英本 10508 班 梁文霞 200508803 翻译页码 62-64，68-70 Eight opinions about the origin of the Dragon Boat Festival In order to commemorate the great poets- Ququan Acording to the first opinion, the Dragon Boat Festival is used to commemorate the death of Quyuan who is a great patriotic poet.. Acording to the second opinion, this festival is used to commemorate the birthday of Lilongji who was a king and borned in Auguest 5th based on the lunar calendar. Acording to the third opinion, this festival is a dragon’s birthday, coming from the tutern’ fete-day held by people in the Wuyue district. Acording to the forth opinion, this festival is used to commemorate Wuzixu. And acording to the sixth opinion, this festival comes from the Summer Solstice of Xia, Shang, and Zhou periods. And acording to the sixth opinon, this festival comes from Qiaori and in order to avoid bad luck. And acording to the seventh opinion, the meaning of this festival is different from the north area to the south area. That is to say, the festival in the south area is to commemorate Quyuan while in the north area is a festival for spring outing. And acording to the last opinon, this festival is in order to commemorate the four heroes in Gaiyang who and hijacked the rich redressed the poor. The Dragon Boat Festival May 5th May 5th is the Dragon Boat Festival, which is also called Duanyangjie. During this day, people always eat rice dumplings ,drink Realgar wine,wear herb package,smok the house with Ay Tsao,and people who live beside the water always hold a compition on boating. It is said all thses activities are held to commemorate the patriotic poet-Quyuan, who lived during the Zhanguo period before more than 2000 years.it is said after Quyuan was exiled by the King of Cu,Qing captured Chendu, and Quyuan was very angry sad about this, so in order to dedicate himself to the service of his motherland he drowned himself in the river. So the later generations in order to commemerate him take that day as the Dragon Boat Festival. During the festival people prelvail in eating rice dumplings which are made of rice and leaves..it is said people threw rice dumplings in the river to commemorate Quyuan as well as feed the fish and dragon in the water to prevent them from eating Quyuan’s body after his death. Boating is also passed after the death of Quyuan, it show the people’s urgent of rescuing Quyuan. The International Working Women’s Day in ancientry time Internationgal Working Women’s Day has apeared in ancientry time in our country. This festival can be devided into regional festival and national festival. For example, regional festival refers that young women made up themselves and weared gava flowers while the married women came back from may 1st to 5th , this festival also can be called daughter’s day. YuYouding in Ningbo said in his The Song Of Daughters’ Day in Beijing that all the women in Beijing wore beautiful clothes and flowers to celebrate the festival in May 5th . Besides, all the mothers took back their married daughters on September 9th to eat Huagao which is made of flour and jujube. It was abnormal if the mothers did not take back their married daughters to home on that day. The similar festival in Hefei is on the date of June 6th. Jiaqin jin Qing dynasty said in his The Log Of H efei that June 6th is second important to The Spring Festival in China, all the women along with their husbands came back to their mothers’ houses. The national festival is like valentine's day in China on July 7th , which is also called the Daughters’ Day. It is sure that The International Working Women’s Day in ancientry time has a very different meaning with it in the morden time. The origin of the Valentine's Day in China July 7th , cowboy and vega The Valentine's Day is one of the traditional festivals in China. It refers to the evening of July 7th, and it Originated from a legend of cowboy and vega. The story is like this, cowboy was a young men who herded cattle while vega was a fairy. And vega thought that there was no freedom on high so she came to the human world . Then with the help of the cow, cowboy With the help of the cow, cowboy met vega and they fell in love with eachother, so they married and vega gave a birth to a boy and a girl. But one day the Heavenly Queen Mother took vega back to welkin. And cowboy and vega were parted by the milky way which was drew by the Heavenly Queen Mother with her hairpin when cowboy ran after vega with his tow children. And Heavenly Queen Mother allowed then to meet only on July 7th every year. So a lot of magpies came and formed a bridge over the milky way, cowboy and vega meet on the bridge. And this is the origin of The Double Seventh Festival. It is also called the Daughters’ Day. A lot of countrysieds in the north of China have a cultom like this: people display fruits to beg from vega on July 7th and in hope of gaining craft from. There is another customs among the people. That is the mothers take back their married daugthers on July 7th, in case that the Heavenly Queen Mother part them when she see their happy lives after married. People used this way to get long-term happy lives. So this day is also called the day for evading. As July is a rainy season, so it is also called rain dayon July 7th,people think the rain as tears os cowboy and vega when they met. It is said that one can see cowboy and vega as well as hear their talk on July 7th if he sit under the frame of grape on that day. Zhong Yuan Festival to commemmorate ancestors and think fondly of the death July 15 is ZhongYuan Festival, which is also called “The Ghost Day”. On this day th people often commemmerate ancestors and thin fondly of the death. And temples often hold activities such as mum orchid party, realizing wishes of the death; people can buy clothes of the death, oiled cakes and so on from the market to commemmerate their ancestors and get to know the harvest forecast. The Origin of The Mid-autumn Festival Augest 15th, wish everyone had a long-term life and could enjoy the beautiful moon on this day. Augest 15th is our traditiongal festival-the Mid-autumn Festival. Qu Yangzhan in Tang dynasty iexplained the origin of the Mid-autumn Festival in this way: autumn is between summer and winter, and the Augest is the middle month of autumn, and the middle day os the Augest is 15th, so the name of the festival comes from this. The festival is also called Augest festival by people. The festival can be traced back to Han dynasty in our country. But the festival was on the beginning day of autumn rather than on Augest 15th. The record of the Mid-autumn Festival had increased a lot in Song dynasty, so it became the second important festival in our country which was only second to the Spring Festival. Zeng Xingwen legalized the Mid-autumn Festival as the autumn festival in the first year of the new China, he said:” there will be foyr kind of important festivals in China, Jkanuary 1st will be the Spring Festival, the Dragon Boat Festival will be the summer festiva, the Mid-autumn Festival will be the autumn festival and the ending day of winter will be the winter festival.” Up to the present, the Mid-zutumn Festival is still one of the four traditional festivals in China. In China, it’s the custom for people to eat the moon cakes on the Mid-autumn Festival. There is a legend about the origin of the moon cakes. The legend is like this: the King of Qianlong came to the city of Hangzhou during the middle of autumn, and someone gave him some sweet cakes to eat, so he enjoyed the moon over a cake and saying: “ it’s a beautiful night of a middle autumn day along with the beautiful moon delicious cakes.” From then on, the sweet cakes were called the moon cakes. It’s unreasonable to attribute the name of the moon cakes to Qianlong acording to the legend. So people in Jiangshu disttict often treated their back relatives with the moon cakes in the Mid-autumn Festival. And after that , this kind of custom spreaded to the whole country. The monn cakes are also called “reunion cake”, and family reunion in the Mid-autumn Festival is a long-term custom, so the festival is also called “festival for reunion”. The whole family members enjoying the moon cakes and the beautiful moon in the eveningof that day. If one’s ralatives are in a different place, one can express his feeling of missing by watching the moon. The greet scholar Shushi in Song dynasty used to wrote a very famouse sentence to think fondly nof his little brother. The Custom of Enjoying the Moon in Ancient China From Xizhou dynasty August 15 is the Mid-autumn Festival in China. Wei Zhuang said in his “Song Lixiu th Kai Gui Jing xi” : “ the moon in the Mid-autumn Festival is very round, I saw you off on the boat”. “Ti Yao Lu” recored “ Augest 15th is also called Yuexi”. There are a lot of traditional customs in the Mid-autumn Festival. From ancient times to jthe present , enjoying the moon, worshipping the moon and eating the moon cakes are the old customs, but the most famouse4 is enjoying the moon. The customs of enjoying the moon at the ancient time was displaying the fruits and moon cakes in the yard, enjoying the moon and sweet osmanthus and other flowers; worshipping the moon god and drinking, people even began to leave late at night. This custom began in Xizhou dynasty. At that time, the palace was in Xian, and the Kin went to the west of the city at the evening of the Mid-autumn Festival ton worship. “Long Cheng Lu” recorded that : “ in 728 year of Tang dynasty, Tang xuanzong had a dream that he came to the palace of the moon, and saw more than 10 fairied singing and dancing under the tree of the sweet osmanthus, so he remembered the notes of the music and formed a new tune which is famous as Ni ShangYuYi Wu. It is said that the custom of enjoying the moon was more famery in song dynasty since Lang Ming Huang. At that time the scholars esteemed the thory of confucianists, wearing quiet ciothes and enjoying the fairies dcmcing Zhou Mi in Nan Song dynasty said in his Kui Xin Zha Shi that the king enjoyed the moon on the bridage in the evening of the mid autumn Festival . There were a lot of wtas flowers in the pools , the bridage was made of bricahs similar to jade . The bottles store and wine not used by the king were made of crystals . The servants of the place played music on the two sides of the pool there were about zoo people played the flute. Another impressive sight in Nan Song dynasty in the Mid autumn Festival was the tide of QianIang jiang “Qian chun sui shi ji” recorded that in 1183 Song Jiao Zong watched the tide, and found that the tide silver thread and as it closed it secame a jade city. In Yuan dynasty, “Yuan Shi Ye Ting Ji” recorded that Yuan Wu Zong went boating with his wives in the evening of the Mid antumn Festival. Their boat was decorated by the colured ribbon, and they piched the fruits of the lotus fiowers. During the Ming and Qing Dynasty, people dispiayed badge of the moon palace besicles the fruits and the moon cakes, the moon God and the place were drem on the badge; the also displayed the “Rabbit badge” which liked a general, wearing a hat, riding a tiger or with a fiag inserting in his clothes, his appearance was very lovely. In Yang Zhou and shu zhou chstriets in Jiang Shu province, the tourists went boating on the river or enjoyed the moon together on the bridage. People in Nan Xum of Guang bong province made a light by the shell of the pomelo and to celebrate the festival. The Teachers’ Day in Our Country . September 10th In 1936,exucationists in big cities as Beijing and Shang Hai suggested that taking the date of Jane 6th as the Teachers’ Day, and that suggestion guaned the whole cowntry’s support, so June 6th was decided as bthe Teachers’ Day. But in 1938, Chen Life was elected as the minister of educution department, but he deniecr that takeing the day of June 6th as the Teachers’ Day and suggested that taking Korcgzi’s birthday August 27th as the Teachers’ Day. But this ended with the disagreaments. In 1950, premier Zhou en lai suggested that as the teachers are brain workers. So the Teachers’ Day should be on the same day as the Internatimal Workers’ Day . and this suggstion was declared formly by the leader of education department cond committee of the teachers. But because of the effect of exterm left thought, it was failed. After we reformed our country anel took the open poliey, our government respects krlovoledge and taleated people, paying more attation on the education and and takes septamber 10th of every year as the Teachers’ Day. The Origion And Legend of September 9th The saying of “Double nine”can be traced back to the book of “ YiJing”. The book regards the September as Yang Bo and the 9th as YangShu, as the month and the day of September 9th are nine, so the day was called ‘double nine”. Acording to Quyuan’s poem about the Double nine,the custom apeared in Zhanguo period tow thousand years ago. There are a lot of customs on the Double nine, such as climbing mountain, enjoying mum,dring, climbing mountain on that day can be traced back to the book of “Xu Qi Xie Ji” written by Wujun in Liang dynasty. The general idea is like this in DongHan dynasty: a devil killed a lot of people by spreading virus. In order to kill the devil, aman called Huanjing paid a visit to Fei Changfang and learned the way of killing the devil from him. And FeiChangfang told him that people can aviod being killed by the devil on that day by climbing and drinking. So Huangjing told the way of taking refuge and killed the devil. So the custom of climbing montain and drinking on that day was passed on generation by generation. A lot of poets in each dynasty have witten a lot of exciting poems on climbing montain and drinking on the Double nine, such as Caopi’s poem “the time is flying, the Double nie coming again”. The December 8th Festival On December 8th The day of december 8th is called the December 8th Festival and which is also called “Buddha Festival’. Zhou mi’s Wu Li Shi recorded “ monk in the temples and people make porridge by pine tree nuts, chestnuts,walnuts and something like that on December 8th. And this kind of porridge is also called the December 8th Festival poridge”.it is said that the father of Buddhism Sakyamuni went a lot of places to look for principle of Buddhism, at last he came to MoJie tuo country and realized his dream by sitting and thinking deeply under a tree on December 9th. So the monks commemerate the day by gathering and reciting and making the porridge. The New Year’s Eve The last evening of a lunar calender year. The New Year’s Eve is the last evening of a lunar calendar year, it is also called the NewYear’s Night. The New Year’s Eve is an old and important festival in our country, and it comes from “expelling the devil” in primary Qin dynasty. Acording to Lv Shi Chun Qiu Ji Dong Ji, it is said that the ancients expelled the devil by hitting the drum before the day of a new year and this is the source of the New Year’s Eve. There are a lot of intresting customs on that day: people greeting each other is called “greeting year”, inviting each other called “saying good bye to the old year”, paying sleepless night on that day os called “waiting for the new year” In our country there is another custom on that day, that is messing together by the whole family, and the meal always contains the chicken, dunk, meat, fish and so on. People get together to review the past year and look forward to the new year to their hearts’ content. The Intitution of Being of Age at Ancient Time in Our Country Men wore hat twenty and married at thirty; women wore hairpin cot fifteen and married at twenty. The institution of being of age at our ancient time adapted the convention “men wearing hat while women wearing hairing” generation by genesation at anient time, wearing hat was an important event in men’s life, so people often held a spencial cereming on a selected lucky day and invited people to take part in the ceremonyand the ceremony was also called “the ceremony for wearing hat”. The so called wearing haiping was that women could wear hairpin at a pointed age to show that they were of ages. The difference was women who were allowed to marrie ofen wore the hairpin more early them those who were not allowed to marrie. Certainly, either wearing of the ministers and the class about the ministers ceremony. As to the age of wearing hat and hairpin, “men were hat at twenty and marrie at thirty while women were hairpin at fifteen and marrie at twenty” was as a general rule of that. But a lot of men of renown in the history wore the hat more early tham that stipulated age for example. Sang Hang yang in the xihan dynasty had been a governor of a province at the age of thinteen, so he must wear the hat before the age of thirteen. As to the Kings and the ministers, most of them didnrt follow the general rude of being of age , they always were the hat more early them that. Du You said in his “Tong Dian” : “the kings can wear hat on early as twelve but must before the age of fifteen fore example, the king of xihem wore the hat at the age of twelve. The Intitution of Being of Age at Ancient Time in Our Country Men wore hat twenty and married at thirty; women wore hairpin cot fifteen and married at twenty. The institution of being of age at our ancient time adapted the convention “men wearing hat while women wearing hairing” generation by genesation at anient time, wearing hat was an important event in men’s life, so people often held a spencial cereming on a selected lucky day and invited people to take part in the ceremonyand the ceremony was also called “the ceremony for wearing hat”. The so called wearing haiping was that women could wear hairpin at a pointed age to show that they were of ages. The difference was women who were allowed to marrie ofen wore the hairpin more early them those who were not allowed to marrie. Certainly, either wearing of the ministers and the class about the ministers ceremony. As to the age of wearing hat and hairpin, “men were hat at twenty and marrie at thirty while women were hairpin at fifteen and marrie at twenty” was as a general rule of that. But a lot of men of renown in the history wore the hat more early tham that stipulated age for example. Sang Hang yang in the xihan dynasty had been a governor of a province at the age of thinteen, so he must wear the hat before the age of thirteen. As to the Kings and the ministers, most of them didnrt follow the general rude of being of age , they always were the hat more early them that. Du You said in his “Tong Dian” : “the kings can wear hat on early as twelve but must before the age of fifteen fore example, the king of xihem wore the hat at the age of twelve. The Family Members At Ancient in Our Country The basic form was that couples of most common people lived with their children or their grandsons and granddaughters together. How big were the traditional families in China? Zhang zuo said in his article which was published in the research in sociology that the basic form was that couple of most common people lived with their children or their grandsons and granddaughters together except that among a few rich people one husband lived with more wives. Because of the shor-term of the average lives, it’s very unusual to be alive until seventy age, so in most of the big families, there was only one old person, and other members of family except the couple tho keeped house always had their own small family after growing up, because of all of that, the scale of the big families was not really big. The rate of the big families with a lot jof members was very low. The Investigation of Population at Ancient Time in Our Country Our country is one of the earliest countries made investigation of the population in the world. It is said that Xiayu began to make an investigation of population and land after bring the water under control andseperated China into nine states. It is recorded in “Hou Han Shu- Jun Guo Zhi” that the total number of population at Xiayu time was 13,503,923. acording to the record of “Zhou Li Gai Ji Zai”, official for population investigation appeared in Shang dynasty. During Chunqiuzhanguo dynasty, the government took every 25 families as a community, and regestered the population and the land acoeding to the communities. Shang yang in Qing country took the population investigation as an important part of the reform, he eaphsize that it’s very important to know the number of the country’s population. “Guan zi” records the form of population investigajtion at that time.in every year, the government registered the number of the population in spring, verified the figuresin summer and implemented the number of the basic population with a relative detailed outline .Qing Shihuang put the new form in force immediately after unifying the whole country. The new form stipulated that the local official must report the number of the population money, and grain to the King directly or indirectly at the endof every year. Acording to the records of “HanShuDiLiZhi”, the number of population in AD2 was 59,594,978 and the number of families was 12,233,062, and this book was the first book which recorded the number of families and basic population of each state andcountry completely in the history of China. All the feudal dynasties after Qin and Han dynasty had a more detailed, strict form of census register. The form of census register in Sui dynasty stipulated that the magistrates should registerthe family number by themselves on May 5th of every year. And the form of census register in Tang dynasty stiipulated that residents should report their ages and the area of their land to the official who reported the truth to the government , the census register should be made base on the truth every tree years. There was a “way of three kinds of communities in Song dynasty, which stipulated that ten Families composed a cornmunity, and ten communitiescomposd a bigger community; and ten bigger communities composed the biggest commununities which was in charge of censas register. The form of census register in min dynasty made a quite well way of fannily register. During 100 years ofter the king of Qian long in Qing dynasty, there was the number of population in every year. In 15 years of Dao Guang, there was 10000,0000 people in china. Certainly, the census in the ancient time of our country is different from that in howadays. The government in feuded dynasty did that for recuiting troops, leving taxes , controling people , which is completely in the natuern from that in the socialism form. The Consus Registre in Xi Zhou Dynasty The census registre of the whole country was hold every three years. Acorling to the reards of “Zhou Li”.the offiaal of zhou dynasty made on investigation of population in its distriet acrording to the whole country the ruce , the party, the state and the townshipevery year, and reported the number to the central government who tooh charge in census registration then the central govesnment totalled and registered the census through the whole and marhede the situation of popula tion and the death and so on. The census registration of the whole country was held every three years,during that time , the central government who take charrge in census registration reported the resaalt to a higher government and then the higher government reported that to the king. The kingof Zhou dynasty often held a ceremonywhen accepting the booklet of census, and then gave it to the official to preserve. During the last years of Xizhou dynasty, because of the collapse of the old land form, it was hard tor the King to make population investigation acording to the townships and the villages. A larger scale of census registeration was made in Taiyuan until AD789. From then on ,the census registeration of the whole country was abolished. The Census Registration in Sui Dynasty Made registration acording to people’s appearance every year During Qin and Han dynasty, the central gevernment got to know the number of the population from the local government every year. The form of makingregistration acording to people’s appearance which was more detailed was used from Sui dynasty. The new form was that to confirm the age and appearance of the censusu booklet acording to one’s appearanc. This form was used to aviod someone escaping from the tax by saying lie of the real age,if anyone who was found lying,he would be send away from his hometown. It was the same in Tang dynasty. The government in Tang dynasty made regitration of population every year and made three copies of booklets of censusu every three years acording to the censusu form, one copy of booklet was preserved by the government in a province while other tow copies were preserved by the government in a country. In feudal society, censusu registration was used to strengthen the burden of peasants. The Records Of Census Registration In Ming Dynasty It was regarded as the earliest records of census registration in the world by the western scholors of statistics history. In Ming dynasty, residencebooklet was used asa form of census management. In November of 1370, Ming taizu send the armies to assist with the local government for the census registration, making the residence booklet which was as a basis of confirming the census recruiting troops and levying taxes. The method is that giving each family a residence booklet which was composed with three parts. The first part was the name of the head of a household, his birthplace and the number of the familily members. The second part contained the name and the age of other members except the household, the relationship between the head of a household and the members, the number of men and women, children and adults. The last part recorded the stable and unstable property in details. The kind of census could be seen in residence booklet too. The booklet of census registration was preserved by the census department. The government changedthe contentof the census registration acording to the number reported by the local government. The form of the census registration in our country was recored in “Zouli”. The government for census management appeared in Han dynasty. In Tang and song dynasty ,census divided and made. In Yuan dynasty , the kinds of the census were more complicated. But on the people who had duties in paying tax except that was made in ming dynasty ,so the number of population is very close to today’s number. It was 400 earlier than that appeared in 1790 in America cond 1801 inBritain. Its adequate straeture and detailed trathful content was really unprecedented. So it was regarded as the earlest records of census registration in the word by the western scholors of statistics history . The First Bring Up Of Population Thery Han fei was the person who brought up the population theary in the word the philosopher Hanfei during last stage is zhan guo dynasty whote in his WuDu “one person has five children, and earch of his children has five childrens this will lead to poverty strichen and the between people”. Han feis such a point of population theary was 2000 earlier than that of M ar sars in Byitacs so Hanfei was the first person who brought up the population theory in the word. There Was 1000,000,000 Population In song dynasty of population in the south larger than that in the north All historians of the past thought that the number of population began to over 100 vmillion , but in the fact, acording to the number of census in Beisong dynasty, there were 46730,000 people in Huizongdayuan 3 year, because of the census registration in song dynasty was always based on the number of the men, so add to the number of the women and men who were not contained in the residence booklet, the number of population had been over 100 million. Because the economic centre in Song dynasty moved from the north to the south, the number of population in the south was twice as much in the north. From then on the situation of the population was established. These are tow important milestones in the population development in our feudalism societies. One Family Only Had One Child Appeared In Tai Pin Tian Guo Each women only gave birth to one child Acording to the records of “Dun Bi Sui Wen Lu”, Tai pin army used to had a stipulation in 1853 which stipulated that each women only can have one child. This records is reliable. Firstly, on the whole, Taipintianguo took a measure of liberating the women, such as prohibitting killing babies, twining feet and so on. Theay also welcomed the women to take part in the social activities and give full play to their roles. Secondly, in the early time of the revolution, a strict form of women living apart from men was carried out, the form stipulated that even a couple cann’t live together. Only until the government of Taipintianguo took Tianjing as the capital, didi the couples can live together on the last day of each month, from then on, family lives recovered little by little, so the fighting strength of women who used to play an important part in military affairs was decende rapidly. Each women has one child was a measure taken to recover the women’s fighting strengh and a new event taken by Taipingtianguo revolution. The Migiration in Tang Dynasty Most immigrants lived in Chang an Tang dynasty was an open society, formalities of going a broad and entering a country were very simple, so the number of migration increased a lot than other dynasties. The large scale of migration in Tang dynasty, promoting the exchange and fuse of the culture. The immigrants lived in a widely area, but most immigrants lived in Chang an. In early time of Tai zong, the east Tujue surrendered and their people didn’t want to live in the territory area, so most of them lived in Chang an. In Gao zong, a servant of Sha shan dynasty in Persia and his son lead a group of Persia people to live in Chang an. In Tai zong time, Tupan occupied He nan province by force, so the communications between the west and the middle ditricts was cut off, so the missions and their family from other countries in the west couldn’t come back to their own countries and had to live in China as immigrants. These were immigrants in a large number. There were more immigrants in small number every time, for example, Cao, An, Kang, Shi, He and others so-called nine aurnames in the west as well as other surnames in Tianzhu contantly immigrated into China during Tang dynasty. The immigrants earned their living in three kinds of ways: the first kind of way being engaged in politics. The tribal chieves of east Tujue who surrendered worked as afficials of Tang dynasty were more than 100. during Wuzetian time, foreigners who took part in the country’s affairs could get more reward. The monk in Japan who’s name was Beizongmalv came to China at 20 years,. He took part in the exams of that time and was selected as an official, he lived for 53 years in China and died in Chang an. The second kind of way was doing business. The missions in other countries of the weat had to earn their life by receiving the livingallowance from the Honglushi after He nan province was occupied. But latter on, about 4 thousand missions became rich and had their own land and houses by doing business, so these missions didn’t want to come back their own countries. The thired kind of way was preaching. The immigrants from Persia established Persia temples in a lot of places to preach Persia religion. When Huangchao occupied Guangzhou about 120,000 foreign believers of Judaism Islamism died in the war. A lot of people in Tang dynasty emmigrated to other countries because of doing business and preaching. These emmigrants in the middle Asia were called “Sujiazi”, these in Japan were called “Yongren”. The famouse monk Jian zhen came to Japan in Xuanzong tiem, and established “Xin zhao ti shi” to preach. Until to Jiang hu dynasty, the immigrants from China in Japan were always called “Tang people”, the streets of other cities in the europe and America where oversee Chinese lived together are called Chinese quarter in mordern times. The Distribution of Overseas Chinese Overseas Chianese lived everywhere Overseas Chinese is the name of the chinese people who lived in all the areas of the world. The overseas Chinese contained the people who belong to China natioanity and the people who belong to other countries’ nationalities. The difference is that the former are jcalled overseas Chinese while the latter are called overseas Chinese with other countries’ nationalities. “Overseas Chines exist in everywhere of the world”, this ws often used by the overseas Chinese to describe the large number of overseas Chinese. But now the sentence should be changed into another more suitable sentence, that is “ Chinese desent exist in everywhere of the world”. Acording to the estimate of overseas newspaper in 80’s 20 centry, there were 20,000,000 to 30,000,000 Chinese desent in other countries of the world, and about 80% of these people had belonged to other countries’ nationalities. But there is no difference between the overseas Chinese and the Chinese desent except that their nationalities. There’s no a wide gap between their customs and culture. The countries in the southeast Asia are our neighbouring counties, and they had long-standing friendly intercourse with us in the history. It can be traced back to Tang and Song dynasty that the Chinese business men lived in other countries because of the trade relationship. During Ming and Qing dynasty, a lot of labours went abroad because of earning their lives or pillaged by colonialists for coolies, add to Chinese desent newly borned were increased year by year, so the Chinese desents in this area in a large number which is established about 180,000,000 to 200,000,000 and about 90% of the overseas Chinese. Among all the countries, a lot of the Chinese decents lived in Tailand, Singapore and other countries, a few lived in Philip, Burma, and Kampuchea. In Asia, besides the southeast Asia, there are also a lot of overseas Chinese in Japan, India and other countries. There were about 10000 overseas Chinese in these countries. Acording to the figures provided by the foreign countries,’ newspaper in 1980’s, there were about 17000,000 overseas Chinese in the north America, Latin America and Caribbean Sea district. And among this , the number of overseas Chinese in the USA was over 10000,000, and that in Canada was 450000, in middle south America was about 200000. the ancestors of these overseas Chianes camen to foreign countries because of being abducted as cooles during 1950’s. They used to make a major contribution to nthe development and contruction of economic. After the WWII, espencially in recent years, the number of the overseas Chinese om these countries increased rapidly depends on the reason that a lot of overseas Chinese immigrated into these countries from HongKong,Taiwan and the countries in the southeast Asia. In the late of 20 centry, there were about 170000overseas Chinese lived in Islands of Oceania and Pacific ocean, most of them settled in Australia, News England and other countries. In the same period, there were about 400000 overseas Chinese lived in the Europe, and most of them settled in Britain, Frrance and other countries in the west Europe. A lot of their ancestros were Chinese labours who were enlished in those countries during WWI. In the late of 20 centry, the number of overseas Chinese who emmigrated into other countries such as Britain, France, German increase constantly, most of them came from Hong Kong and other countries in the southeast Asia. In the same period, there were about 60000 to 70000 overseas Chinese lived in the Africa, most of them settled in Mauritius, Madagascan, South Africa and other countries. So today’s overseas Chinese from the states of the whole world is closely related to the history of migration in China. They went abroad in their early ages and earned their lives in every countries, after lots of hardship, they gained a footing in the local places and got the nationalities of the countries they lived in, and made shocking achievements in the economic, technology, culture and other aspects, so they made a major contribution to the local economic construction and the relationship between our country with other countries in the world. Goddess of Sky-patching: Eros in China Goddess of Sky-patching used to entreat the god to let her to be the matchmaker and make the men and the women married and breeded their descendants. Mention the love god, a lot of people thought of Aphrodite. People who prefer the western literature always thought of the Greek naturally. This on one hand shows that the classical culture of the Greek is very brilliant, on another hand shows that our countries pay more attention to other countries than our country. In fact, each nation created their own gods in their minds while dreaming to conquer and control the nature in primitive times. As a love god who took in charge of the love and the marriage certainly couldn’t be forgot by the creator of the muth. The Chinese in the ancient times illustrated the origin of humanbeings and all things with the help of their imagination , they created all the gods each of whom had their own occupation. Sure love god was contained, that is Goddess of Sky-patching. Acording to the records of “Yishi”, “Fengshutongyi” and other books, Goddess of Sky-patching used to enttreat the god to let her to be the matchmaker and make the men and the women married and breeded their descendants, so people take Goddess of Sky-patching as the marry god, and established temples to commerate her. Every February , the young men and women take part in a grand occasion held nearby the temple to select their own lover. They can marry freely if they love each other , no one can interfere in their action, Goddess of Sky-patching is their matchmaker.