date.)
Referencing: Are sources properly acknowledged in Chicago style –
both in-text and final reference page? Consistent and accurate
referencing? Adequate references cited in-text?
(Note: University level expects Good or better.)
MCC314 Unit Information 11
Assessment details
Assessment Item 1: Positions Paper
Value: 25%
Words: 1,500-2,000
Due: Monday of Study Session 6, by 4pm
You are required to produce a ‘Positions Paper’ that identifies the pros
and cons of media globalisation (or globalisation as it relates to the
media), drawing from the current arguments you have covered in your
weekly readings and heard in the lectures.
You can choose to either present these ‘positions’ as a formal essay
(researched, paragraphed, double-spaced and referenced) or in tabular
form (with a column each for the pros and cons). Either way, these
arguments must be concise, clearly put forward, sufficiently explained
in proper sentences and referenced as necessary (using the Chicago
author-date method). For referencing information, go to:
Whichever presentation format you choose, the following issues
should be addressed in your paper:
What is media globalisation and how does it relate to
What are the key cultural, political and economic implications of
media globalisation?
Are audiences or media users better served with globalisation?
Are there winners and/or losers in the era of media globalisation?
If so, identify them (organisations, individuals or groups).
Include other pertinent issues that you consider relevant to this
Hint: This assignment is not an exercise in originality. Rather, it is an
exercise in how well you can re-present existing arguments.
Important: Consult the Assignment Marking Guide & Criteria on
page 11.
12 MCC314 Unit information
Assessment Item 2: Critical Essay
Value: 40%
Words: 2,500-3,000
Due: Monday of Study Session 10, by 4pm
This is a critical essay that requires in-depth scholarly research and
You are to embark on a critical analysis of a ‘global media
organisation’ of your choice. (News Corporation is the organisation
you are not permitted to analyse because it is already covered in the
unit material.) In the course of your analysis, you should:
Explain how and why your chosen organisation is a ‘global
media organisation’;
Provide a referenced summary of the organisation’s corporate
structure and ownership status (i.e. who owns it and what does it
Address how this organisation contributes to or impacts upon
global media cultures… Or does it?
Address how this organisation contributes to or impacts upon
national media policies and cultures… Or does it?
Although this critical essay aims to translate concepts and theories
into practice, your essay must engage with key concepts examined in
the unit, particularly those in the key text(s). You are expected to
source for supporting literature from scholarly books and academic
journal articles via the library database, and avoid using Internetbased references (especially personal blogs/vlogs and other
‘unaccredited’ websites) in your essay.
Your essay must be typed and double-spaced. You must use the
Chicago referencing systems (Chicago author-date method). For
information on how to cite references, visit:
Important: Consult the Assignment Marking Guide & Criteria on
page 11.
MCC314 Unit Information 13
Assessment Item 3: Test
Value: 20%
Date: During Lecture in Study Session 12
This test will be based on the prescribed readings and lecture material
covered in the entire unit.
The test will be treated like an examination. Your scripts will be
marked but not returned.
More details of this Test – as well as useful tips – will be given during
the semester.
As this assessment item will be treated as an examination, do note that
no request for extensions will be entertained (with the exception of
serious or unforeseen emergencies). It is therefore your responsibility
to plan ahead to be free from other duties in Session 12.
For further information about examinations, refer to
Assessment Item 4: Tutorial Participation / LMS Participation &
Value: 15%
Ongoing Assessment
A vital part of your learning in this unit occurs through tutorials. Your
participation mark is not limited to physical and proactive
participation, but also includes participation on the unit’s LMS
Discussion Tool.
The main feature of the LMS website is the Discussion Tool. You are
encouraged to use the Discussion Tool (your participation mark is
based on your LMS inputs/participation) to discuss issues relating to
the unit and to post interesting news items or weblinks for all to
access. The Discussion Tool enables you to communicate with
everyone across the unit, not just those people in your tutorial. The
LMS is a great opportunity to air your opinions and generate debate,
14 MCC314 Unit information
but please make sure that your contributions are polite and observe the
bounds of courtesy and civility (as per University policy)!
Assignment cover sheets
Assignments in hard copy MUST be submitted with a correctly and
completed filled out and time stamped COVER SHEET, available
next to the Assignment Box. Be sure to clearly state your Tutor’s
name to get your work into the right hands.
Electronic assignment submission
If your Tutor prefers to receive assignments electronically, please
use the Electronic Cover Sheet available at:
Assignments should be submitted electronically through the
LMS. Your Tutor may prefer to receive assignments via email. In
any case, the coversheet and assignment should be submitted as a
single file.
So that your work does not get mixed up with others', use a
filename which follows the convention: Unit Code, Assignment
Number, the first three characters of your last name, your first
initial and your Student Number. e.g.
FDN155Assign2ChoJ12345678 for student June Chong.
Assignment submission
Submit your written assignments (i.e. your Positions Paper and
Critical Essay) in hard copy format with the Assignment Cover Sheet
into the prescribed Assignment Box. You are required to always keep
a hard copy of submitted work, even after submission, and produce it
on demand in the event your assignment is accidentally damaged or
goes missing. This is a non-negotiable requirement for all
MCC314 Unit Information 15
Late work will receive a deduction of 10% for each day late (each day
of the weekend is included!).
Attendance/participation requirements
A vital part of your learning in this unit occurs through tutorials. It is
therefore absolutely crucial that you attend and participate in tutorials.
If you cannot make a tutorial because you are sick, please supply your
tutor with a doctor’s certificate. We do not have tutorial presentations
but rather try to engage the whole of the class each week through
group work and other exercises. This will lead to more interesting and
informative classes, but it also means it is important that everyone
prepares for tutorials by completing the reading – and turning up to
Remember that your tutorial participation mark is for participation,
NOT attendance (but you obviously cannot participate if you are
absent!). Another important reason for attending tutorials regularly is
that you will get to know your tutor and fellow course-mates. They
would then be in a better position to render special assistance if you
encounter personal or study difficulties during the semester.
Determination of the final grade
Please come and have a chat if you are encountering any kind of
difficulty that is hindering your study. If you are sick, or because of
circumstances beyond your control, and you can not complete an
assignment on time, let us know at least a week before the
assignment is due.
Great emphasis is placed on the active learning that goes on in
lectures, tutorials and LMS. You must therefore complete ALL
assignments in order to pass the unit. Failure to complete one
component or more will mean that you have failed the entire unit.
This is to ensure that once completing this unit you would have
learned and understood the key theories of Communication & Media
necessary for successful progression towards completion of your
studies at Murdoch University. It follows therefore that missing a
substantial portion of the unit means you have not satisfactorily
completed the unit.
16 MCC314 Unit information
If you require an extension, you must request it at least a week before
the due date. Any request for extension must be backed up by a
certifiable document, e.g. doctor’s certificate. Please note that
extensions are granted ONLY in extenuating circumstances, so if
you do not have a good reason, you will not get an extension.
(Computer crashes, lost or stolen portable devices or thumb drives,
transport woes and car breakdowns, too many assignments, etc. are all
Late work will receive a deduction of 10% for each day late (each day
of the weekend is included!). Please note that you are required to keep
a copy of all work submitted for assessment. In the event that your
submission goes missing, you will be required to produce a copy on
demand for marking or reassessment.
All results for assessment components which have not been moderated
by the Unit Coordinator must be considered interim grades. Marks
may therefore be adjusted or scaled to ensure equity of marking and
quality. It is important that you realise that final grades are awarded
by the University upon the recommendation of the School Board of
Examiners, and not by individual Tutors or Coordinators. You may
wish to pay attention to the University's policy and procedures that
allow for a right of “appeal against the final grade in any unit”. The
current University Handbook summarises the procedures, including
deadlines for appeals.
See Section 11 of the Assessment Policy regarding grades
Percentage Range
High Distinction
80 – 100
70 – 79
60 – 69
50 – 59
Below 50
Fail, the student failed to
participate in assessment
components that had a
combined weighting of 50% or
more of the final mark.
MCC314 Unit Information 17
Supplementary Assessment
45 – 49*
* The award of the grade of S shall be at the discretion of the Unit Coordinator
except where clause 11.8 applies.
The grade descriptors are provided in the Murdoch University
Handbook and Calendar and at
University policy on assessment
Assessment for this unit is in accordance with the provisions of
Degree Regulations 40–48. Check these in the current Murdoch
University Handbook and Calendar or
Assessment roles and responsibilities
Please refer to the Assessment Policy links document on Rights and
Responsibilities of Students and Staff
Academic Integrity
Murdoch University encourages its students and staff to pursue the
highest standards of integrity in all academic activity. Academic
integrity involves behaving ethically and honestly in scholarship and
relies on respect for others’ ideas through proper acknowledgement
and referencing of publications.
Lack of academic integrity, including the examples listed below, can
lead to serious penalties.
Find out more about how to reference properly and avoid plagiarism at:
Inappropriate or inadequate acknowledgement of
original work including:
 Material copied word for word without any
18 MCC314 Unit information
acknowledgement of its source
 Material paraphrased without appropriate
acknowledgement of its source
 Images, designs, experimental results, computer
code etc used or adapted without
acknowledgement of the source.
Ghost writing
An assignment written by a third party and
represented by a student as her or his own work.
Material copied from another student’s assignment
with her or his knowledge.
Material copied from another student’s assignment
or work without that person’s knowledge.
Adapted from Section 9.3 of the Assessment Policy, Plagiarism and
Plagiarism-checking software
The University uses software called Turnitin which checks for
plagiarism. The Coordinator may have added a link to Turnitin in your
online unit. Please note that when you or your Unit Coordinator
submit assignments electronically to Turnitin, a copy of your work is
retained on the database to check collusion and future plagiarism. The
University has a legal agreement with Turnitin that it will not share or
reproduce student work in any form.
Non-discriminatory language
Please refer to:
Student appeals
Please refer to:
Student grievance handling procedures
MCC314 Unit Information 19
Please refer to:
Conscientious objection in teaching and assessment
(This relates to an objection based on an individual’s deep moral conviction of what is
right and wrong)
For guidelines on conscientious objection, see
20 MCC314 Unit information
Global Media Industries
Learning Guide
How to use this Learning Guide
This information is designed to help you move through the unit
in a way which will lead to thorough, critical and reflective
A very good idea would be to complete the essential readings
before the lecture so that you can obtain the most benefit from
the lecture when you attend.
Although the study questions/practice exercises are optional,
your Tutor will be drawing on your reflections on these
questions, and in turn your answers will help you consolidate
your learning and assist you in becoming an independent learner,
researcher, and critical thinker.
Hint: Preparing for study questions will help you be a pro-active
participant in tutorials and LMS discussions, and contribute
towards your Participation mark.
MCC314 Learning Guide 1
Essential reading
Read and familiarise yourself with this entire Unit Information &
Learning Guide, including assignment components, due dates and
2 MCC314 Learning Guide
What is Globalisation?
Essential reading
1. Steger, M. B. 2002. The Academic Debate over Globalization.
In Globalism: The New Market Ideology, 17-41. Maryland:
Rowman & Littlefield.
2. Kearney, A. T. 2006. The Globalization Index. Foreign Policy,
Nov/Dec 2006: 74-81.
Recommended reading
Featherstone, M, S. Lash
and R. Robertson, eds. 1995. Global Modernities. London:
Hamelink, C. 1995. A
Global Village? World Communication: Disempowerment and
Self-empowerment, 1-13. London: Zed.
Mittelman, J. H., ed.
1997. Globalization: Critical Reflections, 21-30. Boulder:
Lynne Rienner.
MCC314 Learning Guide 3
Internet Activity: There are many websites that cover topics
relating to globalisation, issues associated with globalisation, as
well as globalisation and the media. Surf the Net and bring a
description of the website (as well as the URL or web address) to
your tutorial and share it with your course mates.
Study questions
globalisation in your own words.
you a proponent or an opponent of globalisation? Why?
ding to Steger, globalisation has a ‘multidimensional character’.
What are the key dimensions highlighted in your 1st reading?
are the four categories that A.T. Kearney uses to measure
4 MCC314 Learning Guide
Global Media: Key Concepts
Essential reading
Chapter 1 – Flew (2007).
Recommended reading
1. Thompson, J. B. 1995. The Globalisation of Communication. In
The Media and Modernity, 149-178. London: Polity.
2. Croteau, D. and W. Hoynes. 2001. Media Society: Industries,
Images and Audiences, 2nd ed, California: Pine Forge Press.
3. Morley, D. and K. Robins. 1995. Globalisation as Identity
Crisis: The new global media landscape. In Spaces of Identity:
Global media, electronic landscapes and cultural boundaries,
10-25. London: Routledge.
4. Barker, C. 1997. Global Television. Oxford: Blackwell.
5. Herman, E. S. and R. W. McChesney. 1997. The Global Media,
70-105. London: Cassell.
Study questions
According to Flew, the term ‘media’ is understood in a three-fold
MCC314 Learning Guide 5
sense. What are these three ‘senses’?
Global Media: Theories
Essential reading
Chapter 2 – Flew (2007)
Recommended reading
1. Rantanen, T. 2005. The Media and Globalization. London:
2. Devereux, E. 2003. Understanding the Media. London: Sage.
Internet Activity: There are many websites that cover topics
relating to globalisation, issues associated with globalisation, as
well as globalisation and the media. Surf the Net and bring a
description of the website (as well as the URL or web address) to
your tutorial and share it with your course mates.
Study questions
1. Flew presents two influential academic paradigms for
understanding global media: Critical political economy and
cultural studies. What are the similarities and differences in
these two paradigms?
6 MCC314 Learning Guide
2. What is ‘strong globalization’? Can there also be ‘weak
globalization? Think about this and discuss at your tutorial.
Global Media Corporations and
Essential reading
Chapter 3 – Flew (2007).
Recommended reading
Croteau, D. and W. Hoynes. 2001. The
Business of Media: Corporate Media and the Public Interest.
Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. (Read especially Part 2)
Thussu, D. K. 2000. International
Communication: Continuity and Change. London: Arnold.
Study questions
Is profit the primary motivation for media conglomerates? Discuss.
MCC314 Learning Guide 7
‘New’ Global Media:
Knowledge Economy and Competition
Essential reading
Chapter 4 – Flew (2007).
Third, A. and K.-T. Kao.
2008. ICT Leapfrogging Policy and Development in the Third
World. In Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security, ed.
M. Quigley, 326-334. Hershey, PA: Information Science
Recommended reading
ar, M. G., ed. 2003. The Impact of International Television: A
Paradigm Shift. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
(Read especially Chapter 1)
urai, A. 1996. Disjuncture and Difference in the Global
Cultural Economy. In Modernity at Large: Cultural
Dimensions of Globalization, 27-47. Minnesota: University of
Minnesota Press.
8 MCC314 Learning Guide
Study questions
1. What is the ‘knowledge economy’ all about? What is ‘new’
about a knowledge-based approach towards understanding the
global media?
2. What is leapfrogging policy and how does it impact on the
‘new competition’ in global media industries?
MCC314 Learning Guide 9
Cultural Globalisation:
Imperialism or Hybridity?
Essential reading
Chapter 5 – Flew (2007).
Recommended reading
1. Tomlinson, J. 1997. Internationalism, Globalisation and
Cultural Imperialism. In Media and Cultural Regulation, ed. K.
Thompson, 117-153. London: Sage.
2. Boyd-Barrett, O. 1998. Media imperialism reformulated. In
Electronic Empires: Global Media and Local Resistance, ed. D.
K. Thussu, 157-176. London: Arnold.
3. Wang, J. 1997. Global Media and Cultural Change. Media Asia
4. Schiller, H. 1991. Not Yet the Post-Imperialist Era. Critical
Studies in Mass Communication 8:13-28.
5. Tomlinson, J. 1991. Cultural Imperialism: A critical
introduction. London: Pinter.
10 MCC314 Learning Guide
Study questions
1. Flew proposes four ways to think about culture and cultural
globalisation. What are they?
2. How would you conceptualise or characterise your own
culture? Is it integrated or diverse?
3. Is the cultural imperialism thesis defunct today?
4. Is there a need to protect local culture, media programs,
products and industries? Or is hybridity and variety more
valuable? Explain.
MCC314 Learning Guide 11
National Media Policies,
Culture and Creativity
Essential reading
1. Chapter 6 – Flew (2007).
2. ‘Conclusion: Theories of Global Media Revisited’ – Flew
Recommended reading
1. Flew, T. 2002. Creative Industries. In New Media: An
Introduction, 114-138. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
2. Florida, R. 2002. The Rise of the Creative Class. New York:
Basic Books.
Study questions
1. What are the creative industries and how do they relate to the
global media industries?
2. This week’s lecture screening introduces the somewhat
12 MCC314 Learning Guide
sensitive topic of ‘offshoring’ to get us to think about current
and future uses (and abuses) of global media and the
technologies that enable. Consider:
a. Why does off-shoring (i.e. the moving of backroom
jobs offshore) receive such bad press in the
mainstream media?
b. Are we getting smarter or does technology have a
dumbing-down effect on our society, culture and
3. Finally, do you agree with Flew’s conclusion (2007, 214) that
the past 25 years of media globalisation has not resulted in a
world dominated by a “much smaller number of global media
monopolies”? Flew argues that we are witnessing instead the
emergence of a “complex industrial and cultural geography of
global media”. Consider your position in light of the 3 case
studies that we will be embarking on over the next three
MCC314 Learning Guide 13
Case Study 1:
9/11 & 27/7 News
Essential reading
1. Lee, T. and C. Giles. 2004. Discursive realities: Global media
and September 11. Australian Journal of Communication
2. Magder, T. 2003. Watching what we say: Global
Communication in a Time of Fear. In War and the Media, eds.
D. K. Thussu and D. Freedman, 28-43. London: Sage.
3. Thussu, D. K. 2003. Live TV and Bloodless Deaths: War,
Infotainment and 24/7 News. In War and the Media, eds. D. K.
Thussu and D. Freedman, 117-132. London: Sage.
Recommended reading
1. Thussu, D. K. and D. Freedman, eds. 2003. War and the Media.
London: Sage.
2. Seib, P. 2004. Beyond the Front Lines: How the news media
cover a world shaped by war. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
3. Wilson, H. and L. Jacka. 2004. American Empire: Media and
International Insecurity. Special Themed Issue of Media
International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy 113.
14 MCC314 Learning Guide
Study questions
1. Create a shortlist of up to 10 changes to global media after the
events of 9/11. Consider how these changes impact upon your
view of the world.
2. Identify the main characteristics of 24/7 news.
3. Consider your favourite TV news on your local TV station. Is
the format of ‘infotainment’ present? Give an example to make
your case.
MCC314 Learning Guide 15
Case Study 2:
Rupert Murdoch & News Corporation
Essential reading
1. Schmidt, R. 2001. Murdoch Reaches for the Sky. In Brill’s
Content, June 2001:75-79, 126-129.
2. Atkins, W. 2002. Reassertion of State Control – International
Dimensions. In The Politics of Southeast Asia’s New Media,
116-152. Surrey: Curzon Press.
Recommended reading
1. Marjoribanks, T. 2000. News Corporation, Technology and the
Workplace: Global Strategies, Local Change. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
2. The Rules According to Rupert, Fortune, Oct 26, 1998: 92.
(NB: This article can be accessed through either the 'ProQuest'
or ‘Expanded Academic ASAP’ Library databases).
3. Barr, T. 2000. The changing face of
Australia’s media and communication. Sydney: Allen and
16 MCC314 Learning Guide
Study questions
1. The major reason for the success of News Corporation has been
the company's degree of vertical integration. Discuss.
2. The economic power of a media mogul like Murdoch does not
represent a political or a cultural concern. Do you agree? Why
or why not?
MCC314 Learning Guide 17
Case Study 3:
Global/Regional Media Hub
of Singapore
Essential reading
1. Lee, T. 2005. Going online: Journalism and civil society in
Singapore. In Journalism and Democracy in Asia, eds. A.
Romano and M. Bromley, 15-27. London: Routledge.
2. Rodan, G. 2003. Embracing electronic media but suppressing
civil society: Authoritarian consolidation in Singapore. The
Pacific Review 16(4):503-524.
Recommended reading
1. Media Development Authority (MDA). 2003. Media 21:
Transforming Singapore into a Global Media City. Singapore:
Media Development Authority of Singapore. Available online:
2. Birch, D. 1993. Singapore Media: Communication Strategies
and Practices. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.
3. Seow, F. T. 1998. The Media Enthralled: Singapore Revisited.
Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
18 MCC314 Learning Guide
4. Rodan, G. 2006. Transparency and Authoritarian Rule in
Southeast Asia: Singapore and Malaysia. London: Routledge.
Study questions
1. What are the pros and cons of Singapore’s global media hub
2. Is there another competing global media hub in the Asia-Pacific
region? Does Singapore have a competitive advantage over this
hub, or is Singapore under threat?
MCC314 Learning Guide 19
Review & Final Test
Please remember to turn up at lecture to sit for your Final Test.
More information about this Test is available nearer this date.
In preparation for your Final Test, you are encouraged to do the
 Browse all the Essential Readings from Sessions 1 to 11, and
extract a few key concepts or ideas from each week, taking
note of how these concepts and ideas have any impact on the
world around us, and ensure you are able to explain this in
your own words.
 Clarify with your Tutor concepts that you are not too familiar
 Go through the Study Questions in the Guide, and arm
yourself with ready answers for all of them.
Remember that you must sit for the Final Test (regardless of your
overall marks up to this point) in order to pass the unit.
Steady as she goes.
20 MCC314 Learning Guide