NAQT You Gotta Know Lists You Gotta Know These Economists 1. Adam Smith (1723-1790) Scottish philosopher and economist. Though he wrote on nearly every subject of moral and social philosophy, he is basically remembered as the author of An Inquiry into the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) and as the creator of the metaphor of the "invisible hand." This work more-or-less single-handedly founded the Classical school of economics. 2. Milton Friedman (1912- ) American economist. Conservative thinker famous for his advocacy of monetarism (an revision of the quantity theory of money) in works like A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960 (1963). he is strongly associated with the ideals of laissez-faire government policy. 3. Karl Marx (1818-1883) German economist, historian, and social philosopher. Marx's principal contribution to economic thought was extending the labor theory of value to its logical conclusion, his theory of surplus value. This theory, along with his defense of economic materialism, appeared in Das Kapital (1867, 1885, 1894). 4. John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) English economist. He is most famous for The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936), which judged most of classical economic analysis to be a special case (hence "General Theory") and argued that the best way to deal with prolonged recessions was deficit spending. 5. David Ricardo (1772-1823) English economist. Ricardo is best known for Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, which introduced more-or-less modern notions of comparative advantage and its theoretical justification for unfettered international trade. He also put forth the so-called iron law of wages. 6. John Kenneth Galbraith (1908- ) Canadian economist. Galbraith probably wouldn't make this list if contributions to economic theory were all that mattered; as it is, his liberal popular writings like The Affluent Society and The New Industrial State (with their emphasis on public service and the limitations of the marketplace) ensure his coming up again and again. 7. Francois Quesnay (1694-1774) French economist. Quesnay was the undisputed leader of the Physiocrats, the first systematic school of economic thought. Among its tenets were the economic and moral righteousness of laissez-faire policies and the notion that land was the ultimate source of all wealth. 8. Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) English economist. Marshall's magnum opus, 1890's Principles of Economics, introduced the notions of consumer surplus, quasi-rent, demand curves, and elasticity, all fundamental concepts in introductory macro- and microeconomics. 9. Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929) American economist (of Norwegian heritage). Veblen is primarily remembered for his The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) that introduced phrases like "conspicuous consumption." He is remembered for likening the ostentation of the rich to the Darwinian proofs-of-virility found in the animal kingdom. 10. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) British economist and social philosopher. Mill is mainly known today (in economic circles) for his work extending the ideas of Ricardo in Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (1844) (for example, the relationship between profits and wages) but also for exhaustively examining the necessity of private property in his Principles of Political Economy (1848). Do you want another opinion? The San Francisco Federal Reserve Bank has its own list of the Great Economists to which you can compare and contrast. With respect to quiz bowl, we will add that Irving Fisher is probably underrepresented in quiz bowl with respect to his importance. We were surprised to see Thomas Malthus on their list as his lasting contributions to economic thought are not thought to be very great; that said, he caused an enormous contemporary stir with his pessimistic predictions of omnipresent starvation in 1798's Essay on Population which does come up quite frequently. You Gotta Know These Kings of France 1. Louis XIV (1638-1715, r. 1643-1715) House of Bourbon. Louis XIV's reign is often cited as the best historical example of an absolute monarchy. Louis led France against most of the rest of Europe to win the throne of Spain for his grandson (the War of the Spanish Succession). He championed classical art, religious orthodoxy, and instituted a great program of building throughout France. Known as the "Sun King," his 72-year-reign is the second longest in recorded history. 2. Louis XIII (1601-1643, r. 1610-1643) House of Bourbon. Sometimes working with his chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, and sometimes against, Louis XIII turned France into the preeminent European power during his reign. This was largely achieved via French victories in the Thirty Years' War. The Three Musketeers is set in the early years of his reign. 3. Francis I (1494-1547, r. 1515-1547) House of Valois. Francis's early military victories (like the Battle of Marignano), his lavish court, and his support of luminaries like Leonardo da Vinci augured a splendid reign. His rivalry with Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire spelled his doom, however. He was captured in battle in 1525 and held for a humiliating ransom. Wars continued after his release, but bankruptcy and religious strife laid France low. 4. Henry IV (1553-1610, r. 1589-1610) Founder of the house of Bourbon. Henry, the king of Navarre, became the heir to the throne when Henry III's brother died in 1584. After fighting Catholic opposition in the War of the Three Henries, he renounced Protestantism and accepted Catholicism in order to enter Paris and become king. With the help of Maximilien Sully he erased the national debt and removed much of the religious strife with the Edict of Nantes (1598). 5. Philip II (1165-1223, r. 1179-1223) House of Capet. Philip was the first of the great Capetian kings of France. Fighting and negotiating against Henry II, Richard I, and John of England, Philip won back Normandy, Brittany, Anjou, and other territories. He also took part in the famous Third Crusade (with Richard I and Frederick Barbarossa) and made use of the Albigensian crusade to pave the way for the annexation of Languedoc by his successor. 6. Charles VIII (1470-1498, r. 1483-1498) House of Valois. Charles' short reign is remarkable for the enormous cost in men and money of his Italian campaign but more so for the number of his successors that to followed his catastrophic lead. Charles was motivated by a desire to govern Naples, which he had theoretically inherited. He died before he could surpass or absolve his disastrous first campaign with another. 7. Louis IX (1214-1270, r. 1226-1270) House of Capet. Louis led the Seventh Crusade that ended in military disaster, but after his ransoming remained in the Holy Land to successfully negotiate for what he couldn't win. He returned to Europe with his reputation intact and negotiated a peace with England that saw Henry III become his vassal. He stabilized the French currency and is generally held to have reduced corruption in the kingdom. He died leading a crusade against Tunisia. St. Louis is the only canonized king of France. 8. Louis VIII (1187-1226, r. 1223-1226) House of Capet. Though he reigned for only three years, Louis' contributions to the rise of French power were enormous. He annexed Languedoc and captured Poitou from England. Perhaps more importantly, he established the systems of appanages (land grants) which replaced the older, local nobles with barons who owed their fiefs to the crown. This allowed for the subsequent rise in French royal (and national) power. 9. Charles V (1338-1380, r. 1364-1380) House of Capet. Charles had an inauspicious start (before his reign even began) with having to ransom his father, John II, from England for three million crowns and most of southwestern France. Later, with military advisor Bertrand du Guesclin, he recaptured almost all of that territory. He also concluded alliances with Portugal, Spain, and Flanders, reorganized the army, and restructured the collection of taxes while leading France's recovery from the devastation of the early period of the Hundred Years' War. 10. Henry III (1551-1589, r. 1574-1589) House of Valois. Henry's reign was suffused with blood, at first because of the continuous Wars of Religion that pitted Catholics against Huguenots, but later because of the struggles that arose when it became clear that he was going to be the last of the Valois line. The War of the Three Henries broke out after his brother died and the then-Protestant Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV) became heir, leading the Catholic Holy League to strike out of fear for its interests. Henry III was assassinated by a crazed friar in 1589. You Gotta Know These Footballers (Soccer Players) 1. Pelé (Edson Arantes do Nascimento) (1940-) (Brazil-Forward) Also known as "the Black Pearl", Pelé led the Brazilian national team to three World Cup victories in 1958, 1962, and 1970 (though he was injured for most of '62 finals) and to permanent possession of the Jules Rimet Trophy. In his professional and international career, he played in 1,363 matches and scored 1,282 goals. He made his professional debut with Brazil's Santos in 1956 and played with them until 1974. In 1975, he came out of retirement to promote the game in the United States by starring for the NASL's New York Cosmos, earning him 1976 NASL MVP honors; his retirement game in 1977 at Giants Stadium against his old club Santos drew over 75,000 people, the largest crowd to see a soccer match in the U.S. before the 1984 Olympics. He later became Brazil's Minister of Sport and, in 1999, the National Olympic Committees named Pelé the IOC's Athlete of the Century, despite having never partaken in an Olympic Games. 2. Franz Beckenbauer (1945-) (West Germany-Sweeper) Nicknamed "Der Kaiser," Beckenbauer invented the position of attacking sweeper, helping him to become the only man ever to win the World Cup as both team captain and as manager (1974 as a player, 1990 as manager). Beckenbauer's first World Cup saw him help West Germany to the 1966 World Cup Final, where they lost to host England 4-2 at Wembley Stadium. 1972 saw West Germany win the European Championship and Beckenbauer named European Footballer of the Year. Two years later, Beckenbauer had one of the single greatest football years in history, captaining FC Bayern München to the Bundesliga (German First Division), European Cup (now known as the UEFA Champions League) championships and West Germany to the World Cup, the nation's second triumph. In 1976, he left Germany for the NASL's New York Cosmos, where he teamed with Pelé and was named 1977 NASL MVP. He now serves as the FC Bayern München club president. 3. Mia Hamm (1972-) (United States-Forward) The youngest American, male or female, ever to play for a U.S. National team, Hamm was a member of both the 1991 and 1999 Womens' World Cup Champions and the 1996 Olympic Gold Medal winning side. A UNC-Chapel Hill alum (BS 1994, Political Science), and two-time Hermann Trophy winner and Missouri Athletic Club Player of the Year winner (1992 & 1993), her #19 was retired by the Tar Heels, where she won 4 NCAA titles. In international play, she holds the all-time international scoring record, for men and women, when she scored career goal 108 on May 16, 1999, against Brazil in Orlando. One of People's 50 Most Beautiful People in 1997, the largest building on Nike's Corporate Campus in Beaverton, Oregon, is named for her. 4. Sir Stanley Matthews (1915-2000) (England-Winger) Known as "Wizard of the Dribble," the winger debuted for England as a 19 year-old, and closed his international career in 1956 at the age of 41, when he was named the first-ever European Footballer of the Year. Though he played for unfashionable northern first division clubs like Blackpool and Stoke City, he was the most popular player of his era. In the 1953 F.A. Cup final against Bolton at Wembley, thereafter always called "The Matthews Final," Matthews lead a rousing comeback from a 3-1 deficit with 30 minutes remaining, setting up three goals. He is also one of the most gentlemanly players in history, having never been sent off with a red card during his entire career. In 1961, he became the first English footballer to be knighted. In 1963, at the age of 48, he helped Stoke City back into the FA First Division by scoring the goal that clinched promotion. He retired, quite reluctantly, from the game in 1965 at the age of 50. 5. Diego Maradona (1960-) (Argentina-Forward) The oft-controversial strike helped Argentina to the 1986 World Cup Championship with two amazing goals against England in the semi-finals, including the infamous "Hand of God" goal, in which Maradona directed the ball into the net with his hand illegally, undetected by officials on the pitch. A two-time South American Player of the Year (1978 and 1979) before joining FC Barcelona in 1982 after the World Cup in Spain, in 1984, he moved on to FC Napoli, where he would help his side claim two Serie A Championships and a UEFA Cup win in 1989. He was banned for failing a drug test in 1991 and by the time he returned, he was no longer his old playing self, though he did lead a stirring performance for Argentina at the 1994 World Cup in the U.S., before being banned again for failing another drug test during the tournament. Maradona finally retired in 1997 from his original team, Argentina's Boca Juniors. 6. Johann Cryuff (1947-) (The Netherlands-Midfielder) A stringent believer that "the game should be played beautifully," Cryuff helped usher in the system of "total football" into the world game, in which all positions should be equally willing and adept to play all portions of the game. Despite being both gawky and a chain-smoker, Cryuff helped Ajax Amsterdam to three European Cups (now known as the UEFA Champions' League) as well as being named European Footballer of the Year in 1971 and 1973. His greatest international success came in 1974 when he helped the "Orange" to their first appearance in the World Cup Final, where they lost to West Germany in Munich. "The Orange" would also make the 1978 World Cup Finals, this time without Cryuff, who retired from international play after the qualification stage. This was followed by a brief stint in the NASL, where he earned 1979 NASL MVP honors. In 1984, at the age of 37, he helped Ajax's arch-rival Feyenoord to its first Dutch league title in a decade before moving into coaching at former club FC Barcelona, where he led the team to four Spanish League titles and a European Cup in a nine-year stint. 7. Michel Platini (1955-) (France-Midfielder) Arguably France's greatest footballer, this midfielder won three straight European Footballer of the Year Awards beginning in 1983. He led Italian side Juventus FC to success in both Serie A (Italy's First Division) and UEFA (European) competitions. In 1985, he led Serie A in scoring for a third straight year, a unique achievement as well as leading Juventus to its only European Cup triumph, the tragic game at Heysel (Belgium) against Liverpool in which 39 Italian supporters were fatally crushed in the stands. He also led his French national side to triumph in the Euro 1984, setting the Euro scoring record. After his retirement in 1987, he was instrumental in organizing France's bid for the 1998 World Cup. 8. Ronaldo (Ronaldo Luiz Nazario da Lima) (1976-) (Brazil-Forward) Currently with Inter Milan of Italy's Serie A, Ronaldo was twice World Footballer of the Year, winning those honors in 1997 (while with FC Barcelona) and 1998 (with Inter). While he was on the Brazil squad that won World Cup `94 in the US, he was expected to star in the 1998 World Cup, where he helped Brazil to the Finals, winning the Golden Ball Award as tournament MVP. That MVP performance was tarnished slightly by a poor showing (one blamed by the media on a supposed all-night session of "Tomb Raider" on PlayStation) that kept Brazil from its fifth title. Injuries have plagued him over the past few seasons, but, when healthy, he is still among the world's elite players. 9. David Beckham (1975-)(England-Midfielder) Midfielder for Manchester United FC, known as much for his talent as his marriage to Victoria Adams, better known as "Posh Spice." One of the FA Premiership's finest midfielders, he was named runner-up for both the 1999 European Footballer of the Year and the 1999 World Footballer of the Year. He also helped guide Manchester United to the rare 1999 "Treble," helping the Red Devils secure the FA Cup (Open Cup competition for all English sides), Carling FA Premiership Title (regular season champion of England's top division) and UEFA Champions' League (championship for national league champions of UEFA countries). These three titles made ManU only the fourth team (and first English team) to accomplish the feat. His results with the English national side have been mixed, including his now infamous booking against rival Argentina in World Cup '98, and his obscene gesture to English fans at the opening game of Euro 2000. 10. Zinedine Zidane (1972-) (France) Known the world over as "Zizou," the 1998 World and European Footballer of the Year as an all-around player is France's midfield. Zidane was a critical player in the World Cup '98 (he scored a pair of header goals in the final against Brazil) and Euro 2000 (a game-winning overtime penalty kick in the semi-finals against Portugal), both triumphs for the French national side. Like fellow French legend Platini, Zizou plays for Italian side Juventus, where he has helped the Turin side win two Serie A titles. In as much as that football is the world game, we readily acknowledge that this list is by no means a ten greatest players list, nor is it a ten most influential. In 1998, FIFA named its "Team of the Century," which can be found at: http://www.infoplease.com/ipsa/A0765272.html. As five of the 11 players on the list are also on this list, we feel comfortable with those five along with four modern players and the first English player to be knighted. You Gotta Know These Organelles The word "organelle" comes from the Latin for "little organ," which fits their function as organized structures found within cells that allow the cell to survive. 1. Nucleus The nucleus is the "command central" of the cell because it contains almost all of the cell's DNA, which encodes the information needed to make all the proteins that the cell uses. The DNA appears as chromatin through most of the cell cycle but condenses to form chromosomes when the cell is undergoing mitosis. Commonly seen within the nucleus are dense bodies called nucleoli, which contain ribosomal RNA. In eukaryotes, the nucleus is surrounded by a selectively-permeable nuclear envelope. 2. Ribosomes Ribosomes are the machines that coordinate protein synthesis, or translation. They consist of several RNA and protein molecules arranged into two subunits. Ribosomes read the messenger RNA copy of the DNA and assemble the appropriate amino acids into protein chains. 3. Mitochondria The "mighty mitos" are the powerhouses of the cell. Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles that are the site of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, processes that produce energy for the cell in the form of ATP. The inner membrane of a mitochondrion forms folds called cristae [KRIS-tee], which are suspended in a fluid called the matrix. The mitochondrial matrix contains DNA and ribosomes. 4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) The ER is a network of tube-like membranes continuous with the nuclear envelope that comes in rough (with ribosomes) and smooth (without ribosomes) varieties. In the ER, proteins undergo modifications and folding to yield the final, functional protein structures. 5. Golgi Apparatus The stack of flattened, folded membranes that forms the Golgi apparatus acts as the "post office of the cell." Here proteins from the ribosomes are stored, chemically modified, "addressed" with carbohydrate tags, and packaged in vesicles for delivery. 6. Lysosomes Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes that break down proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. They are important in processing the contents of vesicles taken in from outside the cell. It is crucial to maintain the integrity of the lysosomal membranes because the enzymes they contain can digest cellular components as well. 7. Chloroplasts Found only in plants and certain protists, the chloroplast contains the green pigment chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis. Like the mitochondrion, a chloroplast is a double-membrane-bound organelle, and it has its own DNA and ribosomes in the stroma. Chloroplasts contain grana, which are stacks of single membrane structures called thylakoids on which the reactions of photosynthesis occur. 8. Vacuoles Found mainly in plants and protists, vacuoles are liquid-filled cavities enclosed by a single membrane. They serve as storage bins for food and waste products. Contractile vacuoles are important for freshwater protists to rid their cells of excess water that accumulates because of salt imbalance with the environment. 9. Cilia/Flagella Cilia and flagella are important organelles of motility, which allow the cell to move. Flagella are long, whip-like structures, while cilia are short hair-like projections. Both contain a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules in cross section and are powered by molecular motors of kinesin and dynein molecules. 10. Centrioles Not found in plant cells, centrioles are paired organelles with nine sets of microtubule triplets in cross section. They are important in organizing the microtubule spindle needed to move the chromosomes during mitosis. You Gotta Know These Revolutionary War Generals 1. Benedict Arnold Volunteering for service following the Battle of Lexington, he joined Ethan Allen in the attack on Fort Ticonderoga. Appointed by Washington to capture Quebec, he was severely wounded in the failed December 1775 assault that also saw the death of General Richard Montgomery. Arming a flotilla on Lake Champlain, he attacked the British forces at Valcour Island, earning accolades, perhaps at the cost of the support of other officers. Passed over for promotion, Washington personally persuaded him not to resign. Promoted following his defense of Danbury, he again considered resignation, but won victory at Ft. Stanwix, and commanded advance battalions at Saratoga, being wounded in the fight. Sent to command Philadelphia, he lived extravagantly among Loyalists, and skirted several regulations to raise money, prompting investigations. After marrying Peggy Shippen, he made overtures to the British, alerting them to a plan to invade Canada, and planning to betray his expected command of West Point. When his contact, Major John Andre was captured, he escaped. Later, as part of the British army he raided New London, Connecticut, and led several raids on Virginia. 2. John Burgoyne "Gentleman Johnny," as he was known due to his cultural tastes (Burgoyne was also a playwright), he began his Revolutionary War career under Gage, returning to England after ineffectiveness in 1774-5. Sent to reinforce Canada, he formulated a plan to isolate New England, with the help of Barry St. Leger and William Howe. The plan worked as far as capturing Fort Ticonderoga, but met resistance when he sent his Hessians to attack Bennington. Exhausted, his troops met trouble at Saratoga, being repulsed at Freedman's Farm, and being forced to surrender after Bemis Heights. Paroled on condition he returned to England, Burgoyne was later appointed commander-in-chief of Ireland. 3. Charles Cornwallis, First Marquess of Cornwallis An aristocrat and ensign in 1756, he fought in the battle of Minden, and by the end of the Seven Years' War, he was a captain. Made aide-de-camp to George III, he made colonel, and was promoted to major general before being sent to America. After a failed assault on Charleston, he served under Sir Henry Clinton in the battle of Long Island, but made his mark in fighting at Manhattan and pursued Washington across the Hudson, being outmaneuvered by Washington at Princeton (January 3, 1777). Following this defeat he directed the main attack on Brandywine Creek, and reinforcing Germantown, as part of the plan to capture Philadelphia. Promoted to second in command under Clinton after the Philadelphia campaign, he led the Battle of Monmouth before returning home to attend his sick wife. Sent south in 1780 to capture Charleston, he bested Horatio Gates at Camden (N.C.) and Nathaniel Greene at Guilford Courthouse, the latter a pyrrhic victory which likely led to his defeat in attempts to contain Lafayette in Virginia. Following this, he occupied Yorktown in August 1781, where he was surrounded by American and French forces, and forced to surrender. Following the war, he was appointed governor-general of India, and proved to be a capable administrator. 4. Horatio Gates Wounded in the disastrous French and Indian War attack on Fort Duquesne, it was there he first met George Washington. Recommended by Washington to be adjutant general of the army at the outbreak of revolution, he organized the army around Boston into an effective force. Promoted to major general in 1776, he was assigned to command troops in New York originally intended to invade Canada. Briefly put in charge of Philadelphia, he then directed the defense of New York against Burgoyne's invasion attempt, leading to victory at Saratoga. Following this he became involved in the Conway cabal, an attempt to replace Washington, which led to coldness between the two. Placed in command of the South over Washington's objections by Congress, he tried to raise adequate forces, but lost the battle of Camden to Cornwallis, and was replaced by Nathaniel Greene. Washington then accepted Gates back as his deputy, a position he held until the end of the war. 5. Sir Guy Carleton Irish-born, he led grenadiers across the Plains of Abraham in the 1759 siege of Quebec under his close friend General Wolfe. He entered the war as second in command to Thomas Gage before taking command after Gage's 1775 recall. Carleton then directed British troops from Canada to Boston after the Battle of Concord, resulting in a revolt. Carleton then repulsed efforts by Montgomery and Benedict Arnold to capture Montreal and Quebec, routing a second attempt by Arnold, by defeating an American naval buildup on Lake Champlain. Following this, he attempted to support Burgoyne's failed plan to isolate New England. Brought back to Britain to govern Armagh in Ireland in 1777, he sat out all but the end of the war, returning in 1782 as commander-in-chief after Cornwallis' surrender. 6. Nathanael Greene A prominent Rhode Island politician prior to the revolution, he raised a militia company but was not elected their captain due to his partial lameness. Following his work in the siege of Boston, he marched his army to Long Island, where they aided in the battles around New York. Following the loss of Fort Washington, Greene led forces into victory at the Battle of Trenton, and then again distinguished himself by protecting Washington's force at the Battle of Brandywine. Greene then led the main force at Germantown, and led the evacuation of positions along the Delaware River in fall 1777. The next year, Greene's logistical talents led Washington to appoint him quartermaster general, a position he only accepted if he were allowed to retain field troops. He then led those troops as the right wing in the Battle of Monmouth. The quartermaster general position led to conflicts with the Continental Congress, and Greene resigned in 1780. Appointed to command to replace the traitor Benedict Arnold, he was sent south following Gates' loss at Camden. Joining with Daniel Morgan, he retreated from Cornwallis' forces for two months until a crippling counterattack at Guilford Courthouse, which gave a costly victory to the British. Until the end of the war, Greene led a spirited offensive against Lord Rawdon's, and later Duncan Stuart's, forces, besieging Augusta and Ninety-Six, and establishing headquarters in Charleston following Washington's victory at Yorktown. 7. Sir William Howe A veteran of the siege of Louisbourg, and the leader of the ascent to the Plains of Abraham (Quebec, 1759), he was dispatched in 1775 as second in command to Gage. After directing the attack on Bunker Hill, he succeeded Gage as commander, and coordinated a strategic retreat from Boston to Halifax. In Halifax, he coordinated a joint army-navy attack with his brother, Richard, an admiral, resulting in a campaign which allowed the British to control New York City. After his attempts to secure a peace in 1777 failed, he led the attack on Philadelphia, defeating Washington at Brandywine. After this, he wintered in Philadelphia, waiting for acceptance of his resignation, due to the failed peace negotiations. On May 25, 1778, he relinquished command to Sir Henry Clinton and returned home. 8. Tadeusz Andrezj Bonawentura Kosciusko After receiving military training in his native Poland and France, he resigned his commission due to poor advancement prospect. Offering his assistance to the Americans, he helped fortify the Delaware River in 1776, earning himself the rank of colonel. That winter, he planned the building of Fort Mercer, and the next spring headed north with General Gates, becoming commander of the northern army and building fortifications which helped win the battle of Saratoga. In 1780, he worked on building defenses for West Point, then headed south when Gates was appointed command of the Southern Department. Serving under Nathaniel Greene, he distinguished himself in the Race to the Dan River, and at Charleston, but mishandled the siege of Ninety-Six. Following the war, he was granted American citizenship but returned home to Poland. Back home he resisted partition, and attempted to liberate the nation afterward. 9. Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette Approached by U.S. Minister to France Silas Deane, he arrived in April 1777 with Baron de Kalb. First seeing action at Brandywine, his primary early action was in supporting Washington during the winter at Valley Forge. After participating at the battles of Barren Hill, Monmouth, and Newport, he returned to France, raising support for an expeditionary force. Returning to America a colonel, he served on the board that sentenced Major Andre to death, and then faced Andre's confederate Benedict Arnold in battle in 1781. Working in Virginia, he evaded Cornwallis' forces, until reinforcements arrived in June. Coordinating with Anthony Wayne, the two combined forces against Cornwallis in the battle of Green Spring. Pursuing Cornwallis to Yorktown, Lafayette helped the siege there until Cornwallis' surrender. 10. Francis Marion Previously an Indian fighter, Marion was given command of Fort Sullivan in 1776. Commanding the 2nd South Carolina, he fought at Savannah, and escaped capture when the British recaptured Charleston. From there, Marion fought a successful guerilla campaign against British troops, forcing Cornwallis to appoint Colonel Banastre Tarleton to eliminate Marion. Tarleton's frustration at the task led to the remark "But as for this damned old fox, the devil himself could not catch him," creating Marion's nickname of "Swamp Fox." Promoted to brigadier general in 1781, and later given command of the North and South Carolina militias, Marion fought the British at Eutaw Springs. 11. John Paul Jones A Scotsman who had fled Britain after two deaths at his hands, he added the last name Jones to his given name of John Paul. At the outbreak of conflict, he was commissioned to outfit the Alfred, which he then used to help capture New Providence in the Bahamas. The next month, April 1776, saw him lead the Alfred against the HMS Glasgow, leading him to promotion and command of the Providence. Ordered to raid until his provisions were expended, he sank and captured ships in operations along the Atlantic coast. Commissioned captain of the Ranger, he sailed to France to acquire new ships, and captured the HMS Drake. Leaving Europe in August 1779, he met the British ship Serapis in battle September 23, 1779. 12. Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Formerly part of Frederick the Great's staff, the Prussian Steuben was recommended by Ben Franklin to George Washington. Accepted by the Continental Congress, Steuben joined Washington at Valley Forge, and began training the army. Appointed major general and inspector general in May 1777, he aided in the Battle of Monmouth, then spent two years writing the Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States, an army training manual. Sent to Virginia in 1780 to oppose Benedict Arnold's actions, illness caused him to turn over his troops to Lafayette, but Steuben recovered in time to aid in the siege of Yorktown. 13. George Washington Selected by the Continental Congress to serve as general-in-chief, his first actions were to blockade Boston. Key to the success in Boston was the capture of Dorchester Heights, allowing cannon fire against the British and forcing the withdrawal of Howe. After failing to defend New York, Washington retreated toward Pennsylvania, extending British supply lines and allowing a successful counterattack on Hessian mercenaries at Trenton. Following victory at Princeton, Washington retired to winter quarters at Morristown. Sending his best forces north to deal with Burgoyne's attack in spring 1777, he kept Howe engaged in the mid-Atlantic. Autumn setbacks at Brandywine and Germantown led to a demoralized winter camp at Valley Forge, countered by the work of Lafayette, Steuben, and others. After a costly draw with Sir Henry Clinton's forces at Monmouth, Washington sent Greene south to replace Gates, and worked with the French general Jean Baptiste Rochambeau to plan the Yorktown campaign. The success of this campaign led to Cornwallis' surrender on October 19, 1781. You Gotta Know These Hockey Hall of Famers 1. Wayne Gretzky (1961- ) Born in Brantford, Ontario, "The Great One" was named Canada's athlete of the century. Gretzky holds or shares 61 NHL records, including career goals (894), assists (1,963), and points (2,857). The winner of ten scoring titles (Art Ross Trophies) and nine NHL MVP's (Hart Trophies), his #99 was retired league wide. He won four Stanley Cups with Edmonton in the 1980s before a major trade sent him to Los Angeles in 1988. After a brief stint in St. Louis, he would finish career with New York Rangers in 1999. 2. Gordie Howe (1926- ) Born in Floral, Saskatchewan, "Mr. Hockey," was equally adept with his stick as he was with his fists. A "Gordie Howe hat trick" was later joked to consist of a goal, an assist, and a fight in a game. A six-time Art Ross Trophy winner, he played 26 seasons with the Detroit Red Wings, retiring in 1971. After a two-year retirement, he returned to the fledgling WHA, to play with his sons on the Houston Aeros. He played his last NHL season at the age of 52 in 1980 with the Hartford Whalers, finishing as the NHL's career points leader until 1989. 3. Mario Lemieux (1965-) Born in Montreal, Quebec: "Super Mario" scored his first NHL goal on the first shift of his first game, against Boston in 1984. He led the Pittsburgh Penguins to consecutive Stanley Cups in 1991-92. After a bout with Hodgkin's disease, he returned to lead the NHL in scoring in 1995-96 and 1996-97. He then later helped bail the Penguins out of bankruptcy by becoming the lead owner of the team in 1999. 4. Bobby Orr (1948-) Born in Parry Sound, Ontario, Bobby Orr revolutionized the position of defenseman. The first blue liner to win the Art Ross Trophy (scoring title), he also won the Norris (best defenseman), Hart (league MVP), and Conn Smythe (playoff MVP) in the same season (1969-70). That same year, he led the Bruins to their first Stanley Cup in three decades with the now famous "Goal." He recorded the highest +/- rating ever for a single season, +124 in 1970-71 and won eight straight Norris Trophies from 1968-75. Unfortunately, his bad knees forced him into early retirement in 1979. 5. Maurice Richard (1921-2000) Born in Montreal, Quebec, "The Rocket" was one of the most gifted offensive players in NHL history. He was the first NHL player to score 50 goals in a single season, doing so in 1944-45, and also the first to score 500 in a career. The winner of eight Stanley Cups, his suspension by league president Clarence Campbell in 1955 led to "The Richard Riot" on March 17, 1955, which was quelled only by an appeal by Richard for peace. Many sociologists credit the Richard Riot with starting the Quebec independence movement. The NHL began awarding the Rocket Richard Trophy in 1999 for the league's top regular season goal scorer. 6. Terry Sawchuk (1929-1970) Born in Winnipeg, Manitoba, "Ukey" played more games (971), won more games (447), and recorded more shutouts (103) than any other netminder in NHL history. In 1952, he recorded eight straight wins, including four shutouts, in the playoffs for Detroit. Winning 5 Vezina Trophies in his career for lowest team GAA (the criteria during his era), Sawchuk also won the Calder Trophy as NHL rookie of the year in 1950-51. Always deeply psychologically troubled, he died in a household accident in 1970 while a member of the New York Rangers. 7. Ken Dryden (1947-) Born in Hamilton, Ontario, he had a standout career at Cornell University before joining the Montreal Canadiens organization in 1970. In 1970-71, he starred in the playoffs, winning Conn Smythe Trophy honors (playoff MVP), before going on to win Calder Trophy (Rookie of the Year) honors the next season. Along with Tony Esposito, he served as Canada's goalie during the legendary 1972 Summit Series with the USSR. He sat out the entire 1973-74 season in a contract dispute, and worked as a legal clerk and obtaining his law degree from McGill. He currently serves as the President of the Toronto Maple Leafs. 8. Vladislav Tretiak (1952-) Born in Moscow, USSR; Tretiak is first Russian player in Hockey Hall of Fame. He came to North American prominence when he starred in 1972 Summit Series against Canada. A 10-time World Champion, he also won three gold medals (1972, 1976, and 1984). The decision to pull Tretiak after the first period of the U.S./USSR game in the 1980 Olympics is considered to be part of the reason the U.S. went on to win the gold. He played for CSKA Moscow (Central Red Army) for 15 years and, since his retirement, he now serves as the goaltending coach for the Chicago Blackhawks. 9. Bobby Hull (1939-) Born in Point Anne, Ontario; "The Golden Jet" was the star of the Chicago Blackhawks of the 1960s, he won three Art Ross Trophies and led the NHL in goals seven times. In June of 1972, he defected to the fledgling WHA's Winnipeg Jets for a record 10-year, $2.75 million deal, where he would star and help make Winnipeg one of the four WHA teams to merge with the NHL in 1978-79. He is also the father of Brett Hull and the duo is the only father-son combination to score 500 each in NHL history. 10. Eddie Shore (1902-1985) Born in Fort Qu'Appele, Saskatchewan, "The Edmonton Express" is the epitome of "Old-Time Hockey," as stated in the 1977 film Slap Shot. As a blue liner for the Boston Bruins he was named a first team NHL All-Star for eight of nine years during the 1930s and is the only defenseman to win 4 Hart Trophies as NHL MVP. He later went on to be the owner/GM of the AHL's Springfield Indians and the anecdotes about his stingy ways are now hockey lore. You Gotta Know These Japanese Authors Please note that unlike most of the other "You Gotta Know" articles, this one is primarily aimed at advanced college players. It's probably fair to say that high school (and new college players), only really "gotta know" Lady Murasaki, Basho, Kawabata, and Mishima. 1. Murasaki Shikibu (978? - 1015?) Novelist, diarist, and courtesan. She was the author of the Tale of Genji (Genji monogatari), the first known novel; the diary, Murasaki Shikibu nikki; and a collection of tanka poems. The daughter of the court official Fujiwara Tametoki, she sat in on the classical Chinese literature lessons that her brother received, in spite of the Heian traditions against higher education for women. 2. Sei Shonagan (966/7 - 1013?) Like Lady Murasaki, Sei Shonagan was a lady-in-waiting of the Empress. Since Lady Murasaki and Sei Shonagan were contemporaries and known for their wit, they were often rivals*. Sei Shonagan's only work is the Pillow Book (Makura no soshi), which is considered the best source of information about life at the Japanese court during the Heian period (784-1185). 3. Zeami (1363-1443) (also called Kanze Motokiyo). The second master of the Kanze theatrical school, which had been founded by his father, he is regarded as the greatest playwright of the No theater. He provided 90 of the approximately 230 plays in the modern repertoire. Among his best works are Atsumori, The Robe of Feathers, Birds of Sorrow, and Wind in the Pines. Also a drama critic, he established the aesthetic standards by which plays have been judged ever since. His Fushi kaden (The Transmission of the Flower of Acting Style) is a manual for his pupils. 4. Matsuo Basho (1644-1694) (pseudonym of Matsuo Munefusa) Generally acknowledged as the master of the haiku form, the most notable influences on his work were Zen Buddhism and his travels throughout Japan. He is noted for works like The Narrow Road to the Deep North (Oku no hosomichi), which includes descriptions of local sights in both prose and haiku. He took his pseudonym from the name of the simple hut where he retired: Basho-an, which means "Cottage of the Plaintain Tree." 5. Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653 - 1725) He was Japan's first professional dramatist. Originally named Sugimori Nobumori, Chikamatsu wrote more than 150 plays for both the bunraku (puppet theater) and the kabuki (popular theater). Chikamatsu's scripts fall into two categories: historical romances (mono) and domestic tragedies (wamono). One of Chikamatsu's most popular plays was The Battles of Coxinga, an historical melodrama about an attempt to re-establish the Ming dynasty in China. He is also largely responsible for developing the sewamono (contemporary drama on contemporary themes) in the joruri, a style of chanted narration adapted to bunraku. 6. Akutagawa Ryunosuke (1892 - 1927) His mother died insane while he was a child, and his father was a failure who gave him up to relatives. Despite this inauspicious childhood, his 1915 short story Rashomon brought him into the highest literary circles and started him writing the macabre stories for which he is known. In 1927 he committed suicide by overdosing on pills, and his suicide letter A Note to a Certain Old Friend became a published work. Rashomon also was key to his international fame, when Kurosawa Akira made it into a film in 1951. One of Japan's two most prestigious literary prizes is named for Akutagawa; it is awarded for the best serious work of fiction by a new Japanese writer. 7. Kawabata Yasunari (1899 - 1972) Recipient of the 1968 Nobel Prize for Literature, he was the first Japanese author to be so honored. His works combine classic Japanese values with modern trends and often center on the role of sex in people's lives. His works are often only a few pages long, a form given the name "palm-of-the-hand." He is best known for three novels: Thousand Cranes, based on the tea ceremony and inspired by The Tale of Genji; The Sound of the Mountain, about the relationship of an old man and his daughter-in-law; and Snow Country, about an aging geisha. A friend of Mishima Yukio, he was also associated with right-wing causes and openly protested the Cultural Revolution in China. He committed suicide two years after Mishima. 8. Mishima Yukio (1925 - 1970) (pseudonym of Hiraoka Kimitake) He was a novelist whose central theme was the disparity between traditional Japanese values and the spiritual emptiness of modern life. He failed to qualify for military service during World War II, so worked in an aircraft factory instead. Mishima's first novel, Confessions of a Mask (Kamen no kokuhaku), was successful enough to allow him to write full time. His four-volume epic, The Sea of Fertility (Hojo no umi, consisting of Spring Snow, Runaway Horses, The Temple of Dawn, and The Decay of the Angel), is about self-destructive personalities and the transformation of Japan into a modern, but sterile, society. Mishima, who organized the Tate no kai, a right-wing society stressing physical fitness and the martial arts, committed ritual suicide after a public speech failed to galvanize the armed forces into overthrowing the government. 9. Endo Shusaku (1923-1996) He converted to Catholicism at the age of 11, and majored in French literature. His first works, White Man and Yellow Man, explored the differences between Japanese and Western values and national experiences. Silence tells of the martyrdom of the Catholic converts of Portuguese priests. The Samurai recounts the tale of a samurai sent to establish trade relations between his shogun and Mexico, Spain, and Rome. The latter two novels are generally considered to be Shusaku's greatest achievements. 10. Oe Kenzaburo(1935 - present) Novelist and recipient of the 1994 Nobel Prize for Literature. His first work, Shiiku (The Catch in the Shadow of the Sunrise), describes a friendship between a Japanese boy and a black American POW, and won him the Akutagawa award while he was still a student. His early works are filled with insanity, abuse, perverse sex, and violence, but his later works (including A Personal Matter (Kojinteki-na taiken) and The Silent Cry (Man'en gannen no futtoboru)) reflect the experience of being the father of a brain-damaged child. His fiction centers on the alienation following Japan's surrender and his political writings focus on the search for cultural and ideological roots. You Gotta Know These Egyptian Deities The Egyptian creation myth begins with the emergence of Ra (or Re), the sun god, from the ocean in the form of an egg (or, alternately, a flower.) Ra brought forth four children: Geb, Shu, Nut, and Tefnut. Shu and Nut became manifestations of air and moisture. From Geb, the god of the earth, and Nut, goddess of the sky, were spawned four other gods: Osiris, Isis, Set (or Seth), and Nepthys. These nine gods became known as the ennead ("group of nine"). The center of their worship was Heliopolis, as all were tied to Ra, the sun god. The Heliopolitan ennead was one of several in Egyptian theology, and at times this grouping was superseded by other sets. Two notable alternatives were the ennead of the city of Memphis led by the god Ptah, and the ennead of Thebes, with Amon at its head. Not surprisingly, the pre-eminence of these variations coincided with their corresponding cities' political control of Egypt. The Stories Fortunately for quiz bowlers, there are, for most practical purposes, only three major episodes in Egyptian mythology. Knowing the principal actors in these (as well as the various animal heads) will go a long way toward scoring points in the category. The first is the "family quarrel" of Osiris and Set: Osiris took Isis, his sister, for his wife, and ruled over the earth. Set grew jealous of his brother and killed him, afterwards cutting his body into 14 pieces and hiding them in various places around Egypt. He then claimed kingship over the land. Isis searched the breadth of the land until she had recovered all of the pieces and, with the help of Anubis, embalmed the body. She then conceived a son, Horus, by the (still dead) Osiris and then resurrected him. Horus defeated Set to regain the kingship and all subsequent pharaohs were said to be aspects of him. The second is the afterlife; the Egyptians believed that the soul had three components, the ba, ka, and akh, each of which had different roles after death. The ka remained near or within the body (which is why mummification was required). The ba went to the underworld where it merged with aspects of Osiris, but was allowed to periodically return (which is why Egyptian tombs often contained narrow doors). The akh could temporarily assume different physical forms and wander the world as a ghost of sorts. In the underworld, the ba was subjected to the Judgment of Osiris in the Hall of Double Justice where the heart of the deceased was weighed against Ma'at, commonly represented as an ostrich feather. The third is actually an historical episode: during the reign of Amenhotep III (1390-1353 BC), worship of the god Aton (or Aten)--a representation of the disc of the sun--was resurrected. This process was carried to its extreme conclusion by his successor, Amenhotep IV, who eventually declared Aton to be the only god, thereby creating one of the earliest known monotheistic religions. The pharaoh even changed his name to Akhenaton, meaning "Aton is satisfied." The worship of Aton was centered on the capital city of Tell-al-Amarna and was largely confined to upper classes and the pharaonic court and, in any case, did not survive Amenhotep himself. Under his successor, Tutankhamen (of King Tut fame), traditional religious practices were restored. The Pantheon 1. Osiris Husband of Isis, father of Horus, and brother of Set, Osiris served as god of the underworld, and protector of the dead. In addition to his role as the chief and judge of the underworld (as a result of the above-mentioned murder by Set), Osiris also served as a god of vegetation and renewal; festivals honoring his death occurred around the time of the Nile flood's retreat. Statues representing him were made of clay and grain, which would then germinate. Osiris was represented either as a green mummy, or wearing the Atef, a plumed crown. 2. Set Created in opposition to the forces of Ma'at, Set (termed Typhon by Plutarch) fought the demon Apopis each day, emerging victorious, symbolic of the struggle of forces that brought harmony. In later times, this struggle led Set to be associated with the serpent itself, and Set became the personification of violence and disorder, and the cause of all disasters. Having killed his brother Osiris, Set did battle with Osiris' son Horus, being emasculated in the fight. His cult was diminished over time, due to reaction against violence. His effigies were destroyed by some, while others were changed into representations of Amon, by replacing the ears with horns. 3. Isis Isis, daughter of Geb and Nut, protected love, motherhood, and fate in the Egyptian mythos. Many of her roles are similar to the goddess Hathor, but she is often equated with the Greek Demeter. Her powers were gained through tricking the god Ra. By placing a snake in his path, which poisoned him, she forced him to give some power to her before she would cure him. 4. Horus The god of the sky and light and the son of Isis and Osiris. In earlier myth he was the brother of Set, and son of Ra. His mother impregnated herself with the dead Osiris, and Horus was hidden by his mother. When he was grown, he avenged his father's death, driving away Set. In the battle, he lost his eye, but regained it thanks to the god Thoth. Thus Horus came to rule over the earth. He was known to have two faces, that of the falcon, Harsiesis, and that of a child, Harpocrates. 5. Ra Personification of the midday sun, he was also venerated as Atum (setting sun) and Khepri (rising sun), which were later combined with him. He traveled across the sky each day and then each night, the monster Apep would attempt to prevent his return. Other myths held that Ra spent the night in the underworld consoling the dead. The god of the pharaohs, from the fourth dynasty onward all pharaohs termed themselves "sons of Ra," and after death they joined his entourage. He was portrayed with the head of a falcon, and crowned with the sun disc. 6. Amon Amon began as a local god of Thebes, governing the air, fertility and reproduction, his wife was Mut, and his son Khon. Later, Amon became linked with the sun god Ra, and the two combined as Amon-Ra. In this form, he became worshipped beyond Egypt, and identified with Zeus and Jupiter. His appearance in art was as a man in a loincloth, with a headdress topped by feathers, but other appearances show him with the head of a ram. The temple of Amon-Ra at Karnak was the largest ever built. 7. Thoth Serving the gods as the supreme scribe, ibis-headed Thoth was known as the "tongue of Ptah" for his knowledge of hieroglyphics, and as the "Heart of Re" for his creative powers. His knowledge of science and calculation made him the creator of the calendar, and his symbol of the moon was due to his knowledge of how to calculate its path. His knowledge of magic led to his association with the Greek Hermes. Thoth was consulted by Isis when attempting to resurrect Osiris, and was again consulted when the young Horus was stung by a scorpion. 8. Ptah Principal god of the city of Memphis, he was portrayed as a mummy, or wearing the beard of the gods on his chin. His godhood was achieved by himself, much like his creation power, done merely by act of will. A patron of craftsmen, he also was seen as a healer, in the form of a dwarf. In the death trilogy (Anubis, Osiris, Ptah), he was seen as the god of embalming. His wife was the cat headed Sekhmet and his son was the lotus god Nefertem. 9. Anubis Son of Osiris and Nepthys, and god of embalming to the Egyptians, he was typically pictured with the head of a jackal. He also served as the god of the desert and the watcher of the tombs. He also served to introduce the dead to the afterlife, and as their judge. To decide the fate of the dead, Anubis would weigh the heart of the dead against the feather of truth. Anubis is sometimes identified with Hermes or Mercury. 10. Ma'at The daughter of Ra, she predated the universe, and served over the creation of it, ensuring balance between everything. Primarily seen as the keeper of order, Ma'at was responsible for seasons, day and night, rainfall, and star movements. A symbolic offering of Ma'at, in the form a statuette was given to the gods, as Ma'at encompassed all other offerings. Ma'at's aspect as god of justice also showed through her role in death ritual, where her ostrich feather symbol was weighed against the hearts of the dead in the underworld. Judges wore effigies of Ma'at, and the supreme head of courts was said to be the priest of Ma'at. 11. Hathor Hathor (or Athor or Athyr) was the patron of women. Hathor was the daughter of Ra, and wife of Horus. She fulfilled many functions as goddess of the sky, goddess of fertility, protector of marriage, and goddess of love and beauty. In that final role she became equated with Aphrodite and Venus. Pictures of Hathor show the goddess with the head of a cow. 12. Nephthys Termed the "lady of the castle," for her role as guardian of the tomb, she sided against her own husband, Set, in his battle against Osiris, but when Set was destroyed, she collected the bits of his body, and brought him back to life, much as Isis had done for Osiris. Isis' sister, she was also said to be Osiris' mistress, leading to much complaint from Isis. Due to her close ties to all the other gods, she was rarely associated with a cult of her own. You Gotta Know These Planetary Moons 1. Charon (Pluto) Named for the mythical boatman of the Greek underworld. Its expected pronunciation of "KAIR-en" is not the correct one, which is actually "SHAHR-en", in honor of Charlene Christy, wife of Jim Christy, its discoverer. The largest moon relative to the size of its orbiting planet, Charon not only is in synchronous orbit with Pluto, but the two show the same face toward each other at all times. The relative sizes of the two bodies has led some to call Charon and Pluto a double planet system. Charon's surface is believed to be water ice. 2. Deimos and Phobos (Mars) Named for two sons of Ares and Aphrodite. Phobos and Deimos (Greek for "fear" and "panic") are the two moons of Mars and both were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall. Phobos orbits closer to the planet and has as its most prominent feature the crater Stickney (Hall's wife's maiden name). Unlike the Earth's moon, it rises in the west and sets in the east, about twice per Martian day. This is due to it being below the radius for synchronous orbit. This position also means it will either impact Mars or break into a ring in around 50 million years. Deimos is the smallest moon in the solar system. It was discovered two days before Phobos. Deimos was likely an asteroid brought into Mars' orbit after being disturbed by Jupiter. Like Phobos, Deimos is heavily cratered, rich in carbon, and believed to have water ice. 3. Europa (Jupiter) One of the Galilean moons, discovered in 1610 by Galileo (the others are Callisto, Ganymede, and Io). It resembles Io, and to a degree, Earth, in its composition of silicate rocks. However, it is coated in a thin layer of ice, which causes it to be exceedingly smooth. This ice layer may also provide a thin atmosphere as hydrogen and oxygen are released when the planet is exposed to sunlight. There is the possibility of an active sea of liquid water beneath the surface. The most striking feature of the surface is a series of dark streaks that may be due to geysers or volcanic eruptions. 4. Ganymede (Jupiter) The largest satellite in the solar system, this Galilean moon is larger than Mercury, but has only half its mass. Based on the observations of the Galileo spacecraft, it is thought to have a three-layer structure of a molten iron core, silicate mantle, and ice exterior. Its surface is marked by older, dark, highly cratered regions, mixed with lighter, grooved regions. These grooves indicate tectonic activity, but Ganymede does not appear to have undergone recent tectonic shifts. 5. Io (Jupiter) Like Europa, Io (named for a lover of Zeus) is primarily formed of silicate rock. Its surface, however, is unlike any other satellite. Rather than craters, Io is dotted with active volcanoes, calderas, and other signs of geological activity. The eruptions are believed to consist of sulfurous compounds that comprise Io's thin atmosphere. The tremendous activity is due to tidal warming from the gravity of Jupiter and other satellites. Additionally, as Io orbits it is heated electrically from currents produced by Jupiter's magnetic field. This action strips material from Io, producing a radiation field and increasing Jupiter's magnetosphere. 6. Nereid (Neptune) Discovered by Gerard Kuiper (who also discovered Miranda, Titan's atmosphere, and an asteroid belt), Nereid (named for the daughters of Nereus and Doris) has the most eccentric orbit of any known satellite, ranging from 1.3 million kilometers to 9.6 million. The oddity of this orbit indicates it is likely a captured asteroid. 7. Oberon (Uranus) Named for the King of the Fairies in A Midsummer Night's Dream (all of Uranus' satellites are named for literary, rather than mythological, characters), Oberon is both the second largest of Uranus' satellites, and the outermost of its large satellites. Like all large Uranian moons, its structure is about half water ice, half rock. Large faults are visible across its southern hemisphere, but its surface is heavily cratered, indicating long-term tectonic stability. Some craters have dark floors that could possibly indicate post-impact upwellings of water. 8. Titan (Saturn) The largest of Saturn's satellites, Titan might be the largest satellite in the solar system, but this awaits more accurate measurements. Those measurements are difficult because of Titan's major characteristic: It is the only satellite to have a substantial atmosphere. Its significant atmosphere, a mix of nitrogen (80%), methane (20%), and argon (trace), also makes it unique among satellites. 9. Titania (Uranus) Another of Herschel's discoveries, Titania is named for Oberon's wife, the Queen of the Fairies, and is the largest of the Uranian satellites. Its surface is an odd mix of craters and valleys. One theory regarding this is that it began as a liquid, then cooled surface first. Once ice had formed, the interior, freezing forced surface cracks which formed the valleys. This also accounts for the appearance of some craters, where ice appears to have melted and filled in. 10. Triton (Neptune) By far the largest of Neptune's satellites, Triton is also unusual for its retrograde orbit, which indicates that it was not part of the natural formation of Neptune's other moons. It also features seismic activity in the form of ice volcanoes, a tenuous nitrogenmethane atmosphere, and a southern hemisphere "ice cap" of nitrogen and methane. All of these may be caused by Triton's odd rotational axis, which tends to alternate polar and equatorial regions facing the sun. This list obviously excludes the most famous moon of all, the Earth's moon. While odd, this is in keeping with the spirit of "You Gotta Know" lists because, for whatever reason, there are relatively fewer questions about it. You Gotta Know These Elections Every U.S. presidential election is fair game for quiz bowl questions, but some elections are asked about very frequently, either for the unusual nature of the election (e.g., 1876), for the extraordinary significance of the election in American history (e.g., 1860), or for the figures involved (e.g., 1912). The following 10 that "you gotta know" are listed in chronological order. 1. 1800: Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson narrowly beat incumbent Federalist John Adams 73-65, marking the ascent of that party's power. One electoral vote each is cast for president and vice president, so Democratic-Republican VP candidate Aaron Burr also has 73 votes, but Burr refused to step aside. In the House of Representatives, neither man won the necessary 9 state delegations outright until the 36th ballot, when James Bayard of Delaware changed his vote to Jefferson. The debacle leads to passage of the 12th amendment in 1804. The Federalists never recovered; Alexander Hamilton's opposition to Adams led to a permanent split between the two, and Hamilton's opposition to Burr was one cause of their 1804 duel, in which Burr (then vice president) killed Hamilton. Also notable is the first peaceful transfer of power from one party to another. 2. 1824: The candidates were John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William Crawford, and Andrew Jackson, all Democratic-Republicans. After John C. Calhoun decided to seek the vice presidency and Crawford (from Georgia) had a stroke, Jackson took most of the South and won the popular vote. Jackson had 99 electoral votes, Adams 84, Crawford 41, and Clay 37, but since none had more than 50% of the vote, the House decided the election. Adams won in the House with support from Clay, and Jacksonians cried foul when Clay was made Secretary of State (the so-called "corrupt bargain"), giving fuel to Jackson's victorious 1828 campaign. Jackson is the only candidate to lose a presidential race despite having the most electoral votes, and he is one of four (with Tilden, Cleveland, and Gore) to lose despite winning the popular vote. The election also led to the founding of the Democratic Party. 3. 1860: Another four-candidate election, with Republican Abraham Lincoln, (northern) Democrat Stephen Douglas, (southern) Democrat John C. Breckinridge, and Constitutional Unionist John G. Bell. The Republican Party, founded in 1854, won in its second election (its first candidate being Fremont in 1856), aided by the fragmenting of the Democrats. Bell took Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia, Breckinridge swept the other slave states, and Lincoln nearly swept the free states. Though winning under 40% of the total popular vote, Lincoln dominated the electoral count with 180 to a combined 123 for his opponents (Breckinridge 72, Bell 39, Douglas 12). Seven southern states seceded before Lincoln even took office, and war soon followed. 4. 1876: Republican Rutherford B. Hayes faced Democrat Samuel Tilden, best known for battling Tammany Hall and the Tweed Ring in New York. Tilden won the popular vote and seemed to win the election, but results in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana were contested, as was one vote in Oregon; if Hayes swept these votes, he would win the electoral count 185 to 184. In Congress, an informal bargain was reached (often called the Compromise of 1877) in which Hayes won the election in exchange for Reconstruction being brought to an end. 5. 1896: In the election itself, Republican William McKinley swept the North and Northeast to beat Democrat William Jennings Bryan, but the campaign was the interesting part. The most prominent issue, the gold standard versus free silver coinage, led to Bryan's famous "Cross of Gold" speech. Shunned by Eastern press, Bryan, a legendary orator, traveled 18,000 miles through 27 states and was heard by some 3 million people. McKinley would not accept Bryan's challenge to debate, comparing it to putting up a trapeze and competing with a professional athlete. McKinley instead had a "front porch" campaign, as railroads brought voters by the thousands to hear him speak in his hometown of Canton, Ohio. Mark Hanna, McKinley's campaign manager, is often considered the first modern campaign manager. The election also represented the demise of the Populist Party and ushered in a 16-year period of Republican rule. The gold question would disappear soon after the election with gold strikes in Australia and Alaska. 6. 1912: Three presidents--Teddy Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson-earned electoral votes. Roosevelt, displeased with his successor Taft, returned to lead the progressive Republican faction; after Taft got the Republican nomination, Roosevelt was nominated by the Progressive Party (nicknamed the "Bull Moose" Party). Wilson won with 435 electoral votes to Roosevelt's 88 and Taft's 8, making Taft the only incumbent to finish third in a re-election bid. Though Wilson did set forth his New Freedom program, his dominating win must be credited largely to the splitting of the Republican vote by Roosevelt and Taft. 7. 1948: In the most recent election with four significant candidates, Democrat Harry Truman beat Republican Thomas Dewey, contrary to the famous headline of the Chicago Tribune, printed before results from the West came in. Dewey dominated the Northeast, but Truman nearly swept the West to pull out the victory. Former vice president Henry Wallace earned over a million votes as the Progressive candidate, and Strom Thurmond--yes, that Strom Thurmond--took over a million votes and 39 electoral votes as the States' Rights (or "Dixiecrat") candidate. 8. 1960: John F. Kennedy defeated vice president Richard Nixon 303-219 in a tight election, winning the popular vote by just two-tenths of a percent. The first Kennedy-Nixon debate (from September 26, 1960) is a classic in political science; those who saw the calm, handsome Kennedy and the tired, uncomfortable-looking Nixon on television were more likely to select Kennedy as the winner than were those who listened on radio. (Theodore White's notable The Making of the President series began with the 1960 election.) Voting irregularities in Texas and Illinois (especially in Richard Daley's Chicago) led to allegations of fraud, but a recount would not have been feasible, and Nixon did not press the issue. Nixon would go on to lose the 1962 California gubernatorial race (occasioning his famous statement, "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around any more"). 9. 1968: After Lyndon Johnson declined to run for re-election, and after Robert F. Kennedy was killed in California, the Democratic nomination went to Hubert Humphrey. Richard Nixon, gradually returning from political obscurity over the past six years, gained the Republican nomination. Alabama governor George Wallace ran as the American Independent candidate, becoming the last third-party candidate to win multiple electoral votes. Nixon edged Humphrey by half a million popular votes and a 301-191 electoral count, while Wallace won nearly ten million votes. Wallace's presence may well have tipped the election to the Republicans, who, after being out of power for 28 of the last 36 years, would hold the presidency for all but four years through 1992. 10. 2000: The closest election in American history, it is sure to be a long-term staple of history questions. Al Gore won the popular vote but lost the electoral vote by a final count of 271-266 (one Gore elector abstained). Ralph Nader of the Green Party won an important 2.7% of the vote, while Pat Buchanan of the Reform Party placed fourth. New Mexico and Oregon were initially too close to call but went to Gore, and Florida became the center of attention. Ballot confusion in Palm Beach County, intimidation of vote recounters in Miami-Dade County, and absentee ballots throughout Florida became significant issues, as Americans had to hear about butterfly ballots, hanging chads, and Florida Secretary of State Katharine Harris for the next five weeks. Gore officially conceded the election on December 13, 2000. Other notable election events include Polk's win as a "dark horse" candidate in 1844, Cleveland's loss in 1888 despite winning the popular vote, Wilson's narrow victory in 1916, FDR's defeats of Hoover in 1932 and Willkie in 1940, Reagan's victory in 1980, and Clinton's win in 1992. You Gotta Know These 20th-Century Paintings Below is a list of ten paintings which are frequent quiz bowl topics. This list focuses on individual paintings rather than bodies of work; thus, an artist like Georgia O'Keeffe is not included because no specific one of her familiar cowskull-and-flower paintings is sufficiently prominent. The list is notably skewed toward the first half of the 20th century, as only one work was painted after 1950. Perhaps the earlier paintings have simply had more time to be influential and make their way into the artistic canon. Also, many prominent post-1950 painters, like Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko, do not have a specific work with a catchy title that has gained particular attention above all others; like O'Keeffe, they are known for their style and collective body of work rather than for any one painting. 1. Guernica, by Pablo Picasso. Guernica was a Basque town bombed by the Germans during the Spanish Civil War in April 1937. Picasso had already been commissioned to paint a mural for the Spanish Pavilion at the World's Fair, and he completed his massive, black, white, and grey anti-war mural by early June 1937. Picasso's Cubist approach to portraying the figures adds to the sense of destruction and chaos. Guernica was in the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York until 1981, when it was returned to the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia in Spain. 2. Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, by Marcel Duchamp. First painted in 1912, Nude Descending a Staircase created a sensation when shown at the 1913 Armory Show in New York, where one critic referred to it as "an explosion in a shingle factory." Painted in various shades of brown, Nude Descending a Staircase portrays a nude woman in a series of broken planes, capturing motion down several steps in a single image. The painting reflects a Cubist sense of division of space, and its portrait of motion echoes the work of the Futurists. 3. The Persistence of Memory, by Salvador Dalí. First shown in 1931, The Persistence of Memory is probably the most famous of surrealist paintings. The landscape of the scene echoes Port Lligat, Dalí's home. The ants, flies, clocks, and the Port Lligat landscape are motifs in many other Dalí paintings, and the trompe l'oeil depiction of figures is typical of his works. It currently belongs to MOMA; its 1951 companion piece, The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory, hangs at the Salvador Dalí Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida. 4. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, by Pablo Picasso. This painting depicts five women in a brothel. However, the images of the women are partly broken into disjointed, angular facets. The degree of broken-ness is rather mild compared to later Cubist works, but it was revolutionary in 1907. The rather phallic fruit arrangement in the foreground reflects the influence of Cezanne's "flattening of the canvas." The two central figures face the viewer, while the other three have primitive masks as faces, reflecting another of Picasso's influences. It is currently housed at the MOMA. 5. Broadway Boogie Woogie, by Piet Mondrian. While Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and other Cubist paintings represent an extension of Paul Cezanne's division-of-space approach to the canvas, Mondrian's De Stijl works are a still further abstraction, such that the canvas is often divided up into rectangular "tile patterns," as in Composition in Red, Yellow, and Blue. The painting simultaneously echoes the bright lights of a marquee, resembles a pattern of streets as seen from above, and creates a feeling of vitality and vibrancy, not unlike the music itself. This work can also be found at the MOMA. 6. Campbell's Soup Can, by Andy Warhol. Pop Art parodies (or perhaps reflects) a world in which celebrities, brand names, and media images have replaced the sacred; Warhol's series of Campbell's Soup paintings may be the best illustration of this. Like the object itself, the paintings were often done by the mass-produceable form of serigraphy (silk screening). Also like the subject, the Warhol soup can painting existed in many varieties, with different types of Campbell's Soup or numbers of cans; painting 32 or 100 or 200 identical cans further emphasized the aspect of mass production aspect in the work. The same approach underlies Warhol's familiar series of prints of Marilyn Monroe, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, and other pop culture figures. 7. Nighthawks, by Edward Hopper. As is often the case with his works, Hopper uses a realistic approach (including such details as the fluorescent light of the diner, the coffee pots, and the Phillies cigar sign atop the diner) to convey a sense of a loneliness and isolation, even going so far as to depict the corner store without a door connecting to the larger world. Hopper's wife Jo served as the model for the woman at the bar. Nighthawks is housed at the Art Institute of Chicago. 8. I and the Village, by Marc Chagall. Painted in 1911, I and the Village is among Chagall's earliest surviving paintings. It is a dreamlike scene which includes many motifs common to Chagall, notably the lamb and peasant life. In addition to the two giant faces—a green face on the right and a lamb's head on the left—other images include a milkmaid, a reaper, an upside-down peasant woman, a church, and a series of houses, some of them upside-down. I and the Village is currently housed at MOMA. 9. Christina's World, by Andrew Wyeth. The Christina of the title is Christina Olson, who lived near the Wyeths' summer home in Cushing, Maine. In the 1948 painting, Christina lays in the cornfield wearing a pink dress, facing away from the viewer, her body partly twisted and hair blowing slightly in the wind. In the far distance is a three-story farmhouse with dual chimneys and two dormers, along with two sheds to its right. A distant barn is near the top middle of the painting. One notable aspect is the subtle pattern of sunlight, which strikes the farmhouse obliquely from the right, shines in the wheel tracks in the upper right, and casts very realistic-looking shadows on Christina's dress. The Olson house was the subject of many Andrew Wyeth paintings for 30 years, and it was named to the National Register of Historic Places for its place in Christina's World. 10. American Gothic, by Grant Wood. Wood painted his most famous work after a visit to Eldon, Iowa, when he saw a Carpenter Gothic style house with a distinctive Gothic window in its gable. Upon returning to his studio, he used his sister Nan and his dentist, Dr. Byron McKeeby, as the models for the two figures. The pitchfork and the clothing were more typical of 19th-century farmers than contemporary ones. American Gothic is among the most familiar regionalist paintings, and it is said to be the most parodied of all paintings. It hangs at the Art Institute of Chicago, where it was submitted for a competition by Wood upon its completion in 1930 (Wood won a bronze medal and a $300 prize). Among the many other notable individual paintings are The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even by Marcel Duchamp, Red Room by Henri Matisse, Mystery and Melancholy of a Street by Giorgio de Chirico, The Twittering Machine by Paul Klee, the incomplete Man at the Crossroads by Diego Rivera, The Kiss by Gustav Klimt, and Time Transfixed by Rene Magritte. Two notable painting series are the Woman series of Willem de Kooning and the White on White series by Kasimir Malevich. You Gotta Know These Psychologists 1. Sigmund Freud (Austrian, 1856-1939) Sigmund Freud founded the extremely influential discipline of psychoanalysis, which used the technique of "free association" to identify fears and repressed memories. He argued that many problems were caused by mental states rather than by biochemical dysfunction--a purely materialist viewpoint then in vogue. He separated the psyche into the id (illogical passion), ego (rational thought), and superego (moral and social conscience). His best known works are The Interpretation of Dreams and The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, though many others come up frequently in quiz bowl. 2. Carl Jung (Austrian, 1875-1961) Carl Jung was a close associate of Freud's who split with him over the degree to which neuroses had a sexual basis. He went on to create the movement of "analytic psychology" and introduced the controversial notion of the "collective unconscious"--a socially shared area of the mind. Quiz bowlers should be familiar with "anima," "animus," "introversion," "extroversion," and "archetypes," all terms that occur frequently in questions on Jung. 3. Alfred Adler (Austrian, 1870-1937) Alfred Adler was another close associate of Freud who split with him over Freud's insistence that sexual issues were at the root of neuroses and most psychological problems. Adler argued in The Neurotic Constitution that neuroses resulted from people's inability to achieve self-realization; in failing to achieve this sense of completeness, they developed "inferiority complexes" that inhibited their relations with successful people and dominated their relations with fellow unsuccessful people, a theory given the general name of "individual psychology." 4. Ivan Pavlov (Russian 1849-1936) Ivan Pavlov was more of a physiologist than a psychologist, but questions about him are more often classified as "psychology" than "biology" by question writers. He is largely remembered for his idea of the "conditioned reflex," for example, the salivation of a dog at the sound of the bell that presages dinner, even though the bell itself is inedible and has no intrinsic connection with food. He won the Nobel Prize in 1904 for Physiology or Medicine for unrelated work on digestive secretions. 5. John B. Watson (American, 1878-1958) John Watson was the first prominent exponent of behaviorism; he codified its tenets in Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, arguing that psychology could be completely grounded in objective measurements of events and physical human reactions. His most famous experiment involved conditioning an eleven-month-old boy to be apprehensive of all furry objects by striking a loud bell whenever a furry object was placed in his lap. 6. B. F. Skinner (American, 1904-1990) B. F. Skinner was one of the leading proponents of behaviorism in works like Walden II and Beyond Freedom and Dignity. He argued that all human actions could be understood in terms of physical stimuli and learned responses and that there was no need to study--or even believe in--internal mental states or motivations; in fact, doing so could be harmful. Guided by his ideas, he trained animals to perform complicated tasks including teaching pigeons to play table tennis. 7. Jean Piaget (Swiss, 1896-1980) Jean Piaget is generally considered the greatest figure of 20th-century developmental psychology; he was the first to perform rigorous studies of the way in which children learn and come to understand and respond to the world around them. He is most famous for his theory of four stages of development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. His most famous works are The Language and Thought of a Child and The Origins of Intelligence in Children. 8. Erik Erikson (German-born American, 1902-1994) Erik Erikson is best known for his theories on how social institutions reflect the universal features of psychosocial development; in particular, how different societies create different traditions and ideas to accommodate the same biological needs. He created a notable eight-stage development process and wrote several "psychohistories" explaining how people like Martin Luther and Mahatma Gandhi were able to think and act the way they did. 9. Abraham Maslow (American, 1908-1970) Abraham Maslow is principally known for two works, Motivation and Personality and Toward a Psychology of Being, that introduced his theory of the "hierarchy of needs" (food, shelter, love, esteem, etc.) and its pinnacle, the need for "self-actualization." Self-actualized people are those who understand their individual needs and abilities and who have families, friends, and colleagues that support them and allow them to accomplish things on which they place value. The lowest unmet need on the hierarchy tends to dominate conscious thought. 10. Stanley Milgram (American, 1933-1984) Though he did the work that created the idea of "six degrees of separation" and the "lost-letter" technique, he is mainly remembered for his experiments on "obedience to authority" that he performed at Yale in 1961-1962. Milgram found that two-thirds of his subjects were willing to administer terrible electric shocks to innocent, protesting human beings simply because a researcher told them the experimental protocol demanded it. You Gotta Know These Artistic Creations The following table lists the thirty most-frequently referenced works of visual art in NAQT questions as of May 7, 2002. While you really gotta know their creators, these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written, so teams should be prepared for questions on their materials, design, technique, depicted action, and circumstances of creation. Rank Title Genre Creator Date Freq. 1 Painting Jan van Eyck 1434 21 The Arnolfini Wedding 2 The Birth of Venus Painting Sandro Botticelli 1480 20 3 Perseus With the Head Of Medusa Sculpture Benvenuto Cellini 1563 20 4 The Persistence of Memory Painting Salvador (Felipe Jacinto) 1931 Dalí (y Domenech) 18 5 The Kiss Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste 1886 Rodin 18 6 Mona Lisa Painting Leonardo da Vinci 1500 17 7 Liberty Leading the People Painting Eugene Delacroix 1830 17 8 David Sculpture Michelangelo (Buonarotti) 1504 17 9 Last Supper Painting Leonardo da Vinci 14951498 16 10 The Thinker Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste 1880-1 16 Rodin 11 School of Athens Painting Raphael 1509 14 12 The Death of Marat Painting Jacques-Louis David 1793 13 13 Luncheon on the Grass Painting Édouard Manet 1863 13 14 American Gothic Painting Grant Wood 1930 13 15 Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1: The Artist's Mother Painting James (Abbott) McNeill Whistler 1871 13 16 Bird in Space Sculpture Constantin Brancusi 1919 13 17 Fallingwater Building Frank Lloyd Wright 1936 12 18 The Hay Wain Painting John Constable 1821 12 19 Nighthawks Painting Edward Hopper 1942 12 20 Las Meninas Painting Diego (Rodríguez de Silva y) Velázquez 1656 12 21 The Blue Boy Painting Thomas Gainsborough 1770 12 22 I and the Village Painting Marc Chagall 1911 11 23 The Scream Painting Edvard Munch 1893 10 24 Guernica Painting Pablo Picasso y Ruiz 1937 10 25 Les Demoiselles d'Avignon Painting Pablo Picasso y Ruiz 1907 10 26 Primavera Painting Sandro Botticelli 1478 10 27 Impression: Sunrise Painting (Oscar-)Claude Monet 1872 10 28 Burial at Ornans Painting Gustave Courbet 184950 10 29 David Sculpture Donatello c. 1440 10 30 The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa Sculpture Gianlorenzo Bernini 1646 10 You Gotta Know These Russian Tsars 1. Peter I (1672-1725; ruled 1682-1725) Peter the Great is famous both for his push for Westernization and for his boisterous personality. His Grand Embassy to Europe enabled him to learn about Western life (and even to work in a Dutch shipyard); he later invited Western artisans to come to Russia, required the boyars to shave their beards and wear Western clothing, and even founded a new capital, St. Petersburg--his "window on the West." He also led his country in the Great Northern War (in which Charles XII of Sweden was defeated at Poltava), created a Table of Ranks for the nobility, and reformed the bureaucracy and army. But Peter could also be violent and cruel: he personally participated in the torture of the streltsy, or musketeers, who rebelled against him, and had his own son executed. 2. Ivan IV (1530-1584; ruled 1533-1584) Ivan IV is known in the West as "Ivan the Terrible," but his Russian nickname ("Groznyi") could be more accurately translated as "awe-inspiring" or "menacing." Ivan was proclaimed Grand Prince of Muscovy 1533 and tsar in 1547. Scholars differ on whether Ivan was literate and on how auspiciously his reign began. Early in his reign, he pushed through a series of well-received reforms and called a zemskii sobor (or "assembly of the land"), but Ivan had an amazingly cruel streak and eventually became unstable: he temporarily abdicated in 1564, killed his favorite son, created a state-within-thestate called the oprichnina to wage war on the boyars, and participated in the torture of his enemies. Ivan combined the absolutist tendencies of his predecessors with his own violent personality, helping to plunge the country into the subsequent period of civil strife known as the "Time of Troubles." 3. Catherine II (1729-1796; ruled 1762-1796) Catherine the Great wasn't really a Russian at all: she was born Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst (a minor German principality) and was chosen as the bride of the future Peter III. She had thoroughly Russianized herself by the time Peter became tsar, and soon had him deposed: she then dispatched several claimants to the throne and crushed a peasant uprising led by Emilian Pugachev. She also corresponded with Enlightenment philosophes, granted charters of rights and obligations to the nobility and the towns, oversaw the partition of Poland, and expanded the empire. Catherine is well known for her extravagant love life: her 21 acknowledged lovers included Grigorii Potemkin (who constructed the famous Potemkin village on an imperial inspection tour). 4. Nicholas II (1868-1918; ruled 1894-1917) Nicholas II, the last of the Romanovs, ruled until his overthrow in the February Revolution of 1917. He is usually seen as both a kind man who loved his family and an incapable monarch who helped bring about the end of the tsarist state; he led his country through two disastrous wars, the Russo-Japanese War (which helped spark the Revolution of 1905), and World War I (which helped cause the 1917 revolutions.) He is best known for his loving marriage to Alexandra and for allowing the crazed monk Grigorii Rasputin to influence court politics while treating the hemophilia of Alexei, the heir to the throne. Nicholas abdicated in 1917 and was shot in 1918. 5. Alexander II (1818-1881; ruled 1855-1881) Alexander II embarked on a program of Great Reforms soon after taking the throne near the end of the Crimean War. The most famous part of his program was the serf emancipation of 1861--a reform which occurred almost simultaneously with the end of American slavery (and whose gradual nature disappointed liberals.) But he also introduced a system of local governing bodies called zemstvos, tried to increase the rule of law in the court system, eased censorship, and reorganized the army. Alexander became more reactionary after an attempted 1866 assassination and was assassinated in 1881. 6. Alexander I (1777-1825; ruled 1801-1825) Alexander I took the throne in 1801 when his repressive father Paul was assassinated and immediately set out on a more liberal course, but he left his strongest supporters disappointed. He is best known for his wars with Napoleon (first as an ally and then as an enemy), and for seeking to establish a Holy Alliance in the years that followed. Alexander was an eccentric and a religious mystic. Some even say that he didn't really die in 1825: instead, they argue, he faked his own death, became a hermit, and died in a monastery in 1864. 7. Nicholas I (1796-1855; ruled 1825-1855) Nicholas I, who ruled Russia from the failure of the Decembrist Uprising to the middle of the Crimean War, has traditionally been portrayed as the embodiment of the Russian autocracy. His government pursued a policy of Official Nationality, defending a holy trinity of "Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Nationality," and established a repressive secret police force known as the Third Section. Contemporaries referred to him as the "Gendarme of Europe" after he helped the Habsburgs squelch the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. 8. Alexander III (1845-1894; ruled 1881-1894) Those who hoped that the assassination of Alexander II would lead to liberalization saw the error of their ways when the new tsar, Alexander III, launched his program of "counter-reforms." Under him, the state enacted a series of Temporary Regulations (giving it the power to crack down on terrorism), increased censorship, tightened controls on Russia's universities, created a position of "land captain" to exert state control in the countryside, and either encouraged or ignored the first anti-Jewish pogroms. 9. Boris Godunov (ca. 1551-1605; ruled 1598-1605) Boris Godunov began his career as a boyar in Ivan the Terrible's oprichnina, and eventually became tsar himself. Boris first cemented his influence by marrying a daughter of one of Ivan's court favorites and arranging his sister Irina's marriage to Ivan's son Fyodor; then he became regent under Fyodor, and was elected tsar when Fyodor died in 1598. But Boris was rumored to have arranged the murder of Fyodor's brother Dmitrii, and the first of several "False Dmitriis" launched a revolt against him. Boris died in the midst of growing unrest and is now best known as the subject of a Pushkin play and a Mussorgsky opera. 10. Michael (1597-1645; ruled 1613-1645) In 1613, near the end of the Time of Troubles, a zemskii sobor elected the 16-year-old Michael Romanov as the new tsar. Michael was a grandnephew of Ivan the Terrible's "good" wife Anastasia and the son of a powerful churchman named Filaret (who soon became patriarch); as tsar, he has usually been seen as a nonentity dominated by Filaret and other relatives. Nevertheless, his election marked the return of relative stability and the succession of the Romanov dynasty. You Gotta Know These Golfers 1. Tiger Woods (1975-present) Born to an African-American father and a Thai mother, he appeared on "The Mike Douglas Show" with a golf club at age two. Woods won three straight U.S. Junior Amateurs, and then became the only golfer to win three straight U.S. Amateurs (1994-1996). In 1997 Woods became the youngest ever to win the Masters--by a whopping 12 strokes. At the 2000 U.S. Open, when he won by 15 strokes, Woods began a remarkable run of four straight major championships: British Open (by eight strokes, making him the youngest ever to complete the career Grand Slam), PGA Championship, and the 2001 Masters. Woods added a third Masters in 2002, giving him seven major pro titles. 2. Jack Nicklaus (1940-present) Nicknamed "The Golden Bear," he won the U.S. Amateur twice (1959 and 1961), and was the 1961 NCAA champion at Ohio State. He took his first major the following year at the U.S. Open, beating Arnold Palmer on Palmer's home course. Nicklaus became the youngest Masters champion at the time in 1963, and 23 years later became the oldest champion with a final round 65 in 1986. He has a record 18 major pro championships overall, including six Masters, five PGA Championships, four U.S. Opens, and three British Opens. Nicklaus is still somewhat active on the Senior PGA Tour, and as a golf course architect. 3. Arnold Palmer (1929-present) A native of Latrobe, Pennsylvania, Palmer made golf popular with the masses, as his fans were known as "Arnie's Army." He won seven majors, including four Masters, and was the first golfer to earn one million dollars on the PGA Tour. Later Palmer became one of the stars of the Senior Tour, winning the Senior PGA Open in 1980 and 1981. In 2002 he played in his last competitive Masters. 4. Ben Hogan (1912-1997) The PGA Tour's leading money winner from 1940-42 and in 1946 and 1948, two events interrupted his playing career: service in World War II and a near-fatal 1949 head-on car accident. After each, though, Hogan rose to the top of his game; he won nine majors overall (six after the accident), including four U.S. Opens. In 1953 he accomplished a feat matched only by Tiger Woods: winning three modern major championships in one season: the Masters, U.S. Open, and British Open. 5. (Robert Tyre) "Bobby" Jones (1902-1971) An Atlanta native, and the greatest amateur golfer of all time, Jones never turned pro, but won thirteen major championships in eight years, including four U.S. Amateurs. In 1930 he won what was then considered the Grand Slam, taking both the British and U.S. Amateur and Open Championships. After that season, Jones retired from golf to practice law, but helped design a golf course in Augusta, Georgia that became the permanent site of the Masters in 1934. 6. Sam Snead (1912-2002) No golfer has won more PGA Tournaments than Snead's 81, and he amassed 135 victories worldwide. Nicknamed "Slammin' Sammy," he won seven major professional championships between 1942 and 1954, but he is known more for the one he never won: the U.S. Open. In 1939 Snead led the Open for 71 holes but lost on the last hole when he took an eight. In the 1960s and '70s he won a record six Senior PGA Championships. 7. Byron Nelson (1912-present) He won five major championships overall, but Nelson is best known for having the single most dominant year in golf history. In 1945 he won a record 18 tournaments in 30 starts, including 11 consecutive tournaments, a feat no one has come close to matching. Nelson was so even-tempered and mechanically sound that the USGA named its mechanical club and ball-testing device, the "Iron Byron," after him. 8. Tom Watson (1949-present) He became the major rival to Jack Nicklaus in the second half of the Golden Bear's career. Watson's greatest achievements were at the British Open, a tournament he won five times between 1975 and 1983. He took eight major championships overall, and still competes occasionally on the regular PGA Tour, though mostly on the Senior Tour, where he won the 2001 Senior PGA Championship. 9. Lee Trevino (1939-present) Nicknamed "Supermex" for his Mexican-American heritage, Trevino came from a poor Dallas family and served in the Marines, but came from nowhere to win the 1968 U.S. Open. He won six majors: the U.S. Open, the British Open, and the PGA Championship twice each, his second PGA in 1984 at age 44. That last win was most impressive because it came after the 1975 Western Open, where Trevino was struck by lightning on the golf course. 10. Gary Player (1935-present) The most successful non-American golfer in history, this South African has won nine majors. When Player took his only U.S. Open crown in 1965, he not only became the first non-American to win that tournament in 45 years, but he also became one of three (now five) golfers (along with Nicklaus, Woods, Hogan, and Gene Sarazen) to win all four modern Grand Slam events. Nicknames include "The Black Knight" for his dress and "Mr. Fitness" for his devotion to exercise. 11. Gene Sarazen (1902-1999) Born Eugene Saraceni, he came to prominence in the early 1920s, winning the PGA Championship in 1922 and 1923, as well as the U.S. Open in 1922. Bobby Jones and Walter Hagen then dominated golf until the early 1930s, when Sarazen returned to form, winning four more majors. At the 1935 Masters, he carded an albatross (three under par) from the fairway of the Par-5 15th hole to force a playoff; when he won, Sarazen became the first golfer to complete the modern career Grand Slam. 12. Walter Hagen (1892-1969) Nicknamed "The Haig," he was the first great pro golfer, appearing in over 2,500 exhibitions. A five-time PGA Champion, including four straight from 1924 to 1927, Hagen won eleven majors overall, and he was known most for his showmanship and his ability to recover from poor shots with spectacular ones. Hagen captained the U.S. Ryder Cup team six of the first seven times the event was held. You Gotta Know These American Plays 1. Our Town (Thornton Wilder, 1938). A sentimental story that takes place in the village of Grover's Corners, New Hampshire just after the turn of the 20th century. Our Town is divided into three acts: "Daily Life" (Professor Willard and Editor Webb gossip on the everyday lives of town residents); "Love and Marriage" (Emily Webb and George Gibbs fall in love and marry); and "Death" (Emily dies while giving birth, and her spirit converses about the meaning of life with other dead people in the cemetery). A Stage Manager talks to the audience and serves as a narrator throughout the drama, which is performed on a bare stage. 2. Long Day's Journey Into Night (Eugene O'Neill, 1956). O'Neill wrote it fifteen years earlier and presented the manuscript to his third wife with instructions that it not be produced until 25 years after his death. Actually produced three years after he died, it centers on Edmund and the rest of the Tyrone family but is really an autobiographical account of the dysfunction of O'Neill's own family, set on one day in August 1912. The father is a miserly actor, while the mother is a morphine addict, and the brother is a drunk; they argue and cut each other down throughout the play. 3. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (Edward Albee, 1962). The author Virginia Woolf has little to do with the story, except that Martha sings the title to George when she is mad at him in Act I. In fact, Albee got the title from graffiti he saw on a men's room wall. In the drama, George is a professor who married Martha, the college president's daughter, but the two dislike each other. Martha invites another couple, the instructor Nick and his wife Honey, for drinks after a party for her father. All four of them get drunk, and they end up bickering over their flawed marriages: Besides George and Martha's problems, Honey is barren, and Nick married her for her money. 4. A Streetcar Named Desire (Tennessee Williams, 1947). Blanche DuBois and Stanley Kowalski represent Williams's two visions of the South: declining "old romantic" vs. the harsh modern era. Blanche is a Southern belle who lost the family estate, and is forced to move into her sister Stella's New Orleans apartment. Stella's husband Stanley is rough around the edges, but sees through Blanche's artifice; he ruins Blanche's chance to marry his friend Mitch by revealing to Mitch that Blanche was a prostitute. Then, after Blanche confronts Stanley, he rapes her, driving her into insanity. The drama was developed into a movie, marking the breakthrough performance of method actor Marlon Brando. 5. A Raisin in the Sun (Lorraine Hansberry, 1959). Her father's 1940 court fight against racist housing laws provided the basis for Hansberry's play about the Younger family, who attempt to move into an all-white Chicago suburb but are confronted by discrimination. The first play by an African-American woman to be performed on Broadway, it also tore down the racial stereotyping found in other works of the time. The title comes from the Langston Hughes poem "Harlem" (often called "A Dream Deferred"). 6. The Crucible (Arthur Miller, 1953). Miller chose the 1692 Salem witch trials as his setting, but the work is really an allegorical protest against the McCarthy anti-Communist "witchhunts" of the early 1950s. In the story, Elizabeth Proctor fires servant Abigail Williams after she finds out Abigail had an affair with her husband. In response, Abigail accuses Elizabeth of witchcraft. She stands trial and is acquitted, but then another girl accuses her husband, John, and as he refuses to turn in others, he is killed, along with the old comic figure, Giles Corey. Also notable: Judge Hathorne is a direct ancestor of the author Nathaniel Hawthorne. 7. Death of a Salesman (Arthur Miller, 1949). This play questions American values of success. Willy Loman is a failed salesman whose firm fires him after 34 years. Despite his own failures, he desperately wants his sons Biff and Happy to succeed. Told in a series of flashbacks, the story points to Biff's moment of hopelessness, when the former high school star catches his father Willy cheating on his mother, Linda. Eventually, Willy can no longer live with his perceived shortcomings, and commits suicide in an attempt to leave Biff with insurance money. 8. Mourning Becomes Electra (Eugene O'Neill, 1931). This play is really a trilogy, consisting of "Homecoming," "The Hunted," and "The Haunted." Though it is set in postCivil War New England, O'Neill used Aeschylus's tragedy The Oresteia as the basis for the plot. Lavinia Mannon desires revenge against her mother, Christine, who with the help of her lover Adam Brant has poisoned Lavinia's father Ezra; Lavinia persuades her brother Orin to kill Brant. A distressed Christine commits suicide, and, after Orin and Lavinia flee to the South Seas, Orin cannot stand the guilt and kills himself as well, leaving Lavinia in the house alone. 9. The Glass Menagerie (Tennessee Williams, 1944). Partly based on Williams' own family, the drama is narrated by Tom Wingfield, who supports his mother Amanda and his crippled sister Laura (who takes refuge from reality in her glass animals). At Amanda's insistence, Tom brings his friend Jim O'Connor to the house as a gentleman caller for Laura. While O'Connor is there, the horn on Laura's glass unicorn breaks, bringing her into reality, until O'Connor tells the family that he is already engaged. Laura returns to her fantasy world, while Tom abandons the family after fighting with Amanda. 10. The Iceman Cometh (Eugene O'Neill, 1939). A portrait of drunkenness and hopeless dreams. Regular patrons of the End of the Line Café anticipate the annual arrival of Theodore "Hickey" Hickman, but in 1912 he returns to them sober. After the patrons reveal their "pipe dreams," Hickey implores them to give up those dreams and lead productive lives. The "Iceman" is supposed to represent the "death" found in reality. 11. Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (Tennessee Williams, 1955). Centers on a fight between two sons (Gooper and Brick) over the estate of father "Big Daddy" Pollitt, who is dying of cancer. After his friend Skipper dies, ex-football star Brick turns to alcohol and will not have sex with his wife Maggie ("the cat"). Yet Maggie announces to Big Daddy that she is pregnant in an attempt to force a reconciliation with--and win the inheritance for--Brick. 12. The Little Foxes (Lillian Hellman, 1939). Set on a plantation in 1900, Hellman attempts to show that by this time any notion of antebellum Southern gentility has been destroyed by modern capitalism and industrialism. Three Hubbard siblings (Regina and her two brothers) scheme to earn vast riches at the expense of other family members, such as Regina's husband Horace and their daughter Alexandra. The title is taken from the Old Testament Song of Solomon: "the little foxes that spoil the vines." You Gotta Avoid These Common Mistakes This article is a little different from other "You Gotta Know" topics in that it consists of common mistakes that players make when answering questions and answers that are often confused. 1. Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley Two different people; Mary Wollstonecraft (1759 - 1797, married name, Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin) is best known as an advocate of educational equality for women, particularly in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). She is the mother of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797 - 1851) who married the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and is best known as the author of Frankenstein: or, the Modern Prometheus. 2. "Bloody Mary" and Mary Queen of Scots Two different people; "Bloody Mary" is a (pejorative) nickname of Mary I Tudor, the queen of England who preceded Elizabeth I, so named for her persecution of Protestants. Mary Queen of Scots was Mary Stuart, who was the queen of Scotland during the first part of Elizabeth's reign. 3. The Merchant of Venice The title character of The Merchant of Venice is not Shylock-who is a money-lender--but Antonio. 4. Hudson Bay The large sea of eastern Canada is Hudson Bay (no apostrophe). The company named for it is the Hudson's Bay Company (with an apostrophe). Using the wrong form is sufficient for the answer to be counted wrong under NAQT rules. 5. Saint Augustine Two different people; the earlier (354 - 430) served as the Bishop of Hippo and wrote Confessions and City of God The later (? - 604/605) founded the Christian church in southern England and was the first archbishop of Canterbury. 6. Compound last names The last names of David Lloyd George, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Gabriel García Márquez, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe are "Lloyd George," "Lloyd Webber," "García Márquez," "Vaughan Williams," and "Mies van der Rohe" respectively. Starting with the 2002-2003 season players in NAQT events will be prompted if they give part of a compound last name, but this rule doesn't (necessarily) hold true at other quiz bowl tournaments. 7. Invisible Man Invisible Man is a 1952 novel by Ralph Ellison about an unnamed AfricanAmerican protagonist in search of personal identity. The Invisible Man is an 1897 novel by H. G. Wells about a man who has turned himself invisible but is slowly being driven insane. Under NAQT rules, players are usually allowed to drop leading articles or add them where they are missing (but not use incorrect ones)--but in this case (and others, for example, Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale and Helprin's Winter's Tale), it creates ambiguity and is wrong. 8. Primates The scientific name for the order of primates is Primates [pree-MAY-teez], not Primata. 9. John Adams Even though NAQT rules generally call for players to be prompted on partial names, an answer of "John Adams" will not be prompted if the correct answer is "John Quincy Adams." An answer of "Adams" will be prompted in either case. 10. "Concerned" philosophical works David Hume wrote An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, George Berkeley [BARK-lee] wrote Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, and John Locke wrote An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. These three philosophical works are often confused. 11. The Russian Five The nationalist composers popularly known as "The Russian Five" or "The Mighty Handful" were César Cui, Aleksandr Borodin, Mily Balakirev, Modest Mussorgsky, and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov; in particular, they did not include Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky. 12. Oliver Wendell Holmes Two different men; the father, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1809 - 1894) was a physician, poet, and humorist who wrote "Old Ironsides" and The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. The son, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (1841 - 1935) was a justice of the Supreme Court known as "The Great Dissenter." You Gotta Know These Phyla Plant, algal, and fungal "phyla" are often referred to as "divisions." Some taxonomists also extend this usage to bacteria, while others advocate replacing the term "division" with "phylum" for all organisms. Taxonomists do not always agree on the usage of even the most common terms. Some textbooks and other publications will use alternate names or spellings to describe taxonomic groups, or will lump or split groups in different ways. Under NAQT rules, unless the question states otherwise, both Latin names (Mollusca) or Anglicized names (molluscs) are acceptable for a given taxon. Note that spelling and pronunciation are not completely standardized in the taxonomic world, so other sources may have slightly different versions of these phyla. Estimates of phylal diversity vary. Because many invertebrates are inconspicuous, all estimates are probably low. Unless stated otherwise, numbers represent an estimate of the number of species that have been named. 1. Porifera (pore-IH-fer-ah; 5,000 species) The sponges are all water-dwellers (98% marine, 2% freshwater), and are sometimes classified separately from other animals because of their asymmetric bodies and lack of distinct tissues. They are sessile (immobile) except in early dispersing stages, and collect food particles via the sweeping motions of flagellated cells called choanocytes [koh-ANN-oh-sites]. 2. Cnidaria (nih-DARE-ee-ya; 10,000 species) Also called Coelenterata [se-LEN-ter-AH-tah], the cnidarians develop from a diploblastic (two-layered) embryo, and have two separate tissue layers and radial body symmetry. Many cnidarians have two life stages, the mobile, usually bell-like medusa and the sessile polyp. All cnidarians have nematocysts, or stinging cells, for capturing prey, and some can inflict painful stings on swimmers. Examples include the hydras, sea anemones, corals, jellyfishes, and Portuguese man-o-war (which is actually an aggregation of colonial cnidarians). 3. Platyhelminthes (PLAT-ee-hel-MIN-theez; 15,000 species) The flatworms are the most primitive phylum to develop from a triploblastic (three-layered) embryo. They have bilateral body symmetry, and are acoelomate (lacking a true body cavity), so that the space between the digestive tract and the body wall is filled with tissue. As the name implies, they are generally flat-bodied. They have a true head and brain, but the digestive system has only one opening that functions as both mouth and anus. Most are hermaphroditic. This phylum includes parasites such as the tapeworms and flukes, as well as free-living (i.e., non-parasitic) organisms such as the planarians. 4. Nematoda (NEM-ah-TOE-dah; 15,000 species) The roundworms are unsegmented worms that live in a variety of habitats. They are pseudocoelomate; the three tissue layers are concentric, but the body cavity is not lined with tissue derived from the mesoderm (middle embryonic layer). They include both free-living and parasitic species; human parasites include hookworms and the causative agents of elephantiasis, trichinosis, and river blindness. Soil nematodes may be crop pests, while others are beneficial predators on other plant pests. The nematode species Caenorhabdis elegans is a common subject in genetics and developmental-biology labs. 5. Annelida (AN-el-LEE-dah; 11,500 species) The annelids are segmented worms and represent the first lineage of truly eucoelomate (having a body cavity lined with mesodermderived tissue) animals; their body cavities are lined with tissue derived from the embryonic mesoderm. Annelid classes include the marine Polychaeta, as well as the mostly terrestrial Oligochaeta (including the earthworms, Lumbricus) and the mostly-aquatic Hirudinea, or leeches. Characteristics of annelids include nephridia (kidney-like structures), blood vessels, and, in some classes, hermaphroditism. 6. Arthropoda (ar-THROP-oh-dah or AR-thro-POE-dah; over 800,000 species described; estimates of actual diversity vary but go as high as 9 million species) The most diverse and successful animal phylum on earth (incorporating about 75% of all described animal species), the Arthropoda are characterized by jointed legs and a chitinous exoskeleton. Like annelids, they are segmented, but unlike annelids, their segments are usually fused into larger body parts with specialized functions (such as the head, thorax, and abdomen of an insect). Arthropods are often divided into four subphyla: Uniramia (insects, centipedes, millipedes); Chelicerata (arachnids, sea spiders, horseshoe crabs); Crustacea (shrimps, lobsters, crabs, crayfish, barnacles, pillbugs), and Trilobitomorpha (the trilobites, now extinct). 7. Cycliophora (CY-clee-oh-FORE-ah; 1 species) The most recently named phylum; its only known member is Symbion pandora, a tiny invertebrate first identified in 1995 when a Danish biologist found specimens on the mouthparts of a Norwegian lobster. It is believed to be closely related to the marine phyla Entoprocta and Ectoprocta (Bryozoa), which are not discussed here. 8. Mollusca (mol-LUS-kah; 50,000 species) The molluscs are second in diversity only to the arthropods. Body plans within this phylum are diverse, but general characteristics include a soft body covered by a thin mantle, with a muscular foot and an internal visceral mass. There are two fluid-filled body cavities derived from mesodermal tissue; a small coelom and a large hemocoel that functions as an open circulatory system. Many molluscs have a shell composed of calcium carbonate and proteins, secreted by the mantle. Familiar groups within the Mollusca include the classes Gastropoda (slugs, snails), Bivalvia (clams, oysters, scallops), and Cephalopoda (nautilus, squids, octopi). 9. Echinodermata (ek-KY-no-der-MAH-tah; 6,500 species) Characteristics of this phylum include an endoskeleton composed of many ossicles of calcium and magnesium carbonate, a water vascular system (WVS), a ring canal around the esophagus, and locomotion by tube feet connected to the WVS. Unique to echinoderms is the five-fold radial symmetry obvious in sea stars (seafish), sea urchins, and sea lilies. Others, like sea cucumbers, have varying degrees of bilateral symmetry. In the echinoderm body plan, a true head is absent; the anatomical terms oral (mouth-bearing) and aboral (away from the mouth) are used to describe orientation of the body surfaces. Feeding adaptations include particle feeding through the WVS, everting the stomach to engulf prey (sea stars), and a scraping device called Aristotle's lantern (sea urchins). 10. Chordata (kor-DAH-tah; 44,000 species) Our home phylum is divided into three subphyla: Urochordata, the sea squirts; Cephalochordata, the lancelets, and the true vertebrates (Vertebrata, the most diverse subphylum). Defining traits of chordates include pharyngeal gill slits, a notochord, a post-anal tail, and a dorsal hollow nerve cord. In vertebrates, some of these structures are found only in embryonic stages. The lancelet Amphioxus (Branchiostoma) is often used as a demonstration organism in biology labs. You Gotta Know These medieval Islamic dynasties Most of NAQT's You Gotta Know articles are targeted at high school and novice collegiate players, but this one has a narrower focus and is aimed at experienced collegiate teams. Islamic history is not a major subject in the NAQT distribution, but it is a fascinating one; these nine dynasties cover much of what is frequently asked. 1. Umayyad The Umayyads ruled as caliphs from Damascus from 661-750. They came to power in the civil war following the death of Uthman when Mu'awiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan defeated the forces of Ali Ibn Abi Talib after the latter's assassination. Denounced in traditional Islamic historiography for their secular rule, they introduced hereditary transmission of office into Islam and favored Arabs at the expense of other Muslims. Under 'Abd al-Malik, the Umayyad Mosque was constructed in Damascus. In the 10th century, an Umayyad scion re-established the dynasty in Cordoba, Spain. 2. Abbasid The Abbasids reigned as caliphs from Baghdad from 750-1258, and later from Cairo from 1261-1517. They rode to power on widespread disaffection with the Umayyads and the sense that a member of the Prophet's family was best qualified to lead the community. Their greatest rulers were al-Mansur, Harun ar-Rashid, and al-Mamun the Great. During the 9th century, however, power began to devolve onto increasingly autonomous local dynasties, and the Abbasids fell under the control of outside forces such as the Buyids and Seljuqs. When the Mongols destroyed Baghdad in 1258, the caliph as-Mustazim was wrapped in a carpet and trampled to death by horses. 3. Fatimid The Fatimids were Isma'ili Shi'ite Imams who founded their state in North Africa in 909 under the caliph al-Mahdi. They conquered Egypt in 969 under al-Muizz and built Cairo, becoming the Abbasids' rivals. At its height their regime reached into Yemen and Syria, and they had a network of missionaries spreading Isma'ili doctrines into Abbasid territory and beyond. In the eleventh century, the caliph al-Hakim, considered insane, disappeared, giving rise to the Druze religion. A later succession dispute gave rise to the sect of the Assassins. The last caliph, al-Adil, died in 1171. 4. Seljuq The Seljuqs were a family of Ghuzz Turks who invaded the Middle East in the eleventh century and came to control the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad. Following their defeat of the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, they settled in Anatolia as well, where they founded the Sultanate of Rum. Following the Central Asian model of "collective sovereignty," they divided territory among the ruling family, which prevented strong political unity. Their rule saw the beginning of the Sunni revival and the spread of religious schools called madrasas in the Islamic world, giving uniformity to elite beliefs and practices. By 1200 their power was all but extinct. 5. Ayyubid The Ayyubids were Kurds who took control of Egypt under the Zengids. In 1171 Salah ad-Din (Saladin) abolished the Fatimid caliphate, and later took Damascus as well. He retook Jerusalem from the Crusader kingdoms; however, subsequent Crusades undid some of these gains. It was in Ayyubid times that the Sunni revival came to Egypt. The sultan alKamil gave Jerusalem to Frederick II in a peace treaty and was visited by St. Francis of Assisi. The Ayyubids followed the practice of collective sovereignty, and were often politically divided. The woman Shajar ad-Durr was the last to rule Egypt. 6. Mamluk The Mamluks were slave soldiers of foreign origin who deposed the Ayyubids in 1250. Baybars, who turned back the Mongols at the Battle of Ayn Jalut, is a popular figure in Arabic heroic literature. In 1291 they drove the last Crusaders from Palestine. Their reign is divided into a "Bahri" period from 1250-1382 and a "Circassian" period from 1382-1517. They were defeated by the Ottomans, who conquered Egypt in 1517. 7. Ottoman The Ottomans were Turks of uncertain origin who conquered the Balkans and the Middle East and brought the central Islamic lands into the European state system. Their key military victories were the defeat of the Serbs in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, the capture of Constantinople in 1453, and the defeat of the Mamluks in 1517. During the 15th century their lands replaced Palestine as the major target of the Crusades. They reached their height under Suleyman the Magnificient, who beseiged Vienna in 1529. The empire's remnants became Turkey after World War I. 8. Mughal The Mughals ruled most of India from the early 16th until the mid-18th century, and claimed descent from both Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. Their empire was founded by Babur and expanded under his grandson Akbar. The Taj Mahal was built under Shah Jahan, who brought the empire to the brink of bankruptcy. Aurangzeb excluded Hindus from public office, and the empire began to break up soon after his death in 1707. 9. Safavid The Safavids were founded by a Sunni Sufi (mystic) order under Shah Ismail, and ruled Iran from 1502 until 1736. They forcibly converted Iran to Shi'ism, and later converted themselves (this sounds strange, and is--it's one of history's mysteries). Together with the Ottomans and Mughals, they form the three "Gunpowder Empires" in what Islamicists consider the late medieval period. Under Abbas I, a European expert was hired to reform the military following defeats by both their Ottoman and Uzbek rivals. Abbas later captured Baghdad and expelled the Portugese from the Persian Gulf. Esfahan was their capital during their height. You Gotta Know These Norse Gods and Goddesses 1. Ymir A primordial giant who formed in the void of Ginnungagap from fire and ice. He gave birth to the frost giants and created the primordial cow Audhumla. He was killed by Odin and his brothers, who used his body to construct most of the universe. 2. Odin (or Wodin or Wotan) The All-Father, he is the leader of the Aesir, the principal group of Norse gods. He is a god of war, death, wisdom, poetry, and knowledge, and rides the eightlegged horse Sleipnir. He hung himself for nine days on the world tree Yggsdrasil, pierced by his own spear, to gain knowledge, and traded one of his eyes for a drink from Mimir's well to gain wisdom. 3. Frigg (or Frigga) The wife of Odin, and mother by him of Balder, Hoder, Hermod, and Tyr. She is the goddess of the sky, marriage, and motherhood, and often works at her loom spinning clouds. 4. Frey (or Freyr) The son of Njord, and twin brother of Freya. He is one of the Vanir, a second group of Norse gods, but lives with the Aesir as a hostage. The god of fertility, horses, sun, and rain, his possessions include the magic ship Skidbladnir. He travels in a chariot drawn by the golden boar Gullinbursti, and had to give away his magic sword to win the hand of the giantess Gerda. 5. Freya The daughter of Njord and twin sister of Frey, she is also a Vanir hostage living with the Aesir. The goddess of love, passion, and human fertility, her possessions include a cloak that allows her to turn into a falcon, and the necklace Brisingamen. She travels in a chariot drawn by two cats. 6. Thor A son of Odin and the giantess Jord, he is the god of thunder, weather, and crops. One of the most popular of the Norse gods, he travels in a chariot pulled by two goats, and wields the hammer Mjolnir. He is married to Sif, and his special nemesis is the Midgard Serpent. 7. Loki He's actually giant-kin, but lives with the Aesir and is Odin's blood-brother. The god of fire and trickery, his many pranks include duping Hoder into killing Balder. His children include the wolf Fenrir, the Midgard Serpent Jormungandr, Hel (the ruler of the underworld), and Sleipnir. After killing Balder he was chained to three boulders with snakes dripping poison onto him. 8. Heimdall The son of nine sisters, he is the god of light and guardians. He guards Bifrost, the rainbow bridge into Asgard. His senses are so sharp, he can see 100 miles by night or day and hear grass growing. He will call the Aesir into battle at Ragnarok with his horn Gjall (or Gjallerhorn). 9. Balder (or Baldur) The fairest of the Aesir, he is the god of light, joy, and beauty. He dreamed of his own death, so Frigga extracted promises from everything not to harm Balder, but she skipped mistletoe. Loki tricked Balder's blind brother Hoder into killing him with a spear of mistletoe. 10. Norns The goddesses of destiny, represented as the three sisters Urd (or Wyrd), Verdandi (or Verthandi), and Skuld. The counterparts of the Greek Fates, they tend the Well of Fate at the roots of Yggdrasil. You Gotta Know These British Monarchs 1. Henry VIII (1491-1547, r. 1509-1547) House of Tudor. The son of Tudor founder Henry VII, he brought England into both the Renaissance and the Reformation. Henry patronized the philosopher Erasmus, the painter Hans Holbein the Younger, and the writer Thomas More. Originally a supporter of the Catholic Church--the Pope had named him "Defender of the Faith"--he named himself head of the Church of England in 1533 so that he could divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. Henry executed top ministers who crossed him, including Thomas Cromwell and Thomas More. He married six times, but only his third wife, Jane Seymour, bore him a son, the sickly Edward VI. 2. Elizabeth I (1533-1603, r. 1558-1603) House of Tudor. Known as the "Virgin Queen" because she never married, as Henry VIII's daughter by Anne Boleyn, the Catholic Church considered her illegitimate. After the death of her Catholic sister Mary I, Elizabeth I tried to restore religious order by declaring England a Protestant state but naming herself only "Governor" of the Church. She foiled attempts at her throne by Spanish king Philip II and Mary, Queen of Scots; the latter Elizabeth reluctantly executed in 1587. Her reign saw great expansion of the English navy and the emergence of William Shakespeare, but when she died, the Crown went to Scottish king James VI, the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. 3. George III (1738-1820, r. 1760-1820) House of Hanover. Though he lost the American colonies in the Revolutionary War, Britain's economic empire expanded during his reign. While George's ministers kept their lives, they fell from power frequently, including both William Pitts, Lord Bute, and Lord North. Popular at home, he suffered from porphyria, causing the "madness" that ultimately led to the Regency period (1811-1820) of his son George IV. 4. (Alexandrina) Victoria (1819-1901, r. 1837-1901; Empress of India 1876-1901) House of Hanover. The longest-reigning monarch in British history, she relinquished much of the remaining royal power, both to her husband Albert and to her favored prime ministers, Lord Melbourne, Robert Peel, and Benjamin Disraeli. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria largely went into seclusion, though she influenced the passage of the Reform Act of 1867, which doubled the number of Britons who could vote. 5. William I (the Conqueror) (1028-1087, r. 1066-1087) House of Normandy. Duke of Normandy from 1035, he was promised succession to the throne by Edward the Confessor, but when Edward gave the throne to Harold II in 1066, William invaded England, killing Harold and defeating the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings. An able administrator, he authorized a survey of his kingdom in the 1086 Domesday Book. By that time William had replaced Anglo-Saxon nobles and clergy with Normans and other continentals. 6. Charles I (1600-1649, r. 1625-1649) House of Stuart. The last absolute English monarch, Charles ran into trouble almost immediately. His minister, the Duke of Buckingham, asked Parliament for money to fight costly foreign wars, and when Parliament balked, Charles had to sign the Petition of Right. From 1630 to 1641 he tried to rule solo, but financial troubles forced him to call the Short and Long Parliaments. His attempt to reform the Scottish Church was the last straw, as Parliament entered into the English Civil War. They defeated Charles, convicting him of treason and executing him. England became a Commonwealth with Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector. 7. James I (1566-1625, r. 1603-1625) House of Stuart. At age one James succeeded his mother Mary as King James VI of Scotland. As the great-great-grandson of Henry VII, he claimed the English throne upon the death of Elizabeth I. James was the intended target of Catholic fanatic Guy Fawkes' failed Gunpowder Plot in 1605. A believer in absolutism, James dissolved Parliament from 1611 to 1621, favoring ministers Robert Cecil and the Duke of Buckingham instead. His rule saw English expansion into North America, through royal charter in Virginia and Puritan protest in Massachusetts. 8. Richard III (1452-1485, r. 1483-1485) House of York. He was made Duke of Gloucester in 1461 when his brother Edward IV deposed the Lancastrian king Henry VI, as part of the Wars of the Roses. Upon Edward's death in 1483, Richard served as regent to his nephew Edward V, but likely had the boy murdered in the Tower of London that year. Two years later, Richard died at the hands of Henry Tudor's Lancastrian forces at Bosworth Field, ending the Wars of the Roses and beginning the reign of Henry VII. 9. Elizabeth II (1926-present, r. 1952-present) House of Windsor. Representative of the modern ceremonial monarchy, she and her husband "Prince" Philip Mountbatten have traveled the globe representing British interests. Marital failures by her sons Charles (the Prince of Wales) and Andrew have plagued her reign. 10. John Lackland (1167-1216, r. 1199-1216) House of Plantagenet. Though he tried to seize the crown from his brother Richard while the latter was in Germany, Richard forgave John and made him his successor. Excommunicated by the Pope for four years for refusing to accept Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury, John was also weak as a fighter, as French King Philip II routed him at Bouvines in 1214. A year later, England's barons forced John to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede, an event that marked the beginning of the development of the British constitution. 11. Charles II (1630-1685; r. 1660-1685) House of Stuart. While Cromwell ruled the Commonwealth, Charles was crowned King of Scotland in 1651. After Cromwell died, Charles used the Declaration of Breda to restore himself to the English throne. He fought two lackluster wars against the Dutch, and needed protection from Louis XIV through the Treaty of Dover. His wife Catherine of Braganza produced no legitimate heirs, but this "Merry Monarch" has as many as 14 illegitimate children. Tolerant of Catholics, he dissolved Parliament over the issue in 1681 and refused to prevent his brother James from succeeding him. 12. James II (1633-1701; r. 1685-1688) House of Stuart. The 1678 Popish Plot against Charles II would have elevated the Roman Catholic James to the throne, had it been real and not fabricated by Titus Oates. James's three years, however, did feature heavy favoritism toward Catholics, so much so that Protestants invited James's son-in-law William of Orange to rule England, deposing James in the bloodless Glorious Revolution. Exiled to Louis XIV's court, he made an attempt to regain his crown in 1690 but was routed at the Battle of the Boyne. 13. Henry II (1133-1189; r. 1154-1189) House of Plantagenet. The son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, he married Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152, and invaded England the following year, forcing Stephen of Blois to acknowledge Henry as his heir. While king he developed the common law and due process, but fought with Thomas (à) Becket over submission to the Pope; Henry had Becket executed in 1170 but performed penance at Canterbury. Eleanor and his four sons conspired with French king Philip II against Henry on several occasions. 14. Richard I (the Lion-Hearted) (1157-1199; r. 1189-1199) House of Plantagenet. Third son of Henry II, he spent only five months of his reign in England. He went on the Third Crusade to Jerusalem, winning many victories in the Holy Land, but on his way back was captured and ransomed by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI. He also fought Philip II in Normandy, and died while defending his possessions in Aquitaine. 15. Alfred the Great (849-899; r. 871-899) Saxon House. Actually just the King of Wessex in southwestern England, he expelled the rival Danes from the Mercian town of London in 886, eventually conquering most of the Danelaw territory. Alfred also kept England from the worst of the Dark Ages by encouraging his bishops to foster literacy; in addition, he translated Boethius, Augustine, and the Venerable Bede's works into Anglo-Saxon. You Gotta Know These Religious Texts This list of religious works from around the world specifically excludes the Old Testament and the New Testament, which will be the subject of an upcoming You Gotta Know article. 1. Analects One of the "Four Books" used by the ancient Chinese for civil service study, it contains the sayings (aphorisms) of Confucius. The philosopher Confucius did not write or edit the words that make up the Analects; his disciples compiled them in the 5th or 4th century BC. Confucianism is more of a philosophical system than a religion, and Confucius thought of himself more as a teacher than as a spiritual leader. The Analects also contain some of the basic ideas found in Confucianism, such as ren (benevolence) and li (proper conduct). 2. Apocrypha Protestants and Jews assign lower authority to the Apocrypha because it was written between 300 and 100 BC, but Catholics and Orthodox Christians consider the books that make up the Apocrypha to be "deuterocanonical," meaning that they are just as important and divinely-inspired as other parts of the Old Testament. "Apocryphal" in general means "something outside an accepted canon," and, in particular, in ancient Greek it meant "hidden things." Scholars differ as to which books make up the Apocrypha, but Tobit, Judith, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Sirach (or Ecclesiasticus), and Baruch are almost always included. 3. Avesta (or Zend-Avesta) Sacred scripture of Zoroastrianism. It consists of five parts: Gathas (poems written by Zoroaster), Visparat (homages to spiritual leaders), Vendidad (legal and medical doctrine), Yashts (hymns to angels and heroes), and Khurda (lesser rituals and hymns). The Gathas may be as old as the 7th century BC, when Zoroaster is thought to have lived, but most of the Avesta was put together by the Sassanid Persian dynasty, between 200 and 640. Zoroastrianism centers on the eternal struggle between a good entity (Ahura Mazda, or Ormuzd) and its evil counterpart (Angra Mainyu, or Ahriman); the religion is still practiced by about 120,000 Parsees in Bombay and a few thousand adherents in Iran and Iraq. 4. Bhagavad-Gita Sanskrit for "The Song of God," it is a poem found in Book Six of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. Likely formalized in the 1st or 2nd century, the Bhagavad-Gita begins on the eve of a battle, when the prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna (an avatar of Vishnu) about responsibility in dealing with the suffering that impending battle will cause. Krishna tells Arjuna that humans possess a divine self within a material form, and that Arjuna's duty is to love God and do what is right without thinking of personal gain--some of the main tenets of Hinduism. 5. Dao de Jing (or Tao Te Ching or The Way and Its Power) Philosophical text behind Daoism, a religion-philosophy founded by the semi-legendary Laozi in the sixth century BC, though scholars now believe it was written about 200 years later, during the Warring States period of the late Zhou Dynasty. The Dao de Jing instructs adherents in restraint and passiveness, allowing the natural order of the universe to take precedent. 6. Hadith A hadith is a report of the words or actions of a Muslim religious figure, most frequently the Prophet Muhammad. Each consists of a matn, or text of the original oral law itself, as well as an isnad, or chain of authorities through which it has been passed by word of mouth through the generations. Collectively, the hadith point Muslims toward the Sunna, or practice of the Prophet, which together with the Qur'an forms the basis for shari'a , usually translated as Islamic law. 7. Book of Mormon Published in 1830 by the founder of the Mormon Church, Joseph Smith. Mormons believe that the prophet Moroni revealed the location of the Book of Mormon to Smith, and then Smith translated it from a "reformed Egyptian" language. The Book of Mormon is inscribed on thin gold plates, and documents the history of a group of Hebrews who migrated to America around 600 BC. This group divided into two tribes: the Lamanites (ancestors of American Indians), and the highly civilized Nephites, a chosen people instructed by Jesus but killed by the Lamanites around 421. 8. Qur'an (or Koran) Arabic for "recitation," it is the most sacred scripture of Islam. The Qur'an is subdivided into 114 chapters, called suras, which, with the exception of the first one, are arranged in descending order of length. According to Muslim belief, the angel Jibril [Gabriel] visited the prophet Muhammad in 610 and revealed the work to him. Various suras discuss absolute submission to Allah [God], happiness in Heaven versus torture in Hell, and the mercy, compassion, and justice of Allah. The third caliph, Uthman (644-656), formalized the text after many of his oral reciters were killed in battle. 9. Talmud Hebrew for "instruction," the Talmud is a codification of Jewish oral and written law, based on the Torah. It consists of the Mishnah (the laws themselves), and the Gemara (scholarly commentary on the Mishnah). The Gemara developed in two Judaic centers: Palestine and Babylonia, so there are two Talmuds (Palestinian and Babylonian), the latter considered more authoritative by Orthodox Jews. Rabbis and lay scholars finished the Babylonian Talmud around 600. 10. Upanishads Also called Vedanta, or "last part of the Vedas," the Upanishads were written in Sanskrit between 900 and 500 BC. Part poetry but mainly prose, the earlier Upanishads laid the foundation for the development of several key Hindu ideas, such as connecting the individual soul (atman) with the universal soul (Brahman). Spiritual release, or moksha, could be achieved through meditation and asceticism. The name "Upanishads" means "to sit down close," as pupils did when a teacher recited them. 11. Vedas Consist strictly of four hymnbooks: the Rig (prayers in verse), Sama (musical melodies), Yajur (prose prayers), and Atharva (spells and incantations). Each Veda, though, also contains a Brahmana (interpretation), and the Vedas also incorporate treatises on meditation (Aranyakas) as well as the Upanishads. Written in an archaic form of Sanskrit by early Aryan invaders, possibly between 1500 and 1200 BC, the Vedas concentrate on sacrifices to deities, such as Indra (god of thunder), Varuna (cosmic order), and Agni (fire). The major gods Vishnu and Shiva appear as minor deities in the Vedas; their elevation, as well as the concept of karma, does not develop until the Upanishads. 12. Yijing (or I Ching or Book of Changes) The basis for ancient Chinese philosophy and religion, the Yijing was created between 1500 and 1000 BC, though legend has it that the dragon-emperor Fuxi derived its eight trigrams from a turtle shell. The trigrams consist of three either broken (yin) or unbroken (yang) lines, and by reading pairs of these trigrams randomly, one could learn about humans, the universe, and the meaning of life. Qin emperor Shi Huangdi burned most scholarly books, but the Yijing escaped because it was not seen as threatening. You Gotta Avoid These Common Mistakes II This article is similar to the previous common mistakes article in that it consists of common mistakes that players make when answering questions and answers that are often confused. 1. Revelation The final book of the New Testament. In particular, it is singular and the plural form will be counted wrong in NAQT competitions. The full name varies from translation to translation, but sometimes appears as "The Revelation of St. John the Divine" or "Apocalypse of John." 2. Tom Wolfe and Thomas Wolfe Two different people; Tom Wolfe (1930 - present, in full Thomas Kennerly Wolfe Jr.) is the modern author and journalist who wrote The Right Stuff, The Bonfire of the Vanities, and A Man in Full. Thomas Wolfe (1900 - 1938, in full, Thomas Clayton Wolfe) was an earlier author of works like Look Homeward, Angel and You Can't Go Home Again. In NAQT competitions, "Thomas Wolfe" will be counted wrong for the former and "Tom Wolfe" as wrong for the latter. 3. Greco-Roman Mythology Greek and Roman mythology have many analogous characters, many of which are closely identified (e.g., Aphrodite and Venus). However, a question that mentions specific names, traits, or otherwise makes clear that it is about one tradition requires that the answer from that tradition be given; analogous figures from other traditions will not even be prompted under NAQT rules. Thus the answer to "From whose head was Minerva born?" must be "Jupiter" and not "Zeus." 4. Enharmonic Notes While it is true that on a piano the notes C-sharp and D-flat are indistinguishable, this is not true on other instruments or under most systems of tuning. In general music theory differentiates between notes that are enharmonic in the specific case of the piano and NAQT questions will require that correct note (and will not prompt on the other). 5. East Asian Names Many East Asian languages (but in particular Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean) traditionally place the family name before the given name: Mishima Yukio's family name is "Mishima". Under NAQT rules, all answers (regardless of the usual cultural order) may be given in either order: "Mishima Yukio," "Yukio Mishima," "Henry James," and "James, Henry" are all acceptable, but players should make sure that they know which part of an East Asian name is the family name as "Yukio" will be neither prompted nor accepted. Players who are not certain may wish to give both names, though it is usually a good idea to only give the family name when answering (since family names are usually sufficient and always will be prompted if not). 6. The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg is the correct title of the short story by Mark Twain. In particular, "The Man Who Corrupted Hadleyburg" is incorrect. 7. United Kingdom Since the Act of Union in 1707, England has not existed as a separate political unit and questions about political entities after that time will nearly always require "United Kingdom" (or "Great Britain") and will not prompt on "England." England, of course, continues to be a reasonable answer in modern times for geography or sports questions. 8. Immaculate Conception The Roman Catholic belief that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was not affected by Original Sin from the moment of her conception onward. In particular, despite the lack of male involvement, it does not refer to the conception by Mary of Jesus the Christ. 9. IWW An abbreviation for the early 20th-century labor organization Industrial Workers of the World. In particular, it does not stand for the (redundant) "International Workers of the World." 10. Daniel Shays An officer in the Revolutionary War who went on to lead a 1786-1787 rebellion in western Massachusetts opposing its high taxes, an episode known as "Shays' Rebellion." In particular, his name is not "Shay." A similar error is often made in giving "van der Waal" as the name of the Dutch chemist, but his name is actually "van der Waals." 11. The Sign of Four The Arthur Conan Doyle novel about the theft of the Agra treasure by four men including Jonathan Small. In particular, the title is not "The Sign of the Four." 12. Visual Art Titles From 1300 to 1700, relatively few religious paintings were given specific titles; most have been assigned traditional names based on their subject manner. This means that many titles (e.g., The Descent from the Cross, The Annunciation, The Adoration of the Magi, etc.) occur very frequently and players should not be as quick to ring in upon immediately recognizing as a title as in other fields because there is a good chance that more than one painter produced a work by that name. Similarly, the titles are often not canonical (e.g., El Greco's Christ Driving the Money-Changers from the Temple may appear as Expulsion from the Temple) and players should keep in mind that the form of the title they know may not be the one given in the question. You Gotta Know These American Warships The following list of nine American warships includes eight of the most important or interesting ships in the U.S. Navy, as well as one from the navy of the Confederate States of America. Though there are some ships that were more involved in battle, these mark significant advancements in naval technology or turning points in U.S. history; most importantly, they are the ships that come up most frequently in quiz bowl. 1. USS Constitution Better known as "Old Ironsides," the Constitution was one of the first six ships commissioned by the U.S. Navy after the American Revolution. Launched from Boston in 1797, the Constitution first saw action as the squadron flagship in the Quasi-War with France from 1799-1801 and also fought in the Barbary War and the War of 1812. She later served many years as the nation's flagship in the Mediterranean. Retired from active duty in 1846, the words of Oliver Wendell Holmes' "Old Ironsides" saved her from the scrap yard-she became the training ship of the U.S. Naval Academy until the mid-1880s. She became the symbolic flagship of the U.S. Navy in 1940 and is now a floating museum in Boston. 2. USS Chesapeake The USS Chesapeake was built at what is now the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, between 1798 and 1799. The Chesapeake was attacked by the British Leopard off Cape Henry in 1807 (which led to the duel between Commodores James Barron and Stephen Decatur), one of the causes of the War of 1812. She was captured off Boston in 1813 by the British frigate Shannon, on which occasion her commander, Capt. James Lawrence, uttered his celebrated dying words, "Don't give up the ship," which have become a tradition in the U.S. Navy. 3. USS Lawrence/USS Niagara Oliver Hazard Perry's decisive victory over the British fleet in the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813 ensured American control of the Great Lakes during the War of 1812. In the battle, Perry's flagship, the USS Lawrence, was severely damaged and four-fifths of her crew killed or wounded. Commodore Perry and a small contingent rowed a half-mile through heavy gunfire to another American ship, the USS Niagara. Boarding and taking command, he brought her into battle and soundly defeated the British fleet. Perry summarized the fight in a now-famous message to General William Henry Harrison: "We have met the enemy and they are ours." 4. USS Monitor/CSS Virginia [aka USS Merrimack] After departing Union forces burned the Gosport Navy Yard in Norfolk in April 1861, yard workers salvaged the USS Merrimack and converted her into the ironclad CSS Virginia. On March 8, 1862, the CSS Virginia left the shipyard and sank two Union warships in Hampton Roads. The South's ironclad rammed and sank the USS Cumberland and set fire to and sank the USS Congress, one of the nation's first six frigates. The Monitor was sent to end its rampage and the two ironclads battled for 3 1/2 hours before the Virginia ran aground in its attempt to ram the USS Minnesota. Visibly damaged, the Virginia retreated and the Monitor withdrew to protect the Minnesota. The Confederates destroyed the Virginia soon after to prevent her capture by Union forces. The Monitor, victorious in her first battle, sank in a storm off Cape Hatteras, NC. The shipwreck is a national underwater sanctuary under the purview of the NOAA. 5. USS Maine (ACR-1) [Second class] The first Maine, a second-class armored battleship was launched in 1889. A part of the "Great White Fleet," in 1897 the Maine sailed for Havana to show the flag and protect American citizens. Shortly after 9:40 pm on February 15, 1898, the battleship was torn apart by a tremendous explosion. The court of inquiry convened in March was unable to obtain evidence associating the blast with any person or persons, but public opinion--inflamed by "yellow journalism"--was such that the Maine disaster led to the declaration of war on Spain on April 21, 1898. 6. USS Arizona (BB-39) [Pennsylvania class] A lead ship of the honor escort for President Wilson's trip to France in 1918, she was on Battleship Row at Pearl Harbor when Japanese aircraft appeared just before 8:00 am on Sunday, December 7, 1941. The Arizona came under attack almost immediately, and at about 8:10 was hit by an 800-kilogram bomb just forward of turret two on the starboard side. Within a few seconds the forward powder magazines exploded, killing 1,177 of the crew, and the ship sank to the bottom of the harbor. In 1962 the USS Arizona memorial opened and is now administered by the National Park Service. 7. USS Missouri (BB-63) [Iowa class] The fourth USS Missouri was the last battleship completed by the United States; she was laid down January 6, 1941 by New York Naval Shipyard. The Missouri was launched January 29, 1944 and received her sponsorship from Miss Margaret Truman, daughter of then Missouri Senator, Harry S Truman. Commissioned on June 11, 1944, the "Mighty Mo," as she became known, sailed for the Pacific and quickly became the flagship of Admiral Halsey, which is why she was chosen as the site of the formal surrender of the Empire of Japan on the morning of September 1, 1945. 8. USS Nautilus (SSN-571) [Nautilus class] In 1951 Congress authorized construction of the world's first nuclear-powered submarine. On December 12 of that year, the Navy Department announced that she would be the sixth ship of the fleet to bear the name Nautilus. She was launched on January 21, 1954. Eight months later, on September 30, 1954, the Nautilus became the first commissioned nuclear-powered ship in the U.S. Navy. On the morning of January 17, 1955, Nautilus' Cmdr. Wilkinson signaled "Underway on Nuclear Power." In 1958 she departed Pearl Harbor under top secret orders to conduct "Operation Sunshine," the first crossing of the North Pole by a ship. You Gotta Know These Programming Languages 1. C++ is a popular, compiled, high-level language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1985 at Bell Labs. C++ is similar to C, but adds object-oriented features (classes), generic programming (templates), and exception handling to the language. It is a popular language for developing business applications and, increasingly, games. 2. Java is a popular high-level language developed by Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. The language was originally named OAK and unsuccessfully used for set-top devices, but hit it big after being renamed in 1995 and introduced to the World Wide Web. It is a relatively pure object-oriented language with syntax similar to C++. Instead of being compiled to object code, it is compiled to Java bytecode, which is then interpreted or compiled on the fly. This use of machine-independent bytecode gives it its "write once, run everywhere" property. Java is principally used for client-side web application ("applets") and server-side web application ("servlets") that make use of J2EE technology. The success of Java inspired Microsoft to introduce its C# language and .NET framework. 3. BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a high-level language developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dartmouth College in the mid 1960s. It is easy to use but its relative lack of structure makes maintaining programs difficult. There have been many versions of BASIC and some more modern ones (TurboBasic, QuickBasic Visual Basic) have added advanced features. Stereotypical programs like 10 PRINT "HELLO" and 10 GOTO 10 are written in BASIC. 4. C, a compiled successor to the B programming language, was developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972. It is a high-level and highly standardized language that remains very "close to the hardware" and allows the programmer to perform useful, fast, and dangerous tricks. It is widely used for business applications, games, operating systems (particularly UNIX and Linux), and device drivers. 5. Perl is an interpreted language designed principally to process text. It was written by Larry Wall and first released in 1988. It is intended to be practical and concise rather than theoretically elegant and is sometimes lampooned as "write one, read never" because of its heavy use of symbols and idiom. It is often used for web CGI scripts and parsing log files. "Perl" is an unofficial retronym for "Practical Extraction Report Language." 6. ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language) was created in the late 1950s and was the first procedural language intended for solving mathematical and scientific problems. Formalized in a report titled ALGOL 58, it progressed through ALGOL 60 and ALGOL 68 before waning in popularity. ALGOL was sufficiently advanced and respected that most modern procedural languages reflect its overall structure and design; some, like Pascal, are very closely related. 7. Pascal is a high-level, compiled language built upon ALGOL. It is named after the 17thcentury mathematician Blaise Pascal and was developed by Niklaus Wirth during 1967-71. Pascal is best known for its emphasis on structured programming techniques and strong typing; because of this, it was extremely popular as a teaching language in the 1980s and early 1990s, though it was never popular for business or scientific applications. The objectoriented language Delphi was based on Pascal. 8. LISP (LISt Processing) is the ancestor of the family of functional languages that emphasize evaluating expressions rather than executing imperative commands. It was developed in 1950-1960 by John McCarthy and is used primarily for symbolic manipulations of complicated structures rather than numerical calculation. It and its descendants (Scheme, CommonLisp, etc.) continue to be used in academic research, particularly artificial intelligence. 9. Fortran (FORmula TRANslation) is the oldest high-level language. Designed by John Backus for IBM during the late 1950s, it was once in use on virtually every computer in the world and is still used today for engineering and scientific applications because of the quality of its compilers and numerical libraries. The most popular Fortran versions are Fortran IV, 77, and 90. The name "Fortran" was originally entirely capitalized, but the ANSI Fortran Committee has since declared the "initial capital" spelling official. 10. COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language) was developed in 1959 by CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages) under the direction of Rear Admiral Grace Hopper and is the second-oldest high-level language. It emphasized record-processing and database access and uses an English-like syntax, all attributes that led to widespread use in business, particularly the financial sector. It is characterized as especially wordy (just as C and Perl are characterized as terse). The vast majority of Year 2000 problems involved programs written in COBOL. You Gotta Know These Olympics 1. 1896 Summer (Athens, Greece; April 6 - April 15, 1896) The first edition of the modern Olympics was the brainchild of Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France; winners were awarded silver medals. Some of the stranger events included one-handed weightlifting and 100-meter freestyle swimming for members of the Greek navy. Appropriately, Greek shepherd Spiridon Louis became the hero of the Games by winning the marathon. 2. 1912 Summer (Stockholm, Sweden; May 5 - July 22, 1912) While the Swedes introduced electronic timers to the games, the athletic hero was United States decathlete and Native American Jim Thorpe. He won the pentathlon, placed fourth in the high jump, and seventh in the long jump. Finally, Thorpe went on to win the decathlon with a score so astounding that it would still have won him the silver medal in 1948. During the medal presentation, Swedish king Gustav V said, "Sir, you are the greatest athlete" to which Thorpe purportedly replied "Thanks, King." 3. 1936 Summer (Berlin, Germany; August 1-16, 1936) These games are best remembered for Alabama native Jesse Owens' amazing work on the track against a backdrop of Nazi propaganda emphasizing Aryan superiority. The American athlete won the 100-meter dash, 200-meter dash, long jump, and 4 x 100-meter sprint relay. Despite the growing strength of the Nazi state, the German people became enamored with Owens and named a Berlin street for him after his 1980 death. On other fronts, the Olympics were broadcast on television for the first time (as seen in the film Contact) and also saw the introduction of the relay of the Olympic torch. 4. 1968 Summer (Mexico City, Mexico; October 12-27, 1968) In addition to being the first Olympics to be held at high altitude, these Games saw U.S. long jumper Bob Beamon set a record of 8.90 meters that would remain untouched for 23 years. The Games ended on a controversial note: to protest the Mexican government's killing of at least 250 unarmed demonstrators on the eve of the Games, Tommie Smith and John Carlos staged a silent protest with a black gloved, raised fist "Black Power" salute during the award ceremony for the 200-meter race. This didn't sit well with the International Olympic Committee who promptly ordered them home. 5. 1972 Summer (Munich, West Germany; August 26-September 11, 1972) One of the most tragic Olympics ever, these Games saw the kidnapping and killing of 11 Israeli athletes by eight Palestinian terrorists, five of whom were shot dead by West German police. Jim McKay of ABC Sports remained on the air for hours, bringing American viewers up to date on the situation. Though the Olympics paused for 34 hours, the IOC ordered the games to continue and memorable performances were turned in by American swimmer Mark Spitz, who won seven gold medals, and Russian gymnast Olga Korbut, who captivated audiences en route to winning three gold medals. 6. 1980 Winter (Lake Placid, NY, United States; February 12-24, 1980) In an Olympics where a single man, American speed skater Eric Heiden, would win five gold medals and not be the biggest story, something very special had to happen. In what would become known as "The Miracle on Ice," the U.S. Olympic hockey team, led by head coach Herb Brooks and captain Mike Eruzione, defeated the powerful Soviet team 4-3 on February 22, 1980. Two days later, they defeated Finland to claim America's second Olympic hockey gold medal, the first being in 1960 at Squaw Valley. 7. 1980 Summer (Moscow, Soviet Union; July 19 - August 3, 1980) Despite the glow from the Lake Placid Games, these Games were marred by a United States boycott ordered by President Jimmy Carter in response to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. This lead was followed by Canada, West Germany, Japan, Kenya and China, while other Western nations left it up to their individual athletes, many of whom chose to partake. The result was an Eastern Bloc field day, with all 54 East German rowers earning a medal and the Soviets totaling 80 gold medals. British distance runner Sebastian Coe produced the West's best performance by winning the 1500-meter race. 8. 1984 Summer (Los Angeles, CA, United States; July 28 - August 12, 1984) One good turn deserves another, or in this case, "The Russians aren't coming, the Russians aren't coming." Virtually every Communist nation skipped these games, leaving the door open for a "USA all the way" feeling, as the Americans took home 83 gold medals out of a total of 174. Among the highlights were American sprinter Carl Lewis' repeat of Jesse Owens 1936 performance: winning the 100-meter dash, 200-meter dash, long jump, and 4 x 100 meter sprint relay. In gymnastics, West Virginia native Mary Lou Retton won the all-around gold medal. 9. 1994 Winter (Lillehammer, Norway; February 12-February 27, 1994) Massachusetts native Nancy Kerrigan and Oregonian Tonya Harding were among America's leading hopes for gold in women's figure skating. During the Olympic Trials in Detroit, Kerrigan was viciously attacked by an unknown assailant, who would later be traced back to Harding. In the ensuing media circus, both Kerrigan and Harding were sent to Norway, but their thunder was stolen by Ukrainian skate Oksana Baiul, who edged out silver medallist Kerrigan, while Harding placed eighth. Sweden won the ice hockey gold by defeating Canada in a shootout; future Colorado Avalanche forward Peter Forsberg's game-winning effort against Canadian goalie Sean Burke was immortalized on a Swedish postage stamp. In speed skating, Bonnie Blair won her third straight gold in the 500-meters and second straight in the 1,000-meters, perennial hard luck kid Dan Jansen won Olympic gold in his last race, the 1,000 meters, and Norwegian Johann Olav Koss won three gold medals, all in world-record times. 10. 1996 Summer (Atlanta, GA, United States; July 25 - August 8, 1996) In what have been called "The Coke Games," due to their exceptional commercialization in the city of Coke's business headquarters, the sweltering Georgia heat and organizational problems made these Games a veritable nightmare. But a still-unsolved bombing in Centennial Olympic Park that killed one person and injured one hundred that remains the Games' most memorable event. Irish swimmer Michelle Smith won three gold medals in the pool, only to be plagued by rumors of steroid use. Carl Lewis got his ninth gold by winning the long jump for the fourth consecutive Games, while American sprinter Michael Johnson became the first man to win the 200-meter and 400-meter races, the former in a world-record 19.32 seconds. You Gotta Know These Quintuples These ten topics are connected by only two things: There are five answers in each set and they all come up repeatedly in quiz bowl. 1. "The Waste Land" The five parts of T. S. Eliot's 1922 masterpiece "The Waste Land" are "The Burial of the Dead," "A Game of Chess," "The Fire Sermon," "Death By Water," and "What the Thunder Said." 2. Mitosis The five stages of the biological process of mitosis (the production of new body cells from existing ones) are interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Interphase is not technically a part of mitosis, but it still sometimes finds its way in. 3. Nobel Prize Winners The five original winners of Nobel Prizes (1901) were Wilhelm Röntgen (physics, for the discovery of X rays), Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (chemistry, for laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure), Emil Adolf von Behring (physiology or medicine, for his serum therapy remedy for diphtheria), Sully Prudhomme (literature, for his idealistic poetry), and Henri Dunant and Frédéric Passy (peace, for founding the International Red Cross and the first French peace society, respectively). 4. The Mighty Handful Five nationalist Russian composers are often referred to as "The Mighty Handful" or "The Five." They are Modest Mussorgsky (1839 -1881), Mily Balakirev (1837-1910), Alexander Borodin (1833-1887), Cesar Cui (1835-1918), and Nikolay RimskyKorsakov (1844-1908). 5. D-Day The codenames for the five beaches attacked in Operation Overlord on D-Day are Gold, Juno, Sword, Utah, and Omaha. The first three were attacked by British and Canadian forces while the latter two were assaulted by American troops. 6. Orders of Architecture There are five classical "orders of architecture," a term that primarily refers to the design of the columns used in the building. They are the Doric (simple, used for the Parthenon), Ionic (fancier, fluted with scrolls on their capitals), Corinthian (baroque, fluted with acanthus-like leaves for capitals), Tuscan (plain, similar to Doric), and Composite (mixture of Ionic and Corinthian). The latter two orders are Roman developments, the other three originated with the Greeks. 7. Cooperstown The first five members elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson, and Walter Johnson. 8. Spectral Lines Hydrogen produces an infinite series of spectral lines. The first five of those series are named after scientists who observed them before it was known that they were actually examples of the same phenomenon. From lowest to highest energy of the final level, they are known as the Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, Brackett, and Pfund series. Only the Balmer series exists in the visible spectrum. 9. Platonic Solids There are only five regular polyhedra, three-dimensional shapes with congruent regular polygons for sides. These, known as the Platonic solids, are the tetrahedron (4 triangular sides), cube (6 square sides), octahedron (8 triangular sides), dodecahedron (12 pentagonal sides), and icosahedron (20 triangular sides). 10. Pillars of Islam Islam has five fundamental tenets of religious life, a group known as the Pillars of Islam. They are the declaration of faith (Shahadah), prayer (Salat), giving charity to those in need (Zakat), fasting during the month of Ramadan (Sawm), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) to be performed once in each adherent's lifetime. You Gotta Know These Computation Areas This You Gotta Know article is devoted to twelve computational areas that will help the most in solving the sorts of math questions that come up in NAQT invitational series. NAQT's collegiate sets tend to have very little computation and much of that is in the context of a specific field (physics, economics, chemistry, etc.). 1. Pythagorean Triples. Almost certainly, the most important things to know are the basic sets of integers that satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem (a2 + b2 = c2) and could be the side lengths of a right triangle. These are called Pythagorean Triples and the simplest ones are 34-5, 5-12-13, 7-24-25, and 8-15-17. Note that any multiple of a Pythagorean Triple is also a Pythagorean Triple so that 6-8-10, 15-20-25, and 300-400-500 are also ones by virtue of 34-5 being one. 2. Matrices. Every team should be able to add, subtract, multiply, take the determinant of, transpose, and invert matrices, particularly two-by-two ones. 3. Vectors. Every team should be able to find the length of a vector, and add, subtract, find the angle between, the dot product of, and the cross product of two vectors. 4. Solids. Teams should be able to calculate the volume and surface area of simple geometric figures including the sphere, cone, cylinder, pyramid, hemisphere, prism, and parallelepiped. 5. Plane Figures. Teams should be able to calculate the areas of triangles (especially equilateral triangles), trapezoids, parallelograms, rhombi, and circles using different angles and lengths. 6. Similar Figures. The areas of similar figures are related by the square of any corresponding length and the volumes are related by the cube of any corresponding length. For instance, if a square has a diagonal that is 30% longer than another square, it has an area that is (1.30 x 1.30 = ) 1.69 times as great (69% greater). Similar reasoning applies to perimeters, side lengths, diameters, and so forth. 7. Permutations. Teams should be able to compute the number of permutations and combinations of n objects taken m at a time. They should also have memorized the first eight (or so) values of the factorial function to make this easier. 8. Logarithms. Teams should be familiar with basic operations of logarithmic math: simplifying the logarithm of a product, difference, or power, and converting from one base to another. 9. Complex Math. Teams should be familiar with the symbol i representing the imaginary square root of -1, basic operations on complex numbers, graphing complex numbers, and converting complex numbers to magnitude-angle form. 10. Divisibility Rules. Teams should be able to quickly apply the divisibility rules for small integers (2 through 11) to large integers. 11. Polynomial Math. Teams should be able to quickly add, subtract, multiply, divide, factor, and find the roots of low-degree polynomials. 12. Calculus. Teams should be able to find the derivative, integral, slope-at-a-point, local extrema, and critical points of polynomial, trigonometric, and other common functions. You Gotta Know These Jewish Holidays 1. Rosh Hashanah Celebrated on the first and second days of Tishrei, Rosh Hashanah marks the beginning of the Jewish year. It is believed that on this day, people's souls are judged, and God "temporarily" decides their fate. Between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, are the Ten Days of Repentment, when people are given a chance to reflect and repent. On Rosh Hashanah, it is customary to wear white clothes and eat apples, honey, and pomegranates. Other customs include the blowing of the shofar (an instrument made from a ram's horn) and the ceremony of Tashlich, in which Jews throw bread crumbs into running water to symbolize the cleansing of their sins, is also performed. 2. Yom Kippur Celebrated on the tenth day of Tishrei, it is the Jewish Day of Atonement; at the end of Yom Kippur, it is believed that one's fate is sealed. Jews are required to abstain from eating, drinking, washing, and sex. Forbidden fashions include jewelry, makeup, and leather shoes. One traditionally wears white clothes to symbolizing purity from sin. In the afternoon, the Book of Jonah is read. A full day of prayers begins with the Kol Nidre, an ancient incantation that forgives Jews from vows or promises unwittingly made during the past year. As on Rosh Hashanah, the shofar is blown. 3. Sukkot Celebrated on the 15th of Tishrei, Sukkot commemorates the sukkot (booths) that the Israelites lived in following the Exodus from Egypt; it also celebrates the harvest. Traditionally, Jews build booths, in which they live and eat for seven days. In synagogue, four symbolic species (the palm, the etrog [a large yellow citrus], myrtle, and willow) are waved in seven directions. Each night, in the sukkah, it is traditional to invite a Biblical figure to be your guest for that night. 4. Hanukkah This festival lasts for eight days, starting on the 25th day of Kislev (the third month). It celebrates the victory of the small Maccabee army against the large Greek army of Antiochus, as well as the recapture and purification of the Temple in Jerusalem (ca. 168 BC). It is traditional to light the eight-branched Menorah each night and spin the dreidel. Exchanging presents is only a recent tradition developed in the U.S. 5. Purim Celebrated on the 14th of Adar (the sixth month) and commemorating the victory of the Jews, led by Esther and Mordechai, against Haman, who tried to destroy the Jews because of his anger at Mordechai. The story, recorded in the Book of Esther (read from a one-handed scroll called a megillah), takes place in Shushan, the capital city of the kingdom of the Persian King Ahasueras. On Purim, it is traditional to dress up, get drunk, give charity, eat triangular pastries called hamentaschen, and exchange gifts (Mishloach Manot) with friends. 6. Passover (Pesach) Celebrated for seven days beginning on the 15th day of Nissan (the seventh month), Passover commemorates the Exodus from Egypt. It is also the ancient Hebrew New Year (superceded in that role by Rosh Hashanah). On the first two days, Jews have a festival dinner called a seder, where they retell the story of the Exodus, from a book called a hagaddah. Jews are required to abstain from eating or owning leavened bread for the duration of the festival; matzah (usually a square flat unleavened bread) is eaten instead. On Passover, the Song of Songs is recited. Passover also begins a cycle of seven weeks, called the Omer, a period of semi-mourning. 7. Shavu'ot Celebrated on the sixth day of Sivan (the ninth month), the 50th day of the Omer, after Passover; the word Shavu'ot means "weeks," hence the name Pentecost. Shavu'ot commemorates the giving of the Torah to the Israelites at Mt. Sinai, as well as the beginning of the harvest in ancient Israel. Sukkot, Passover, and Shavu'ot are the three pilgrimages, when Jews would all gather at the Temple each year; on Shavu'ot, Jews would dedicate their first harvest fruits to the Temple. The Book of Ruth is read in synagogue on Shavu'ot, and it is traditional to study all night on this festival. 8. The Ninth of Av This is a day of mourning for the destructions of both the First and Second Temples. It is traditional to fast and to keep oneself in a solemn mood. The Book of Lamentations and the Book of Job are read, traditionally while sitting on the floor and with candles as the only lights, as Jews are supposed to refrain from physical comfort. You Gotta Know These Civil War Battles and Campaigns 1. Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861). Built on an island in 1829, the fort was one of three that the United States maintained in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In order to claim true independence from the Union, Jefferson Davis decided that the forts needed to be taken; a Confederate force under P.G.T. Beauregard ordered the small Union garrison, controlled by Major Robert Anderson, to surrender. Anderson refused, shots were fired, and the Union commander surrendered two days later, with only one soldier killed. The Union made two unsuccessful attempts to recapture the fort with ironclad ships in 1863, but Confederate forces finally abandoned Sumter when they left Charleston in February 1865. 2. First Bull Run / First Manassas (July 21, 1861). Fought at a creek near Manassas, Virginia (30 miles west of Washington D.C.), this was the first major showdown of the war. Beauregard led an army against Union commander Irwin McDowell and received reinforcements from Joseph Johnston's troops (whom Union General Robert Patterson failed to detain). The Confederacy routed the Union when Thomas Jackson's brigade held the left line at Henry House Hill; this effort earned him the nickname "Stonewall." Congressmen and reporters, who had expected to watch a Union victory, fled in panic back to D.C. 3. Hampton Roads (March 9, 1862). A channel in southeastern Virginia was the site of the first major fight between two ironclad ships. The Confederates raised an old wooden boat, the Merrimack, and fit it with ten guns and iron armor plates. Renaming the Virginia, it was captained by Franklin Buchanan. The Union countered by constructing a large oval with a rotating gun, called the Monitor and piloted by John Worden. The Virginia tore through Union wooden ships (Cumberland, Congress, Minnesota) but when the Monitor arrived, the two ironclads fought to a stalemate - thus the Union maintained its blockade. The South deliberately destroyed the Virginia two months later, while the Monitor sank in a storm off Cape Hatteras in December 1862. 4. Shiloh / Pittsburg Landing (April 6-7, 1862). This was named after a church in Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee (100 miles southwest of Nashville). Confederate commander Albert Sidney Johnston led a force north from Corinth, Mississippi. Ulysses S. Grant, who had just captured Fort Donelson, brought five Union divisions to face him. At first, the South led the attack, but Union troops held the "Hornets' Nest" for hours, killing Johnston in the process. Beauregard took over, but by the second day Northern Generals Don Carlos Buell and Lew Wallace (who wrote Ben-Hur) brought reinforcements, causing the Confederates to retreat. More than 13,000 Union and 10,000 Confederate soldiers lost their lives. 5. Peninsular Campaign (March - July 1862). Union commander George McClellan devised this plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia by sending 110,000 men up the peninsula between the York and James rivers. Advised of Northern maneuvers, Southern commander Joseph Johnston detached a force to defend the peninsula. He also sent a small unit (led by Stonewall Jackson) that crushed Union reinforcements in the West. After Johnston was wounded at Seven Pines (June 1), Davis replaced him with Robert E. Lee. Lee concentrated his force north of the Chickahominy River; in the Seven Days' Battles (June 25-July 1), the Confederates broke through Union defenses, leading to McClellan's retreat down the James toward Harrison's Landing, and failure of the campaign. 6. Second Bull Run / Second Manassas (August 29-30, 1862). This resounding victory by Lee and Jackson pushed Union forces back to Washington, D.C. President Lincoln had replaced McClellan with John Pope, who would supposedly be united with the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Henry Halleck. Lee maneuvered Jackson's troops behind those of Pope; Jackson detained Pope's men at Manassas while Lee sent James Longstreet to crush Pope's left flank. Halleck's army was supposed to land at Aquia, but instead retreated to defend Washington, ceding all of Virginia to the Confederacy and marking a low point in the Union effort. 7. Antietam / Sharpsburg (September 17, 1862). The bloodiest day of the Civil War: 12,000 Union men lost their lives, as did 10,000 Confederates. Lee planned a northern invasion into Maryland but a Union soldier discovered those battle plans wrapped around three cigars. Instead, Lee marched his army toward Sharpsburg Creek. Meanwhile, Jackson's forces captured Harper's Ferry, Virginia, and rushed to reunite with Lee. McClellan had a large enough force to capture the entire rebel army but did not use all of his troops nor coordinate one solid attack. Antietam thus was actually a series of five skirmishes; in one of them, dubbed "The Bloody Lane," 2000 Union soldiers fell in a few minutes. As it was, Union forces drove the Confederates back across the Potomac. 8. Fredericksburg / Marye's Heights (December 13, 1862). At this site, about 50 miles south of Washington, Union commander Ambrose Burnside (who had replaced McClellan) tried to take the initiative and cross the Rappahannock River in a march toward Richmond. He met Lee's forces, which were well entrenched in the hills behind the town. With a superior position, Lee routed the Union army; 13,000 Northern troops fell there, while only 5000 Confederates were killed. After the battle, Burnside's troops were forced to make "The Mud March" up the Rappahannock, made foul by weather and dead and wounded bodies. 9. Vicksburg Campaign (April 29 - July 4, 1863). This campaign was launched by Grant to take control of the Mississippi River and cut off the western Confederate states from the east. Grant ordered regiments led by James McPherson, John McClernand, and William Tecumseh Sherman through bayous west of the Mississippi to Hard Times. They were up against rebel forces under Joseph Johnston and John Pemberton. Sherman and McPherson drove Johnston from Jackson, Mississippi on May 14, and the Union scored a victory at Champion's Hill two days later, but could not drive the Southerners out of Vicksburg, so Grant laid siege to the town. Outnumbered 71,000 to 20,000 and on the brink of starvation, Pemberton finally surrendered his men; Johnston withdrew east. 10. Chancellorsville (May 1-4, 1863). Victory for the South, but with great cost, as Stonewall Jackson lost his life. Lincoln called on "Fighting Joe" Hooker to command the Union army; Hooker took a force of 134,000 and provoked Lee and Jackson's 60,000 men into battle. Jackson moved around Hooker and counterattacked the Union flank on May 2. That night, while Jackson was on reconnaissance, his own men mistook him for a Northerner and shot him; he died of pneumonia eight days later. The following morning, a cannonball blast hit the Chancellor House, knocking Hooker unconscious; Union troops led by John Sedgwick then retreated. Casualties for the North outnumbered those of the South, 17,000 to 13,000. 11. Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863). This marked both the farthest northward advancement by the Confederacy and the turning point that led to its defeat. Lee, along with Longstreet, A.P. Hill, and Richard Ewell, led the southern Pennsylvania attack; J.E.B. Stuart was supposed to monitor Union movement with his cavalry but strayed so far east of Gettysburg that his force did not return (exhausted) until the second day. George Meade replaced Hooker as leader of the Union side; Southern forces drove Northerners through the town but could not secure key positions at Cemetery Ridge and Little and Big Round Tops. Low on supplies, on the final day Lee ordered an attack on the center; George Pickett led his famous "charge" through open fields, where the Union mowed down one-third of his 15,000 men. The Confederates lost 20,000 and Lee retreated to Virginia. 12. Chattanooga Campaign (September-November 1863). It began when Union General William Rosecrans forced Confederate commander Braxton Bragg out of the city on September 9. Ten days later, at Chickamauga (in Georgia), Bragg and Longstreet turned the tables by whipping Rosecrans, forcing him into a siege position at Chattanooga. Only George Thomas (the "Rock of Chickamauga") saved Rosecrans from annihilation. Well-developed railroad networks, however, allowed Grant, Hooker, and Sherman to bring reinforcements. On November 24, Hooker took Lookout Mountain in the southwest, in the "Battle Above the Clouds." The next day, Thomas ran right over the Southern force at Missionary Ridge, securing Tennessee for the North. 13. Wilderness Campaign (May 5 - June 12, 1864). The first clash between Grant and Lee, this series of conflicts started with the Battle of the Wilderness (50 miles northwest of Richmond), where Southern leaders A.P. Hill and Ewell held the line, and over 17,000 Northerners fell. At Spotsylvania Court House, Meade assaulted Lee's men, but they repelled Meade at the "Bloody Angle." The trenches in which much of the fighting took place were similar to those later seen in World War I. Advancing within ten miles of Richmond, Grant met Lee at Cold Harbor (June 3); he lost 7,000 men to Lee's 1,500 and withdrew across the James River, but with the entire campaign he severely reduced Confederate strength in a war of attrition. 14. Petersburg Campaign (June 1864 - April 1865). After Cold Harbor, Grant moved south to lay siege to this railroad hub, 25 miles from Richmond. On July 30, Pennsylvania coal miners detonated four tons of powder in a tunnel underneath the Confederate line; this "Battle of the Crater" killed many defenders. Although the South maintained the city, its supplies ran thin in the winter of 1865. Grant finally destroyed the Confederate right flank at Five Forks (April 1-2), 14 miles southwest of Petersburg. This resounding defeat led to Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House one week later, effectively ending the Civil War. You Gotta Know These Latin American Authors 1. Gabriel García Marquez (1928-present, Colombia; Nobel Prize for Literature 1982). The master of magic realism, his birthplace of Aracataca was the model for the fictional town of Macondo. The town played a prominent role in many of García Marquez's works, such as Leaf Storm and his seminal novel, One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967), which details the decline of the Buendía family over seven generations. A newspaper journalist in the 1950s, García Marquez exposed a naval scandal (chronicled in The Story of a Shipwrecked Sailor). Other prominent novels include In Evil Hour, Love in the Time of Cholera, and The General in His Labyrinth, a depiction of Simón Bolívar's final years. 2. Pablo Neruda (1904-1973, Chile; Nobel 1971). Born Neftalí Reyes, he adopted the surname of the 19th century Czech poet Jan Neruda. Gabriela Mistral (see below) was the head of his school in the small city of Temuco. 1923 saw the publication of Neruda's best-known work, Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair, which led to diplomatic appointments. As a penniless consul in Burma in the 1930s, he wrote the surrealist collection Residence on Earth. He served in the Chilean senate in the 1940s, though government opponents forced him into exile over his Communist views. Crossing the Andes on horseback inspired his epic Canto general (1950). He died of cancer days after his friend Salvador Allende was executed. 3. Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986, Argentina). One-quarter English, Borges learned that language before he learned Spanish. Educated in Europe during World War I, he met a circle of avant-garde poets in Spain, which inspired him to found the ultraismo movement and publish the collection Fervor of Buenos Aires (1923) when he returned to Argentina. While working in a library, Borges developed his greatest short stories, collected in A Universal History of Infamy (1935), Ficciones (1944), and The Aleph (1949). By his fifties, a disorder inherited from his father had taken Borges's eyesight, but in 1962 he completed the influential story collection Labyrinths. 4. Isabel Allende (1942-present, Chile). Actually born in Peru, at age three she moved to her mother's native Chile. A successful news reporter in her twenties, she and her family fled to Venezuela after General Augusto Pinochet deposed and executed her uncle Salvador Allende, setting up a dictatorship. Her formal literary career began at age 40, when she published The House of the Spirits, a magic realist work that chronicles several generations of the Trueba family. Other works of fiction include the short-story collection Eva Luna (1989) and Paula (1995), which detailed Allende's care for her terminally ill daughter. 5. Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957, Chile; Nobel 1945). The first Latin American to win the Nobel Literature Prize, Mistral was actually named Lucila Godoy Alcayaga, but took her pen name from the Italian and French poets Gabriele D'Annunzio and Frédéric Mistral respectively. At first a prominent educator, she wrote "Sonnets of Death" (1914) after the suicide of her fiancé. Those sonnets later appeared in her most famous collection, Desolation (1922). A native Chilean, she served as a diplomat both in the United States and Europe. Langston Hughes translated a portion of Mistral's poetry into English just after she died. 6. Octavio Paz (1914-1998, Mexico; Nobel 1990). A prominent poet and essayist, Paz supported leftist causes in Mexico; he fought briefly for the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. He published the poetry collection Luna silvestre at age 19, and his 584-line poem The Sun Stone deals with the planet Venus, an important symbol to the Aztecs. While studying in Los Angeles, Paz observed flamboyantly dressed Mexican-American pachucos ("zoot-suiters"), who inspired him to write about Mexico and its Native American/mestizo heritage in his pivotal essay collection, The Labyrinth of Solitude (1950). Another prose work, In the Light of India (1997), reflected Paz's part-(East) Indian heritage. 7. José Martí (1853-1895, Cuba). Best known as a poet and a revolutionary, Martí fought tirelessly for Cuban independence. Imprisoned at age sixteen and exiled from the island several times, he settled in New York for the last fifteen years of his life, where he wrote essays on Walt Whitman, Jesse James, and the threat of Latin American economic dependence on the United States. His Ill-Omened Friendship (1885) is considered the first Spanish modernist novel, and his poetry collections include Our America and Simple Verses; the poem "Guantanamera" was the inspiration for several songs. Martí was killed in a skirmish at Dos Ríos while participating in an invasion with other Cuban exiles. 8. Mario Vargas Llosa (1936-present, Peru). While attending military school in Lima, Vargas Llosa wrote the play The Escape of the Inca (1952), but the harsh treatment he received there was the basis for his best-known novel, The Time of the Hero. Conversation in the Cathedral (1969) was Vargas Llosa's serious take on living under the dictatorship of Manuel Odría, while in 1977 he published the lighter, autobiographical Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter, about soap operas. Other important works include The War of the End of the World and A Fish in the Water, which discusses his political career; Vargas Llosa ran for president of Peru in 1990 but was defeated by Alberto Fujimori. 9. Miguel Asturias (1899-1974, Guatemala; Nobel 1967). Asturias left his native Guatemala in 1923 to study in Paris. There he discovered Mayan mythology, and translated the Popol Vuh into Spanish; the theme would pervade his work, such as 1963's Mulata de tal. He most famous novel, El señor presidente (1946), was a satire against the oppressive Guatalemalan dictatorship. Asturias also completed a trilogy that blasted exploitation by the American-led United Fruit Company, and the short-story collection Weekend in Guatemala (1956), based on the CIA-led overthrow of president Jacobo Arbenz's liberal government. 10. Carlos Fuentes (1928-present, Mexico). Though born into a well-to-do family, Fuentes has often dealt with the betrayed ideals from the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the subject of both his first novel, Where the Air is Clear (1958), and his most successful book, The Death of Artemio Cruz (1962). Other notable novels include Terra nostra, set during the reign of King Philip II of Spain, and The Old Gringo, which portrays Ambrose Bierce's last days in Mexico. Fuentes has also penned absurdist plays and essay collections on Mexican and American art and literature. You Gotta Know These Tennis Players Men 1. Rod Laver (1938-present). Australia produced many talented players (Emerson, Rosewall, Newcombe, Stolle, Hoad) but Laver was the best of all. He weighed just 145 pounds in his playing days but his massive left arm generated incredible topspin shots. The only player to win the Grand Slam twice - in 1962 as an amateur, and in 1969 as a professional - Laver took 11 major singles titles overall. Turning pro in 1963, Laver won five U.S. Pro Championships; had he been allowed to play the majors from '63 to '67, he likely would hold the wins record instead of Pete Sampras. Martina Navratilova and Sampras both idolized Laver, the first to earn $1 million in a career. 2. Pete Sampras (1971-present). "Pistol Pete" burst onto the scene in 1990, when he became the youngest man ever to win the U.S. Open. He would take five U.S. Opens and two Australian Opens, but his greatest accomplishments came on the Wimbledon grass. Starting in 1993 he won the tournament seven times in eight years, losing only to Richard Krajicek in the quarterfinals in 1996. The last Wimbledon win (2000) gave Sampras the all-time men's major record, passing Roy Emerson's 12. Married to actress Bridgette Wilson, Sampras silenced his critics (who thought he was washed up) by defeating Andre Agassi for the 2002 U.S. Open title -- then he retired. 3. Bjorn Borg (1956-present). On both grass and clay in the late 1970s, resistance to Borg was futile; he won Wimbledon five straight years (1976-80) and the French Open six times, for a total of 11 majors. Borg got started at age nine, after his father won a tennis racket in a pingpong tournament and gave it to him. He took his first French in 1974 and dominated through 1981, when John McEnroe finally knocked him off at Wimbledon. Borg then inexplicably retired at 26; he tried an unsuccessful comeback in the early 1990s. Despite his great success, Borg never won the U.S. Open (reaching the final four times). He never played at the Australian Open, preferring to take the winter months off. 4. Bill Tilden (1893-1953). Between 1920 and 1925, he was almost unstoppable: He won six straight U.S. championships and took Wimbledon both times he played. Tilden was nicknamed "Big Bill" for two reasons: He stood 6-foot-2 with his trademark "cannonball" serve and he faced "Little Bill" Johnston in six out of seven U.S. finals. In all, he won ten majors (seven U.S., three Wimbledon) and turned professional in 1930 - winning a pro title at age 42 and competing in barnstorming tours until he was 50. Tilden also loved the theater; he performed in several Broadway shows (including the lead in "Dracula"), but lost a lot of money backing failed ventures. 5. Andre Agassi (1970-present). His father boxed for Iran in the 1948 and 1952 Olympics; his own Olympic exploits included the 1996 tennis gold. Born in Las Vegas, he reached the world's #3 ranking at age 18 but was better known for his image than for his play. Perhaps the greatest returner and baseline player ever, Agassi won his first major on Wimbledon grass in 1992. Briefly married to Brooke Shields, he fell to #141 in the world in 1997, but after they divorced, Agassi rededicated himself to the game. In 1999 he won the French Open, becoming just the fifth man to complete the career Grand Slam. In all, Agassi has won eight major singles titles (five since 1999), and is now married to women's great Steffi Graf. 6. John McEnroe (1959-present). Though perhaps best known for his fiery temper and abuse of referees (with taunts like "You can't be serious!"), McEnroe was the dominant player of the early 1980s. As a 17-year old amateur qualifier, he made the semifinals of Wimbledon, and in 1979 he won the first of three straight U.S. Opens. He almost ended Borg's run of Wimbledons in a five-set thriller in 1980, but succeeded the following year. In 1984, McEnroe compiled an 82-3 record, winning Wimbledon and his fourth U.S. Open, for a total of seven majors. An outstanding doubles player as well, he won 77 titles, many with partner Peter Fleming. He also played in the Davis Cup 12 times, captaining the U.S. team in 2000. 7. Arthur Ashe (1943-1993). Ashe once claimed that he would consider himself a failure if he were remembered only for tennis. The first black man to win either the U.S. Championship (1968) or Wimbledon (1975), he was also the first American tennis player to earn over $100,000 in one year (1970). The author of Hard Road to Glory, a history of black athletes, Ashe announced in 1992 that tainted blood from a 1983 heart surgery had given him the AIDS virus. Arthur Ashe Stadium, the current home of the U.S. Open, was named for him in 1997. Women 1. Martina Navratilova (1956-present). Born in Prague, she defected to the United States in 1975 because the Czech Tennis Federation had taken most of her earnings. A bit heavy early in her career, Navratilova won the first two of her nine Wimbledons in 1978-79 but subsequent losses led her to pursue a grueling fitness regimen. This paid off: She won 18 singles Grand Slams (58 overall), 167 total singles titles, and even more doubles crowns, many with partner Pam Shriver. A Wimbledon finalist at 37, Navratilova retired from singles in 1994, but returned to play doubles in 2000. In 2003 tied Billie Jean King with 20 overall Wimbledons, taking the mixed doubles… at age 46! 2. Steffi Graf (1969-present). Her most devastating shot earned her the moniker "Fraulein Forehand." Graf turned pro at age 13 and steadily rose through the rankings, garnering the #1 ranking and her first major (French) in 1987. The following year, Graf made history by winning the Grand Slam and the gold medal at the Seoul Olympics, the only player ever to go 5-for-5 in one year. Seven Wimbledons, six French, five U.S., and four Australians add up to 22 major career singles crowns - the last coming at the French in 1999 after two years of major back injuries. Graf retired that fall, and is now raising her son Jaden with her husband Andre Agassi. 3. Chris Evert (1954-present). Queen of the Clay Courts, she won the French Open a record seven times and rolled off a 125-match win streak on the surface. As a 15-year old, Evert upset Margaret Court, who had just won the Grand Slam. 1974 was the first of a record 13 straight years in which she won a major - several of them hard fought against her rival, Martina Navratilova. In all, Evert took 18 Grand Slam singles titles, and was the first female player to win $1 million in her career. She was married to British tennis player John Lloyd for eight years, but they divorced in 1987, and she then wed Olympic skier Andy Mill. 4. Billie Jean King (1943-present). Her records themselves are impressive: 12 Grand Slam singles wins (including six Wimbledons) and 20 overall Wimbledon titles. King, however, is best known for advancing women's athletics. Her brother, Randy Moffitt, pitched for the San Francisco Giants; she herself reached a #4 world ranking in 1960 and turned pro eight years later. At the time, prize money for women was paltry, so she co-founded the Virginia Slims Tour, and in 1971 became the first female athlete to earn $100,000 in a year. Two years later, in front of over 30,000 at the Astrodome, she whipped Bobby Riggs in the "Battle of the Sexes." King retired in 1983, but not before winning a singles tournament at age 39. 5. Margaret Smith Court (1942-present). The most prolific winner, male or female, she amassed 62 Grand Slam titles, 24 of them in singles (3 Wimbledon, 5 French, 5 U.S., and 11 in her native Australia). Billie Jean King called Court "The Arm" because of her long reach, aided by her height of nearly six feet. In 1970 she became the second woman (after Maureen Connolly) to win the Grand Slam, taking 21 singles championships overall that year; less impressive was her 1973 loss to 55-year old Bobby Riggs. Court did defeat King, Riggs's nemesis, 22 of 32 times. She retired in 1977 and became a lay minister. 6. Venus and Serena Williams (1980-present and 1981-present). Althea Gibson and Arthur Ashe may have preceded them as trailblazing African-American players, but the sisters have taken the game to new levels and to more people. Born in Compton, California and coached from an early age by father Richard, Venus broke through first, reaching the final of the U.S. Open in 1997. Serena won a Grand Slam before Venus did (1999 U.S. Open), but Venus hit #1 by sweeping Wimbledon and the U.S. Opens in both 2000 and 2001. For a long time Serena could not beat her older sister, but that changed in 2002, when she took four straight major finals against Venus. With her 2003 win at Wimbledon, Serena now has six majors to Venus's four. On the side, both are fashion designers, while Venus also designs interiors. 7. Helen Wills Moody (1905-1998). A California native nicknamed "Little Miss Poker Face" because her expression rarely changed on the court, Wills's play contrasted with that of the other great woman of the era, the emotional Suzanne Lenglen of France, though they met only once (as Lenglen turned pro). Nonetheless, Wills dominated her competition; between 1927 and 1932 she did not even drop a set! She won 19 major singles crowns - out of 22 entered - including eight Wimbledons, six U.S., and four French championships, in 1928 becoming the first player to win three Grand Slams in one season. Wills also swept the singles and doubles gold medals at the 1924 Paris Olympics. You Gotta Know These Trojan War Heroes Greeks 1. Agamemnon The king of Mycenae, Agamemnon shares supreme command of the Greek troops with his brother, Menelaus. An epithet of his, "king of heroes," reflects this status. As a commander, however, he often lacks good public relations skills, as shown by his feud with Achilles (book 1) and by his ill-considered strategy of suggesting that all the troops go home (book 2). Upon his return home, Agamemnon is murdered by his wife, Clytemnestra, and her lover, Aegisthus. 2. Menelaus The king of Sparta, Menelaus is the husband of Helen, the cause celebre of the war. He tries to win Helen back by fighting Paris in single combat but Aphrodite carried Paris off when it seems that Menelaus will win. Despite his notionally equal say in commanding the troops with his brother Agamemnon, in practice Agamemnon often dominates. 3. Achilles This "swift-footed" warrior is the greatest on the Greek side. His father is Peleus, a great warrior in his own right, and his mother is Thetis, a sea nymph. The consequences of Achilles' rage at Agamemnon for confiscating his geras (prize of honor) are the subject of the Iliad. Achilles kills Hector, but is killed by a poisoned arrow in the heel, the only vulnerable place on his body. 4. Patroclus Achilles' foster brother and closest friend. Although Patroclus is a formidable hero, he is valued for his kind and gentle nature. Patroclus is killed by Hector while wearing the armor of Achilles. 5. Ajax This prince of Salamis is the son of Telamon. He once fights all afternoon in single combat with Hector; since neither one can decisively wound the other, they part as friends. Ajax's most glorious achievement is fighting the Trojans back from the ships almost singlehandedly. He commits suicide after the armor of Achilles is awarded to Odysseus rather than to himself. 6. Diomedes In his day of glory, Diomedes kills Pandarus and wounds Aeneas before taking on the gods. He stabs Aphrodite in the wrist and, with Athena as his charioteer, wounds Ares in the stomach. Along with Odysseus, he also conducts a successful night raid against King Rhesus. 7. Odysseus This son of Laertes is known for his cleverness and glib tongue. His accomplishments include a successful night raid against King Rhesus, winning the armor of Achilles, and engineering the famous Trojan Horse. His ten-year trip home to Ithaca (where his wife, Penelope, awaits) is the subject of the Odyssey. 8. Nestor, king of Pylos, is too old to participate in the fighting of the Trojan War, but serves as an advisor. He tells tales of "the good old days" to the other heroes. Trojans 1. Hector The son of Priam and Hecuba, he is probably the noblest character on either side. A favorite of Apollo, this captain of the Trojan forces exchanges gifts with Ajax after neither can conquer the other in single combat. He kills Patroclus when that Greek goes into battle wearing the armor of his friend, Achilles. Killed by Achilles to avenge the death of Patroclus, he is greatly mourned by all of Troy. Funeral games take place in his honor. 2. Paris (sometimes called Alexander) Also the son of Priam and Hecuba, he is destined to be the ruin of his country. He fulfills this destiny by accepting a bribe when asked to judge which of three goddesses is the fairest. When he awards Aphrodite the golden apple, Aphrodite repays him by granting him the most beautiful woman in the world; unfortunately, Helen is already married to Menelaus. Known less for hand-to-hand fighting than for mastery of his bow, he kills Achilles with an arrow but dies by the poisoned arrows of Philoctetes. 3. Priam The king of Troy and son of Laomedon, he has 50 sons and 12 daughters with his wife Hecuba (presumably she does not bear them all), plus at least 42 more children with various concubines. Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, kills him in front of his wife and daughters during the siege of Troy. 4. Hecuba (or Hecabe) The wife of Priam, she suffers the loss of most of her children but survives the fall of Troy. She is later turned into a dog. 5. Andromache The wife of Hector and mother of Astyanax, she futilely warns Hector about the war, then sees both her husband and son killed by the Greeks. After the war she is made concubine to Neoptolemus and later marries the Trojan prophet Helenus. 6. Cassandra This daughter of Priam and Hecuba has an affair with the god Apollo, who grants her the gift of prophecy. Unable to revoke the gift after they quarrel, Apollo curses her by preventing anyone from believing her predictions. Among her warnings is that the Trojan horse contains Greeks. After Troy falls she is given to Agamemnon, who tactlessly brings her home to his wife Clytemnestra. Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus then kill Agamemnon and Cassandra, leaving Agamemnon's son Orestes (egged on by sister Electra) to avenge the deaths and kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus. 7. Laocoon Yet another son of Priam and Hecuba, this priest of Apollo shares Cassandra's doubt about the merits of bringing the Trojan horse into the city. "Timeo danaos et dona ferentes," he says (according to Vergil), "I fear the Greeks, even bearing gifts." Later, while sacrificing a bull, two serpents from the sea crush both him and his two young sons. The death of Laocoon is often blamed on Athena (into whose temple the serpent disappeared) but more likely the act of Poseidon, a fierce Greek partisan. 8. Aeneas This son of Aphrodite and Anchises often takes a beating but always gets up to rejoin the battle. Knocked unconscious by a large rock thrown by Diomedes, he is evacuated by Aphrodite and Apollo. He succeeds the late Hector as Trojan troop commander and survives the fall of Troy, ultimately settling in Italy. His son Iulus founds Alba Longa, near the site of Rome. That bloodline is the basis of Julius Caesar's claim to have descended from Venus. You Gotta Know These Hindu Deities and Heroes 1. Vishnu One of the Trimurti (the holy trinity of Hindu gods), Vishnu is the Preserver, protecting the world. When needed, Vishnu descends to Earth as an avatar, or incarnation. Nine have appeared so far: Matsya, Kurma (tortoise), Varah (boar), Narasimha (man-lion), Vamana (dwarf), Parashurama, Rama, Krishna, and Buddha. A tenth, Kalki, will appear with a flaming sword to save humans from the darkness. Some cult followers worship Vishnu as Narayana, the primal being. Vishnu has dark blue skin, rides with the eagle Garuna, and sits on the snake Shesha. His symbols are the conch, disc, club, and lotus; his chief wives are Lakshmi and Bhu (the Earth). Kama, the god of love, may be his son. 2. Shiva Also known as Lord Mahesh, Shiva is the Destroyer in the Trimurti. Developed from Rudra, the Vedic god of death, Shiva is often shown sitting on a tiger skin and riding the bull Nandi. He is also associated with a lingam (phallus). He has three eyes, of which the third (in the middle of his head) is all-knowing; when it opens, the world is destroyed and regenerated. Lord of all underworld beings, he wears a necklace of skulls and another made of a snake. He carries a trident as a weapon and has a blue throat, the result of drinking poison while the ocean churns. Parvati, one of his several consorts, bears him two sons: Kartikeya (the god of war) and Ganesha. 3. Brahma The third of the Trimurti, Brahma is the Creator. By dropping an egg into the cosmic waters, he hatches a younger form of Brahma that creates other beings. Also the chief priest, he has four heads that each point in a cardinal direction, representing the Four Vedas. Brahma has a fifth head until Shiva plucked it off; as punishment for that act, Shiva is forced to wander as a beggar and carry Brahma's severed skull as a bowl. Brahma's wife is Savitri, who curses him after he lets a cow-maiden stand in for her at an important ritual. Few people worship Brahma, either because of the curse or because he lost a power struggle to Vishnu. 4. Krishna This eighth avatar of Vishnu is born when Vishnu plucks two of his own hairs - one light, one dark - and used the dark hair to impregnate Devaki. Her husband Vasudeva saves Krishna from evil King Kansa by carrying him across the river Yamuna to safety in Gokula. Krishna can be depicted as a child, adolescent, or adult. As an infant, he plays pranks such as stealing butter. As a youthful lover, he plays the flute and dances with the gopis (cowmaidens) in the Vrindavana forest. As an adult, he is a dark-skinned warrior with a light, angelic face, charioteer to Arjuna (in the Mahabharata). In the Bhagavad-Gita it is he who reveals the importance of dharma and bhakti. His consort is the cowherd girl Radha. 5. Ganesha This elephant-headed god of wisdom and learning is often shown riding a rat. Parvati "gives birth" to Ganesha by creating him from the saffron paste she scrubbed off of herself after bathing. When Parvati instructs Ganesha not to let anyone in as she took another bath, Ganesha prevents Shiva from entering, prompting Shiva to cut off Ganesha's head. To calm Parvati, Shiva tells servants to take the head of the first baby found whose mother had her back turned; the servants bring back the head of a baby elephant. Ganesha has two wives (Riddhi and Siddhi), two sons, and a daughter. People pray to this remover of obstacles and bringer of good fortune before they commence business. 6. Rama The seventh avatar of Vishnu is hero of the Ramayana. Born as a prince to King Dasharatha and Queen Kaushalya, Rama wins the hand of his wife Sita in a competition held by Sita's father, King Janaka; only he can string Shiva's bow. When his aunt Kaikeyi schemes to deprive him of Dasharatha's throne by putting her son Bharata there, Rama and Sita are banished to a forest for 14 years. During that time, the ten-headed demon Ravana kidnaps Sita but Rama rescues her and killed Ravana. Bharata abdicates; Rama makes Sita walk through fire to prove that Ravana had not corrupted her. 7. Indra The god of rain, thunder, and war, Indra wields the thunderbolt (vajra) and rides Airavat, the four-tusked white elephant. In early Vedic times he was king of the gods who ruled swarga; many Rig Veda hymns are devoted to him. With the aid of both the Marut storm gods and his favorite drink, soma, Indra leads the Aryan conquest of India. He also defeats the dragon Vritra, who had stolen the world's water. 8. Lakshmi (or Sri) The last and greatest treasure born from the "churning of the ocean," Lakshmi is the goddess of prosperity and patron to moneylenders. The epitome of feminine beauty, she sits or stands on a lotus flower and appears in her own avatars alongside Vishnu: Sita to his Rama; Padma the lotus to Vamana the dwarf; Radha (or Rukmini) to Krishna. A form of the mother goddess (Shakti, or Devi), she also represents virtue and honesty. 9. "Shiva's consort" Several incarnations of the "mother goddess" take this moniker. Parvati, the most benevolent form, is the reincarnation of Sati, who threw herself into the fire. Durga is a demon-slayer who rides a lion into battle and carries a weapon in each of her many arms. Kali is a black-skinned goddess of destruction, who defeats the demon leader Raktavija by drinking all of his blood. Although Kali's dance can destroy the world, Shiva throws himself at her feet to calm her, turning her into Parvati. 10. Arjuna The chief hero of the Mahabharata, Arjuna is the son of Indra and one of five Pandava brothers, who fight a bitter war against their one hundred cousins, Kauravas, culminating at the battle on "Kuru's Field." Before the battle, Arjuna asks his charioteer (Krishman) why he must fight. Krishna responds that Arjuna must follow a devotion to god (bhakti) and that even as he slays his brethren, it is for a just cause. Along with the rest of the Pandavas, Arjuna is married to Draupadi. 11. Hanuman Son of the wind god Vaayu and Queen Anjana, Hanuman has a human body with a monkey's head. As a boy he swallows the sun (mistaking it for a piece of fruit); the angry Indra whips him with a thunderbolt. In response the wind god Vaayu refuses to breathe air into the world, prompting Indra to apologize and the other gods to bestow immortality and shapeshifting ability on Hanuman. He figures prominently in the Ramayana, where he flies to Lanka to tell Sita that Rama will rescue her from Ravana. 12. Agni Part of a trinity with Surya (the sun) and Vaayu (the wind), Agni can be brought to life by rubbing two sticks together. Since Agni is responsible for sacrificial fires, he is the patron of priests. He has a red body, two heads, three legs, four arms, and seven tongues; he often carries a flaming javelin. In the Mahabharata, Agni's grandfather is one of seven great sages; with the help of Krishna, he devours the Khandav forest. You Gotta Know These 20th-Century Composers 1. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971). He studied under Rimsky-Korsakov and completed two grand ballets for Diaghilev, The Firebird and Petrushka. His Paris premiere of The Rite of Spring (1913), however, is what inaugurated music's Modern era. A pagan story featuring polytonal music, The Rite of Spring shocked the audience so much that riots ensued, leading a stunned Stravinsky to pursue rational, "neoclassical" music, such as his Symphony of Psalms. In 1940 he moved to Hollywood, where he composed his one full-length opera, The Rake's Progress, with libretto by W.H. Auden. Late in life, he adopted the serialist, twelvetone style of Webern, producing the abstract ballet Agon (1957). 2. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951). This Austrian pioneered dodecaphony, or the twelvetone system, which treated all parts of the chromatic scale equally. Schoenberg's early influences were Wagner and R. Strauss, as evident in his Transfigured Night (1900) for strings. Yet by 1912, with the "Sprechstimme" (halfway between singing and speaking) piece Pierrot lunaire, he broke from Romanticism and developed expressionist pieces free from key or tone. His students, especially Alban Berg and Anton Webern, further elaborated on his theories. Fleeing Nazi persecution in 1933, he moved from Berlin to Los Angeles, where he completed A Survivor from Warsaw. The first two acts of his unfinished opera, Moses und Aron, are still frequently performed. 3. Benjamin Britten (1913-1976). Reviver of the opera in the U.K., most notably with Peter Grimes (1945), the story of a fisherman who kills two of his apprentices. Britten broke through with Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge (1937), a tribute to his composition teacher, and wrote incidental music for works by his friend W.H. Auden. With his companion, the tenor Peter Pears, Britten founded the Aldeburgh Festival of Music and wrote operas such as Billy Budd, The Turn of the Screw, and Death in Venice. Britten's nonoperatic works include The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra (1946) and War Requiem (1961), based on the antiwar poems of Wilfred Owen, who was killed during World War I. 4. Aaron Copland (COPE-land) (1900-1990). At first a modernist, he was the first American student of Nadia Boulanger in Paris in the 1920s; there he finished his Organ Symphony and Music for the Theater. By the 1930s, Copland turned to simple themes, especially the American West: El Salón Mexico was followed by the ballets Billy the Kid, Rodeo, and Appalachian Spring (1944), the last containing the Shaker hymn "Simple Gifts." Copland's Third Symphony contained his Fanfare for the Common Man, while Lincoln Portrait featured spoken portions of the President's writings. Copland wrote several educational books, beginning with 1939's What to Listen For in Music. 5. Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953). He wrote seven symphonies, of which the First (Classical, 1917) is the most notable. While in Chicago, he premiered the opera The Love for Three Oranges, based on Italian commedia dell'arte. Prokofiev moved to Paris in 1922, where he composed works for Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes, including The Prodigal Son. In 1936 he returned to the USSR, where he completed the popular children's work Peter and the Wolf and the score for the film Alexander Nevsky. When Stalin denounced Prokofiev as "decadent," the composer was forced to write obsequious tributes to the premier. Prokofiev survived Stalin, but only by a few hours (both died on March 5). 6. Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975). His work was emblematic of both the Soviet regime and his attempts to survive under its oppression. Shostakovich's operas, such as The Nose (1928) and Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, were well received at first--until Stalin severely criticized his work in Pravda in 1936. Fearful for his security, Shostakovich wrote several conciliatory pieces (Fifth, Seventh/Leningrad, and Twelfth Symphonies) in order to get out of trouble. He made enemies, however, with his Thirteenth Symphony (Babi Yar). Based on the Yevtushenko poem, Babi Yar condemned anti-Semitism in both Nazi Germany and the USSR. 7. Béla Bartók (1881-1945). A young girl singing a folk tune to her son in 1904 inspired Bartók to roam the Hungarian countryside with Zoltan Kodály, collecting peasant tunes. This influence permeated his music, including the opera Duke Bluebeard's Castle (1911) and the ballets The Wooden Prince (1916) and The Miraculous Mandarin (1919). A virtuoso pianist and an innovative composer, Bartók refused to teach composition, contributing to financial problems, especially after he fled Nazi-held Hungary for the U.S. in 1940. Bartók wrote many prominent instrumental pieces; best known are six string quartets, the educational piano piece Mikrokosmos, and Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (1936). 8. Charles Ives (1874-1954). He learned experimentation from his father George, a local Connecticut businessman and bandleader. Ives studied music at Yale but found insurance sales more lucrative; his firm of Ives and Myrick was the largest in New York during the 1910s. Privately, Ives composed great modern works, including the Second Piano (Concord) Sonata (with movements named after Emerson, Hawthorne, Alcott, and Thoreau); and Three Places in New England (1914). His Third Symphony won Ives a Pulitzer Prize in 1947, while his song "General William Booth Enters Into Heaven" was based on a Vachel Lindsay poem. Poor health ended both his insurance and music careers by 1930. 9. Maurice Ravel (1875-1937). His Basque mother gave him an affinity for Spanish themes, as evident in Rapsodie espagnole and his most popular piece, Bolero (1928). Ravel produced Pavane for a Dead Princess while a student of Gabriel Fauré, but was frustrated when the French Conservatory overlooked him for the Prix de Rome four times. He completed the ballet Daphnis et Chloe (1912) for Diaghilev, which was followed by Mother Goose and La Valse, and also re-orchestrated Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition. His health declined after a 1932 taxi accident; unsuccessful brain surgery ended his life. 10. George Gershwin (1898-1937). Known at first for producing popular songs and musicals with his older brother Ira, Gershwin successfully melded jazz and popular music with classical forms, most famously the Rhapsody in Blue (1924), the Concerto in F for Piano and Orchestra (1925), and the folk opera Porgy and Bess (1935), based on a story by DuBose Heyward. Gershwin's first major hit was 1919's "Swanee," sung by Al Jolson, and his 1931 musical Of Thee I Sing was the first to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Gershwin died of a brain tumor at age 38. 11. John Cage (1912-1992). An American student of Arnold Schoenberg, Cage took avant-garde to a new level, and may be considered a Dada composer because he believed in aleatory, or "chance" music. His Imaginary Landscape No. 4 (1951) used twelve radios tuned to different stations; the composition depended on what was on the radio at that time. The following year's 4'33" required a pianist to sit at the piano for that length of time and then close it; audience noise and silence created the "music." Cage also invented the "prepared piano," where he attached screws, wood, rubber bands, and other items to piano strings in order to create a percussion sound. 12. Ralph Vaughan Williams (RAIF) (1872-1958). Best known for reviving the Tudor style and folk traditions in English music, as exemplified in his Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis (1909). Vaughan Williams completed nine symphonies, the foremost his Second (London) in 1914; other principal symphonies included the First (Sea), Third (Pastoral) and Seventh (sinfonia antarctica). His orchestral work The Lark Ascending was based on a George Meredith poem, while Sir John in Love (1924) was a Shakespearean opera that featured the "Fantasia on Greensleeves." Hugh the Drover and The Pilgrim's Progress are other major Vaughan Williams operas. 13. Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943). A highly skilled pianist and conductor, Rachmaninoff twice turned down conductorship of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He failed to reap the monetary benefits of his early pieces (notably the C-Sharp Minor Prelude of 1892), because he sold them cheaply to a publisher. Treated by hypnosis in 1901, Rachmaninoff began a productive period with his Second Piano Concerto (known affectionately by Julliard students as "Rocky II") and the symphonic poem The Isle of the Dead (1909). He moved to the U.S. in 1917, after the Bolshevik Revolution. There his output decreased, though he did complete the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini in 1934. You Gotta Know These Architects 1. Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 - 1959) Wright's life and works are staples of quiz tournaments. Born in Wisconsin, he worked under Louis Sullivan before founding a Chicago practice. His early homes, like the Robie House at the University of Chicago, are in the "Prairie" style: horizontal orientation and low roofs. His "organic architecture" tries to harmonize with its inhabitants and site: Examples include the Kaufmann House (also known as Fallingwater) in Pennsylvania; the Johnson Wax Museum in Racine, Wisconsin; and Taliesin West, his Arizona home and studio. (The original Taliesin, in Wisconsin, burned down in 1914). Other notable Wright works are the Guggenheim Museum in New York City, the Larkin Building in Buffalo, the Unity Temple in Oak Park, and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo, one of few buildings to survive a 1923 earthquake. 2. Walter Gropius (1883 - 1969) Though Gropius also designed the Fagus Factory (Alfeld, Germany) and the Pan American Building (New York City), he is better known for founding the Bauhaus. Beginning in Weimer in 1919 and moving to a Gropius-designed facility in Dessau in 1925, the Bauhaus school emphasized functionalism, the application of modern methods and materials, and the synthesis of technology and art. Its faculty included artists Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, and Josef Albers. Gropius would later head Harvard's architecture department from 1938-52, shifting its focus to incorporate modern design and construction techniques. 3. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886 - 1969) The leading architect of the International Style of skyscraper design, he (like Gropius) worked in the office of Peter Behrens. He directed the Bauhaus from 1930-33, shutting it down before the Nazis could do so. His works include the Barcelona Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition; the Lake Shore Drive Apartments in Chicago; the New National Gallery in Berlin; and the Seagram Building in New York, which he co-designed with Philip Johnson. The phrase "less is more" is associated with Mies, whose glass-covered steel structures influenced the design of office buildings in nearly every major city in the U.S. 4. I(eoh) M(ing) Pei (1917 - Present) Pei is among the most famous living architects. Born in China, he emigrated to the U.S. in 1935. Though he has also designed moderate-income housing, Pei is best known for large-scale projects. His works include the Mile High Center in Denver, the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, the John Hancock Building in Boston, the East Wing of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the Fragrant Hill Hotel in Beijing, and the recent Miho Museum of Art in Shiga, Japan. He may be best known for two fairly recent works: the glass pyramid erected outside the Louvre in 1989, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio, completed in 1995. 5. Sir Christopher Wren (1632 - 1723) When fire destroyed much of London in 1666, Wren was an Oxford astronomy professor who had designed his first building just four years earlier. Charles II named him the King's Surveyor of Works in 1669, and he was involved in rebuilding more than 50 London churches in the next half-century, including Saint Paul's Cathedral. An inscription near his tomb in Saint Paul's declares, "Reader, if you seek a monument, look around you." 6. Le Corbusier (born Charles-Eduoard Jeanneret) (1887 - 1965) Possibly more influential even than Wright, he wrote the 1923 book Towards a New Architecture, standard reading in architectural theory courses. One famous Corbusian quote is: "A house is a machine for living in." His floor plans were influenced by Cubist principles of division of space, and the Villa Savoye (Poissy, France) is his best-known early work. He wrote of the "Radiant City" begun anew, a completely planned city with skyscrapers for residents. Applications of his approach to government buildings (such as in Brasilia or in Chandigarh, India), however, largely failed, as did many urban renewal projects produced on the same ideological foundation. Nonetheless, he influenced every other 20th-century figure on this list. 7. Louis Sullivan (1856 - 1924) Sullivan did not design the first skyscraper but did become a vocal champion of skyscrapers as reflections of the modern age. Though most associated with Chicago, his best-known work is the 1891 Wainwright Building in St. Louis. His partnership with Dankmar Adler produced over 100 buildings. Later works, such as the Babson, Bennett, and Bradley Houses, reflect an organic architecture distinct from that of Wright. Sullivan's dictum that "form should follow function" strongly influenced modern architecture; his writings helped break the profession from classical restraints. 8. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 - 1446) A friend of Donatello, Brunelleschi was a skilled sculptor and goldsmith whose 1401 competition with Lorenzo Ghiberti for the commission of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery is a frequent question topic (Ghiberti got the chief commission). As an architect, he is mainly known for the extraordinary octagonallybased dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore (also known as the Florence Cathedral), which dominates the Florentine skyline. The task required an innovative supporting framework and occupied much of his career (as described in detail in Vasari's Lives of the Artists). Other projects include the Spedale degli Innocenti (a hospital), the Old Sacristy at San Lorenzo, and the Pazzi Chapel in the Cloisters of Santa Croce, all from 1421 to 1430. 9. Frank Gehry (1929 - Present) Winner of the 1989 Pritzker Prize, Gehry is best-known today for large-scale compositions like the Experience Music Project in Seattle, the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, and the recent, controversial Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain. (Bilbao natives describe the latter as "the artichoke," given its layers of abstract titanium structures.) Gehry often uses uncommon materials such as plywood and limestone; his designs range from Kobe's Fishdance Restaurant, shaped like a giant fish, to the soft-sculpture look of the so-called "Fred and Ginger" buildings in Prague. He also designs furniture: The Easy Edges line is made of laminated cardboard; the Gehry Collection consists of chairs named for hockey terms (e.g. Cross Check and Power Play). As of 2002, active projects included a new wing for the Corcoran Gallery and the SoHo Branch of the Guggenheim. 10. Andrea Palladio (1508 - 1580) Born Andrea di Pietro della Gondola, Palladio designed villas in or near Venice, including the Villa Rotonda and Villa Barbaro. He integrated GrecoRoman ideas of hierarchy, proportion, and order with contemporary Renaissance styles. His Four Books on Architecture from 1570 relates his theoretical principles. Among architects heavily influenced by Palladio were Inigo Jones and Thomas Jefferson. 11. Eero Saarinen (1910 - 1961) The son of architect Eliel Saarinen, Eero was born in Finland but spent most of his life in the U.S. and died in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He designed many buildings on the campuses of MIT and Yale, as well as Dulles International Airport and the TWA terminal at Kennedy Airport. Saarinen may be best known for designing the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, though he died before it was completed. Many of his works are characterized by elegant, sweeping forms, such as the Kresge Auditorium at MIT. 12. Antonio Gaudi y Cornet (1852 - 1926) Gaudi created many extraordinary buildings in Barcelona in the early 20th century. His Art Nouveau-inspired works include the Casa Mila and Casa Batllo apartments, known from their undulating facades, and several works for patron Eusebi Guell. He spent 40 years working on the Expiatory Church of the Holy Family (also known as La Sagrada Familia); although its spindle-like towers are in place, the building remains unfinished, and Gaudi's models for it were destroyed in the Spanish Civil War. He was also fond of using hyperbolic paraboloids in his work. You Gotta Know These New York Yankees Enough baseball players are frequently asked-about in quiz bowl that nearly any appropriate subset of them would still be too large for a single "You Gotta Know" entry. One franchise, however, has--for good or bad--easily the most distinguished history in baseball. The players and managers below form a reasonable starting point for quiz players just beginning to learn baseball lore. What follows was written by an avowed Yankee fan and edited by an NAQT officer who describes the Yankees as his least favorite team, though he readily acknowledges their singular place in the history of the sport. 1. (George Herman) "Babe" Ruth (1895-1948), the son of a saloon keeper, grew up on the Baltimore waterfront and in the St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys. Ruth spent six seasons with the Boston Red Sox, primarily as a pitcher, winning 89 games and three championship rings. He also distinguished himself at bat, setting a record in 1919 with 29 home runs. Debtridden Red Sox owner Harry Frazee sold Ruth to the Yankees to finance a Broadway production of No, No, Nanette. Prior to the sale, Boston had won five World Series (three with Ruth) to New York's zero; since then the Yankees have won 26 championships (four with Ruth) versus none for the Red Sox. Moved to the outfield, Ruth led the league in home runs ten more times, including the 60 he hit in 1927 as part of the "Murderers Row" lineup. In the third game of the 1932 World Series, he allegedly gestured towards the center field stands before his "Called Shot" home run. Beyond his on-field exploits, Ruth was an infamous eater and carouser. 2. (Ludwig Heinrich) "Lou" Gehrig (1903-1941) was born in Manhattan and played football and baseball at Columbia. In 1925 he replaced incumbent first baseman Wally Pipp on Pipp's "day off" but stayed in the lineup for 2,130 straight games, a streak broken by Cal Ripken, Jr., in 1995. The "Iron Horse" also set an American League record with 184 runs batted in (1931) and a major league record with 23 grand slams. After he was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (now commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease), he told Yankee fans on July 4, 1939: "Today, I consider myself the luckiest man on the face of the Earth." In deference to Gehrig, no Yankee was appointed team captain until Thurman Munson in 1976. 3. (Joseph Vincent) "Joe" McCarthy (1887-1978), no relation to the Wisconsin senator, began managing the Yankees in 1931, the first of nine straight years that his teams finished first or second. McCarthy led New York to four straight championships (1936-39) and seven overall. His .615 career winning percentage is the all-time best among big league skippers. Besides winning - his teams never finished below .500 - McCarthy's teams were distinguished by their offense: The 1931 Yankees scored 1,067 runs, most by any big league team since 1900. 4. (Giuseppi Paolo) "Joe" DiMaggio, Jr. (1914-1999) left the San Francisco Seals of the Pacific Coast League and joined the Yankees in 1936, in time to lead New York to its fifth championship, the first of nine the Bronx Bombers would win in his career. The "Yankee Clipper" won three Most Valuable Player awards, two batting titles, and two home run titles. In 1941 "Joltin' Joe" hit safely in a record 56 consecutive games (he had hit in 61 straight for the 1933 Seals). Post-career highlights include his nine-month marriage to Marilyn Monroe, his ads for Mr. Coffee (among the earliest televised celebrity endorsements), and the mention of his name in Simon and Garfunkel's "Mrs. Robinson." 5. Mickey (Charles) Mantle (1931-1995) was born to play baseball--his father named him for Hall of Fame catcher Mickey Cochrane--but his left leg was not. In high school it was nearly amputated because of osteomyelitis, the first of his many leg problems. Known as the Commerce Comet (after his speed and the Oklahoma town where he grew up), Mantle became the Yankee center fielder following DiMaggio's retirement. Mantle's Yankees played in 12 World Series (winning seven of them); he holds Series records for home runs (18), RBI (40), runs (42), walks (43), extra-base hits (26), and total bases (123). In the regular season, the switch-hitting Mantle had 536 home runs, three MVP awards, and a Triple Crown (1956). In 1961 he and teammate Roger Maris each had a chance of breaking Ruth's home run record; Mantle was the fan favorite but injuries limited him to 54 longballs (Maris broke the record with 61). 6. (Lawrence Peter) "Yogi" Berra (1925-Present) is best known for his quotes and malapropisms (e.g. "Little league baseball is a very good thing because it keeps the parents off the streets"). Berra was also notorious for swinging at bad pitches, but he made contact just often enough to set the record for most home runs by a catcher (306, a mark later broken by Carlton Fisk). After playing on ten championship teams and winning three MVP awards, Berra was hired as the Yankees' manager in 1964 but fired following the World Series loss to the St. Louis Cardinals. His 1973 pennant with the Mets made him the second manager (after Joe McCarthy but before Sparky Anderson) to win pennants in both leagues. 7. (Edward Charles) "Whitey" Ford (1928-Present) was called "Chairman of the Board" because of his cool, efficient pitching. With 236 career wins against 106 defeats, he has the best winning percentage of any pitcher with 200 or more wins. He broke Babe Ruth's World Series record with 33 consecutive scoreless innings (1960-62); his other Series records include ten wins, eight losses, and 146 innings pitched. Manager Casey Stengel often rested him against bad teams so that he could pitch more often against contenders, making his 2.75 career ERA more impressive. 8. (Charles Dillon) "Casey" Stengel (1890-1975) managed the Yankees to ten pennants and seven championships, including five in a row from 1949 to 1953. The "Old Perfessor" did not use a set lineup or pitching rotation, instead often mixing and matching players. As a player he was best known for his two home runs against the Yankees in the 1923 World Series. Off the field he was known for his vaudevillian personality and (like Berra) his mangled quotes. In 1958 a Senate subcommittee called him to testify on baseball's anti-trust exemption, leading to an hour of nearly incomprehensible "Stengelese." 9. (Alfred Manuel) "Billy" Martin (1928-1989) managed the New York Yankees on five separate occasions, the result of his frequent hirings and firings by owner George Steinbrenner. An alert, combative second baseman from 1950 to 1957, he caught Jackie Robinson's bases-loaded popup in Game 7 of the 1952 World Series and won the final game of the '53 Series with a single in the bottom of the ninth. As manager Martin won two pennants and a World Series (1977) but also nearly came to blows with Reggie Jackson during a nationally televised game. 10. (Reginald Martinez) "Reggie" Jackson (1946-Present) was one of baseball's first highprofile free agent signings. After winning three straight World Series with Oakland (1972-74), Jackson left the A's following the 1975 season, spent a year in Baltimore, and then joined the Bronx Zoo (as the Yankees' chaotic clubhouse was then known). Known as Mr. October, he hit three home runs in Game 6 of the 1977 World Series, each against a different pitcher, each on the first pitch of the at-bat. Also in 1977 he created a sensation by proclaiming himself "the straw that stirs the drink." He hit 563 career home runs and led the league in homers four times, but also set a major league record with 2,597 career strikeouts. 11. Don(ald Arthur) Mattingly (1961-Present) is almost unique among Yankee greats for his lack of a World Series ring. He holds the major league record with six grand slams in a season, led the league in hits twice, and won the 1985 MVP award. "Donnie Baseball" also won nine Gold Glove awards at first base and posted a .996 career fielding percentage. The Yankees of the 1980s, led by Mattingly, Dave Winfield, and Willie Randolph, consistently finished above .500. Mattingly's 1982 rookie season, however, was the first of a 13-year playoff drought. A 1995 Division Series against the Seattle Mariners (won by Seattle in five games) was his only post-season experience. 12. Derek (Sanderson) Jeter (1974-Present), in contrast to Mattingly, has reached the playoffs every year in his major league career, including six pennants and four championships. He was Rookie of the Year in 1996, the same year that 12-year-old Jeffrey Maier reached over a railing to turn his fly ball in the American League Championship Series into a controversial home run. In 2003 the Yankees named Jeter their 11th captain in franchise history and first since 1995. (In baseball a "team captain" is a purely honorary position; some teams dispense with the practice of naming one.) His junior high school yearbook named him "Most likely to play shortstop for the New York Yankees." You Gotta Know These Old Testament Characters 1. Abraham was the first of the patriarchs, whose lives are told in the book of Genesis. He proved his military prowess during the War of the Kings, rescuing his captured nephew Lot. He also tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade God to spare the evil cities of Sodom (where Lot lived) and Gomorrah. His wife Sarah gave birth to Isaac when she was ninety years old; Sarah evicted Abraham's concubine, Hagar, and her son Ishmael (said to be ancestor of the Arabs). Abraham also bought the Cave of Machpela (near Hebron) as a burial ground for him and his descendants (Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebeccah, and Jacob and Leah are supposedly buried there). 2. Isaac was, as a child, almost sacrificed by his father Abraham on Mt. Moriah, when God tried to test Abraham's faith. He married Rebeccah, and she gave birth to the twins Jacob and Esau, of whom Esau (the older one) was entitled to a birthright. However, Jacob tricked Isaac with Rebeccah's help. This incident caused Esau and Isaac to be mortal enemies. Denied his birthright, Esau went to live in Mt. Seir and became the father of the Edomites. 3. Jacob was Esau's twin brother, but had to flee Esau's rage after stealing Esau's blessing and birthright. Jacob loved his uncle Laban's daughter Rachel, but Laban tricked him into marrying her sister Leah first. Leah bore him Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun; Leah's maidservant Zilpah, bore Jacob Gad and Asher; Rachel gave birth to Joseph and Benjamin, and Rachel's maidservant Bilhah bore Dan and Naphtali. The Twelve Tribes of Israel descend from Jacob's twelve sons, with the exception of Joseph; Ephraim and Menasseh, sons of Joseph, each head "half-tribes." Jacob was later renamed "Israel," meaning "he who fights with God." 4. Joshua was the charismatic attendant to Moses during the Exodus from Egypt. Joshua was one of the twelve spies sent to scout Canaan. Ten of the other spies gave negative reports of the land and were killed in the plague as punishment; Joshua and another spy, Caleb, gave positive reports and were rewarded. Appointed Moses' successor, Joshua led the Israelites in conquering and dividing Canaan. One of his most famous victories was against the city of Jericho, which he destroyed by circling the city seven times while blowing on rams' horns (shofarim). 5. Deborah was one of the Judges, leaders who governed the Hebrews in Canaan during the period between Joshua's death and the establishment of the monarchy in Israel; she used to judge while sitting under a palm tree. In battle, she and Barak (son of Abinoam) led the Hebrews to a stunning victory against Jabin, the Canaanite king. She won when the chariots of Sisera, Jabin's general, got stuck in the mud of the river Kishon, and he and his soldiers all fled or were killed. The victory ended an era of persecution of the Hebrews by Jabin. 6. Lot was the nephew of Abraham and later left him to settle around the evil cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. When God prepared to destroy the two cities, two messengers were sent to Lot to evacuate him from the area; as Lot and his family were fleeing, his wife accidentally glanced back, and she was transformed into a pillar of salt. Afterwards, fearing that they were the only people left alive on Earth, his two daughters got him drunk and became pregnant from him, beginning the future nations of Moab and the Ammonites. 7. Noah, being a "righteous man and blameless in his generation," (Genesis 6:9) was chosen by God to continue the human race, while the rest of mankind was destroyed by a flood because of their wickedness. Afterwards, he and his family populated the Earth. His son Shem is considered the father of the Semitic people (e.g., Arabs and Hebrews), Ham, the ancestor of the Africans, and Japheth, the ancestor of various other races, including Indo-Europeans. 8. Cain, Abel, and Seth were the sons of Adam and Eve. (Adam begat other sons and daughters but the Bible mentions none by name.) Cain killed Abel out of rage because God had preferred Abel's offering from his flock, rather than Cain's. When asked about Abel's fate, Cain answered, "Am I my brother's keeper?" Cain was punished for the murder by becoming a vagabond, and he was given a special mark on his forehead to protect him from anyone who might kill him (God promised that anyone who killed Cain would suffer punishment for seven generations). Later, Eve gave birth to Seth. 9. Ruth was a Moabite woman who converted to Judaism. Her lineage includes David, King of Israel. She stayed with her mother-in-law, Naomi, after Naomi's husband and two sons died of illness. Ruth later married Boaz, one of the family's relatives, as the custom was that a family member must continue his relative's lineage if he dies by marrying his widow. The Book of Ruth is read on the holiday of Shavuot. 10. Ezra was a Jewish scribe who led a group of Jews back to Israel from their exile in Babylonia. He was also instrumental in working to rebuild the Temple (with permission from Cyrus) after the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed it. When Israel's neighbors tried to convince King Artaxerxes that the Jews shouldn't be able to rebuild the Temple because of their reputation as a rebellious province, Ezra intervened and appealed later to King Darius, who allowed them to resume construction. Additionally, Ezra helped to reestablish Jewish religious practice in Israel after the exile. 11. Saul, David, and Solomon were the first three kings of Israel. The young David, popular after killing the giant Goliath, succeeded Saul at the behest of the prophet Samuel and with the blessing of his close friend, Saul's own son Jonathan. For this, Saul greatly resented David and made more than one attempt to kill him. David, like Saul, spent much of his reign at war; because of the blood on his hands, God decreed that Solomon (not David) would build the Temple. David captured the city of Jerusalem and made it his capital. He fell in love with his future wife Bathsheba after he spotted her bathing; he had her husband killed so that he could marry her. He also exhausted himself supressing a rebellion by his son Absalom, who was captured when his long hair caught on a tree branch. Bathsheba's son Solomon, in addition to building the Temple, was credited with writing Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. 12. Daniel was a young Jew who, together with his three friends (Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah), was taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar when he conquered the Kingdom of Judah. Daniel was given a Babylonian name, and he gained favor with Nebuchadnezzar when he correctly interpreted one of his dreams. Nebuchadnezzar was later replaced by King Belshazzar. During a royal feast, a mysterious hand inscribed strange words on the wall. Daniel was summoned and interpreted the famous message, the writing on the wall (it read "Mene, Mene, Tekel, Ufarsin"), as predicting Belshazzar's downfall. Later that night, the King was killed, and King Darius the Mede took over. Servants of Darius convinced him to lock Daniel in the lion's den, where he magically survived with God's help. You Gotta Know These Asian Rivers Asia is home to seven of the world's twelve longest rivers, but its waterways are also of high cultural, spiritual, and economic importance. Here are the ten Asian rivers that every quiz bowl team should be familiar with. 1. The Yangtze (or Chang Jiang or Ch'ang Chiang) is the longest river in China and Asia and the third longest in the world. It rises in the Kunlun Mountains, flows across the Tibetan Plateau, passes the cities of Chongqing, Wuhan, Nanjing, and Shanghai, and empties into the South China Sea. Its basin is China's granary and is home to nearly one in every three Chinese citizens. The river has been in the news for the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest, which will reduce flooding but displace 1.5 million people and bury more than 1,300 known archaeological sites. 2. The Brahmaputra (or Tsangpo or Jamuna) runs 1,800 miles from its source in the Tibetan Himalayas; it starts eastward across the plateau, then turns south into the Indian state of Assam, and then enters Bangladesh where it merges with the Ganges to form the world's largest delta. While serving as a historical route to Tibet, the river is also prone to disastrous flooding. 3. The Yellow River (or Huang He or Huang Ho) is, at 3,400 miles, China's second-longest; it is also the most important to the northern half of the country. It rises in Qinghai province and flows into the Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea. The river's name comes from the extraordinary amount of loess silt that it carries, an average of 57 pounds for every cubic yard of water. Among its notable features is the Grand Canal, built during the Ming Dynasty, that links it to the Yangtze. 4. The Ganges (or Ganga) is the holiest river of Hinduism. It rises in the Himalayas and flows a comparatively short 1,560 miles to the world's largest delta on the Bay of Bengal. Among that delta's distributaries are the Hooghly (on whose banks Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) may be found) and the Padma (which enters Bangladesh). Approximately one in every twelve human beings lives in the Ganges Basin, a population density that is rapidly polluting the river; a significant source of that pollution is cremated remains. 5. The Mekong is the chief river of Southeast Asia. It originates in eastern Tibet, forms much of the Laos-Thailand border, flows south through Cambodia, and enters the South China Sea in southern Vietnam just south of Ho Chi Minh City. The capital cities of Vientiane and Phnom Penh are on the Mekong. The building of dams and clearing of rapids are a source of diplomatic conflict between China, Laos, and Cambodia. 6. The Tigris is the eastern of the two rivers that define the historic region of Mesopotamia (meaning, "The Land Between Two Rivers") that was home to the ancient civilizations of Sumer and Akkad. It rises in Turkey, then flows southeast by Mosul, Tikrit, and Baghdad before joining the Euphrates to make the Shatt-al-Arab, which subsequently empties into the Persian Gulf. 7. The Euphrates defines the western border of Mesopotamia; it also rises in the Zagros Mountains of Turkey and its shores are home to Fallujah and Babylon. It is the longer of the two rivers with a course of 1,740 miles (compared to the Tigris' 1,180). Both the Tigris and the Euphrates have changed courses several times leaving ruins in the desert where cities have been abandoned. 8. The Irrawaddy (or Ayeyarwaddy) is the chief river of Myanmar (also known as Burma). It flows 1,350 miles past Yangon (formerly Rangoon) and Mandalay to the Gulf of Martaban, an arm of the Bay of Bengal. Its delta is one of the world's most important rice-growing regions, and its name is thought to come from the Sanskrit word for "elephant." 9. The Indus is the chief river of Pakistan as well as being the ultimate source of the name of India. It rises in Tibet and flows 1,800 miles to a delta on the Arabian Sea southeast of Karachi. The five major tributaries of the Indus, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej Rivers, are the source of the name of the Punjab region, which is Persian for "Land of the Five Rivers". The Indus is the cradle of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the world's earliest urban areas, whose main cities were Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. 10. The Jordan River rises in Syria from springs near Mount Hermon. It flows south to Lake Merom, through the Sea of Galilee, and into the Dead Sea, which lies 1,300 feet below sea level. The river forms the nation of Jordan's boundary with the West Bank and northern Israel. In the New Testament, the river was the site of the baptism of John the Baptist. In modern times, about 80% of its water is diverted for human use, a figure that has led to the shrinking of the Dead Sea and serious contention among bordering nations. You Gotta Know These Classes of Particles Physics and chemistry are often difficult subjects for quiz bowl teams if those classes are taught during the junior or senior years since many players will not have completed them before encountering the subject matter at tournaments. One high-yield area of physics to study is the nomenclature of various groups of particles. Some conventions: The mass of particles is usually given in mega-electronvolts (MeV), where an electron-volt is the energy acquired by an electron when it crosses a potential difference of one volt. The energies are converted to masses by Einstein's famous equation E = mc2, where c is the speed of light. Charges are given in terms of the fundamental electric charge (the absolute value of the charge on an electron). Every kind of particle also has a corresponding anti-particle made of anti-matter; when it is said that there "six leptons," anti-particles are not counted (so, in some sense, there are twelve). Anti-particles have the same mass, but the opposite charge, of the original. There are no particles with negative mass. Note that in some rare situations, a particle can be its own anti-particle. 1. Leptons are one of the classes of "fundamental particles" (meaning that they cannot be broken down into smaller particles). There are six "flavors" of leptons: the electron, the muon, the tauon, the electron neutrino (usually just called "the" neutrino), the muon neutrino, and the tauon neutrino. The three neutrinos are neutral (and were once thought to be massless), while the other three have a charge of -1. All neutrinos are fermions and the total number of leptons is conserved (counting regular leptons as +1 particle and anti-leptons as -1 particle). The word "lepton" comes from the Greek for "light" (as in "not heavy"), even though the muon and tauon are fairly massive. 2. Quarks are another class of fundamental particle. They also come in six flavors: up, down, charm, strange, top (sometimes, "truth"), and bottom (sometimes, "beauty"). The up, charm, and top quarks have a charge of +2/3, while the down, strange, and bottom have a charge of 1/3. All quarks are fermions and they combine in pairs to form mesons and in triples to form baryons. The enormous mass of the top quark (178 GeV) made it difficult to create in particle accelerators, but its discovery in 1995 confirmed an essential element of the "Standard Model" of particle physics. The name "quark" comes from the line "Three quarks for Muster Mark" in Finnegans Wake that appealed to Murray Gell-Mann. The study of quarks (and the strong nuclear force) is quantum chromodynamics. 3. Baryons are composite (i.e., non-fundamental) particles made from three quarks. The most common examples are the proton (two up quarks and one down quark) and the neutron (two down quarks and one up). All baryons are fermions. Quarks possess a characteristic called "color" (which has nothing to do with visual color) which can be either red, green, or blue (which are arbitrary names). A baryon must have one quark of each color so that the "total color" (analogous to mixing red, green, and blue light) is colorless (i.e., "white"). The word "baryon" comes from the Greek for "heavy." The total number of baryons is conserved (again, counting anti-baryons as -1). 4. Mesons are composite particles generally made from a quark and an anti-quark. There are dozens of examples including the pion, kaon, J/Psi, Rho, and D. All mesons are bosons. The quark and anti-quark must have the same color (such as red and anti-red) so that the resulting meson is colorless (or "white"). It is also possible to make mesons out of two (or more) quarks and the same number of anti-quarks, but this kind of particle (a "tetraquark") is rare, both in nature and in quiz bowl. 5. Fermions are particles with half-integral spin. Spin is a form of "intrinsic angular momentum" which is possessed by particles as if they were spinning around their axis (but, in fact, they aren't). The values cited for spin are not (usually) the real magnitude of that angular momentum, but the component of the angular momentum along one axis. Quantum mechanics restricts that component to being n/2 times Planck's constant divided by 2 pi for some integer n. If n is even, this results in "integral" spin, if it is odd, it results in "halfintegral" spin. Note that the exact value of the spin itself is a real number; it's the multiplier of h/2pi that determines whether it is "integral" or not. The most significant thing about fermions is that they are subject to the Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two fermions can have the same quantum numbers (i.e., same state). The name "fermion" comes from that of the Italian-American physicist Enrico Fermi. 6. Bosons are particles with integral spin. All particles are either bosons or fermions. The spin of a composite particle is determined by the total spin (i.e., the component of its intrinsic angular momentum along one axis) of its particles. For instance, an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons) has four half-integral spin values. No matter how they are added up, the result will be an integral spin value (try it!), so an alpha particle is a (composite) boson. The Pauli Exclusion Principle does not apply to bosons (in fact, bosons prefer to be in the same quantum state). The name "boson" comes from that of the Indian-American physicist Satyendra Nath Bose. 7. Hadrons are any particles made out of quarks (alternatively, any particle affected by the strong nuclear force). Generally, this means the baryons and the mesons. All hadrons are colorless (in the sense of the combined color of their constituent quarks). The name "hadron" comes from the Greek for "thick." 8. Gauge bosons (sometimes called "vector bosons") are fundamental bosons that carry the forces of nature. That is, forces result from particles emitting and absorbing gauge bosons. The strong nuclear force is carried by gluons, the weak nuclear force is carried by the W, Z-, and Z+ particles, the electromagnetic force is carried by the photon, and gravity is carried by the (as yet unobserved) graviton. The name comes from the role of "gauge theories" in describing the forces (which are beyond the scope of this article). 9. Gluons are the gauge bosons that carry the strong nuclear force and bind hadrons together. Gluons have no charge and no mass, but do have color (in the sense of quarks). This color cannot be observed directly because the gluons are part of the larger hadron. The name comes from their role in "gluing" quarks together. 10. Partons are an older name that was used for the "internal parts" of hadrons before the discovery and widespread acceptance of the quark model. Models based on partons are still used but, for the most part, it was determined that partons were quarks and the term is rarely used at the high school level except in historical contexts. You Gotta Know These Operas Opera is the subject of a disproportionate share of the musical fine arts questions in quiz bowl because the genre is more conducive to the verbal nature of the game than instrumental music. The big difference, of course, is that operas have stories and characters that can be easily described by words. It is much easier to parse a question on an operatic plot than to understand a description of the notes, tempo, or harmony of, for instance, Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 7, in the rapidfire atmosphere of quiz bowl. Each operatic title is followed by the name of its composer, its librettist, and the year of its first performance. 1. Aida (Giuseppe Verdi, Antonio Ghislanzoni, 1871) Aida is an Ethiopian princess who is held captive in Egypt. She falls in love with the Egyptian general Radames and convinces him to run away with her; unfortunately, he is caught by the high priest Ramphis and a jealous Egyptian princess Amneris. Radames is buried alive, but finds that Aida has snuck into the tomb to join him. The opera was commissioned by the khedive of Egypt and intended to commemorate the opening of the Suez Canal, but it was finished late and instead premiered at the opening of the Cairo Opera House. 2. Carmen (Georges Bizet, Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, 1875) Carmen is a young gypsy who works in a cigarette factory in Seville. She is arrested by the corporal Don José for fighting, but cajoles him into letting her escape. They meet again at an inn where she tempts him into challenging his captain; that treason forces him to join a group of smugglers. In the final act, the ragtag former soldier encounters Carmen at a bullfight where her lover Escamillo is competing (the source of the "Toreador Song") and stabs her. The libretto was based on a novel of Prosper Merimée. 3. The Marriage of Figaro (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Lorenzo Da Ponte, 1786) Figaro and Susanna are servants of Count Almaviva who plan to marry, but this plan is complicated by the older Marcellina who wants to wed Figaro, the Count who has made unwanted advances to Susanna, and Don Bartolo who has a loan that Figaro has sworn he will repay before he marries. The issues are resolved with a series complicated schemes that involve impersonating other characters including the page Cherubino. The opera is based on a comedy by Pierre de Beaumarchais. Be careful: Many of the same characters also appear in The Barber of Seville! 4. The Barber of Seville (Gioacchino Rossini, Cesare Sterbini, 1816) Count Almaviva loves Rosina, the ward of Dr. Bartolo. Figaro (who brags about his wit in Largo al factotum) promises to help him win the girl. He tries the guise of the poor student Lindoro, a drunken soldier, and then a replacement music teacher, all of which are penetrated by Dr. Bartolo. Eventually they succeed by climbing in with a ladder and bribing the notary who was to marry Rosina to Dr. Bartolo himself. This opera is also based on a work of Pierre de Beaumarchais and is a prequel to The Marriage of Figaro. 5. William Tell (Gioacchino Rossini, unimportant librettists, 1829) William Tell is a 14thcentury Swiss patriot who wishes to end Austria's domination of his country. In the first act he helps Leuthold, a fugitive, escape the Austrian governor, Gessler. In the third act, Gessler has placed his hat on a poll and ordered the men to bow to it. When Tell refuses, Gessler takes his son, Jemmy, and forces Tell to shoot an apple off his son's head. Tell succeeds, but is arrested anyway. In the fourth act, he escapes from the Austrians and his son sets their house on fire as a signal for the Swiss to rise in revolt. The opera was based on a play by Friedrich von Schiller. 6. Don Giovanni (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Lorenzo Da Ponte, 1787) Don Giovanni (the Italian form of "Don Juan") attempts to seduce Donna Anna, but is discovered by her father, the Commendatore, whom he kills in a swordfight. Later in the act, his servant Leporello recounts his master's 2,000-odd conquests in the "Catalogue Aria." Further swordfights and assignations occur prior to the final scene in which a statue of the Commendatore comes to life, knocks on the door to the room in which Don Giovanni is feasting, and then opens a chasm that takes him down to hell. 7. Salome (Richard Strauss, Hugo Oscar Wilde, 1905) Jokanaan (a.k.a. John the Baptist) is imprisoned in the dungeons of King Herod. Herod's 15-year-old step-daughter Salome becomes obsessed with the prisoner's religious passion and is incensed when he ignores her advances. Later in the evening Herod orders Salome to dance for him (the "Dance of the Seven Veils"), but she refuses until he promises her "anything she wants." She asks for the head of Jokanaan and eventually receives it, after which a horrified Herod orders her to be killed; his soldiers crush her with their shields. 8. Boris Godunov (Modest Mussorgsky (composer and librettist), 1874) The opera's prologue shows Boris Godunov, the chief adviser of Ivan the Terrible, being pressured to assume the throne after Ivan's two children die. In the first act the religious novice Grigori decides that he will impersonate that younger son, Dmitri (the (first) "false Dmitri"), whom, it turns out, Boris had killed. Grigori raises a general revolt and Boris' health falls apart as he is taunted by military defeats and dreams of the murdered tsarevich. The opera ends with Boris dying in front of the assembled boyars (noblemen). 9. La Bohème (Giacomo Puccini, unimportant librettists, 1896) This opera tells the story of four extremely poor friends who live in the French (i.e., Students') Quarter of Paris: Marcello the artist, Rodolfo the poet, Colline the philosopher, and Schaunard the musician. Rodolfo meets the seamstress Mimi who lives next door when her single candle is blown out and needs to be relit. Marcello is still attached to Musetta, who had left him for the rich man Alcindoro. In the final act, Marcello and Rodolfo have separated from their lovers, but cannot stop thinking about them. Musetta bursts into their garret apartment and tells them that Mimi is dying of consumption (tuberculosis); when they reach her, she is already dead. La Bohème was based on a novel by Henry Murger and, in turn, formed the basis of the hit 1996 musical Rent by Jonathan Larson. 10. Madama Butterfly (Giacomo Puccini, unimportant librettists, 1904) The American naval lieutenant Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton is stationed in Nagasaki where, with the help of the broker Goro, he weds the young girl Cio-Cio-San (Madame Butterfly) with a marriage contract with a cancellation clause. He later returns to America leaving Cio-Cio-San to raise their son "Trouble" (whom she will rename "Joy" upon his return). When Pinkerton and his new American wife Kate do return, Cio-Cio-San gives them her son and stabs herself with her father's dagger. The opera is based on a play by David Belasco. You Gotta Know These U.S. Supreme Court Cases Each case is followed by the name of the presiding chief justice, the vote, and the year it was decided. 1. Plessy v. Ferguson (Melville Fuller, 7-1, 1896) Homer Plessy (an octoroon) bought a firstclass ticket on the East Louisiana Railway. He sat in the whites-only car in violation of an 1890 Louisiana law mandating separate accommodations. He was convicted, but appealed to the Supreme Court against John Ferguson, a Louisiana judge. The court upheld the law provided that "separate but equal" facilities were provided. John Marshall Harlan issued a famous dissent claiming "Our constitution is color-blind." Plessy was overturned by Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. 2. Marbury v. Madison (John Marshall, 4-0, 1803) On his final day in office in 1801, John Adams signed commissions for 42 federal judges (the so-called "midnight judges"). His successor, Thomas Jefferson, opted to not deliver most of the commissions. One appointee, William Marbury, sued the new secretary of state, James Madison, to force the delivery of his commission. The Judiciary Act of 1789 had granted the court original jurisdiction in such cases, but the Constitution did not. The court ruled that the Judiciary Act conflicted with the Constitution and was therefore void. Therefore Marbury's request was denied for lack of jurisdiction. This case established the principle of judicial review, the power of the court to nullify unconstitutional laws. 3. Roe v. Wade (Warren Burger, 7-2, 1973) Norma McCorvey (under the alias Jane Roe), a rape victim, sued Dallas County attorney Henry Wade for the right to an abortion. When the case reached the Supreme Court, the plaintiff depended on the growing recognition of a "right to privacy" which began with the 1965 case of Griswold v. Connecticut. The court struck down state anti-abortion laws as "unconstitutionally vague," held that the word "person" in the Constitution "does not include the unborn," and legalized abortion in the first trimester. McCorvey later joined the pro-life movement and claimed that she was not actually raped and that she was pressured into filing the case by her ambitious attorney Sarah Weddington. 4. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (Earl Warren, 9-0, 1954) The suit was filed on behalf of Linda Brown, a third grader, who had to walk a mile to a blacks-only school when a whites-only school was much closer. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall argued the case for the plaintiff. The court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were not constitutional. A second case in 1955 required that desegregation proceed "with all deliberate speed" but Southern schools were notoriously slow in complying; it was not until 1970 that a majority had complied with the ruling. 5. McCulloch v. Maryland (John Marshall, 9-0, 1819) After the Second Bank of the United States began calling in loans owned by the states, Maryland passed a law taxing out-of-state banks. The federal bank refused to pay, so the state sued its Baltimore cashier, James McCulloch. The court ruled that the federal government had the right to establish the bank even though it was not expressly enumerated in the Constitution and also noted that since "the power to tax was the power to destroy," Maryland could not tax the bank without destroying federal sovereignty. 6. Baker v. Carr (Earl Warren, 6-2, 1962) Charles W. Baker, a Tennessee citizen, sued the Tennessee secretary state, Joe Carr, claiming that the state's electoral districts had been drawn to grossly favor one political party. The defendant argued that reapportionment issues were political, not judicial, matters, but the court disagreed and declared the issue justiciable before remanding the case to a lower court. Two years later, in Reynolds v. Sims, the court mandated the principle of "one man, one vote." 7. Gideon v. Wainwright (Earl Warren, 9-0, 1963) Clarence Earl Gideon was accused of breaking into a pool hall in Florida. Because his crime was not capital, the court declined to provide him with an attorney. He was convicted, sued Louie Wainwright, the director of the corrections office, and took his case to the Supreme Court. The court overruled Betts v. Brady and held that the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments required appointed counsel in all trials. Gideon was retried and found innocent. The case is the subject of the book Gideon's Trumpet. 8. Hammer v. Dagenhart (Edward Douglass White, 5-4, 1918) The Keating-Own Act prohibited the interstate sale of goods produced by child labor leading Roland Dagenhart to sue U.S. attorney Hammer in Charlotte since his two sons would be put out of work. The court ruled that the federal government did not have the right to regulate child labor; Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote a notable dissent focusing on the lack of proper state regulation. The case was overturned by the 1941 U.S. v. Darby Lumber Company case upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act. 9. Fletcher v. Peck (John Marshall, 6-0, 1810) In 1795 the Georgia legislature corruptly sold land along the Yazoo River (now in Mississippi) to private citizens in exchange for bribes. The legislators were mostly defeated in the next elections and the incoming politicians voided the sales. In the meantime, John Peck sold some of the land in question to Robert Fletcher, who then sued him, claiming that he did not have clear title. The Supreme Court held that the state legislature did not have the power to repeal the sale. This was one of the earliest cases in which the Supreme Court struck down a state law. 10. Ex Parte Merryman (Roger Taney, 1861) This was not actually a Supreme Court case, but a federal court case heard by Chief Justice Roger Taney while "circuit-riding" when the court was not in session. Lieutenant John Merryman of the Maryland cavalry took an active role in evicting Union soldiers from Maryland following the attack on Fort Sumter. Abraham Lincoln declared a secret suspension of the writ of habeas corpus and had a number of opposition leaders, including Merryman, arrested. Taney found the president had acted unconstitutionally (only Congress can suspend the writ), but Lincoln simply ignored his ruling. You Gotta Know These Treaties These are the twelve treaties that have been mentioned most frequently in NAQT's questions since our very first tournament set back in 1997. As with all of the You Gotta Know lists available on our website, they aren't necessarily the most important treaties from a historical point of view, merely those that have proven most gettable as answers and most useful as clues. 1. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) officially ended World War I and was signed at its namesake French palace after the Paris Peace Conference. It is noted for the "Big Four" (Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd-George, Georges Clemenceau, and Vittorio Orlando) who headed the Allies' delegations, discussions of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points (particularly the League of Nations), and its controversial disarmament, war guilt, and reparations clauses. The conference was also notable for up-and-coming world figures who attended (John Maynard Keynes, Ho Chi Minh, Jan Smuts, etc.). 2. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) was a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht that (mostly) ended the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714). They were signed by France and Spain for one side and by Britain, Savoy, and the United Provinces (The Netherlands) for the other. The treaty confirmed a Bourbon prince (Philip, Duke of Anjou) on the Spanish throne (ending Habsburg control), but took steps to prevent the French and Spanish thrones from being merged. Some Spanish possessions, including Sicily, the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, and Gibraltar, were given to the victors. 3. The Treaty of Ghent (1814) ended the War of 1812 between the U.S. and Britain. It was signed in the Belgian city of Ghent but, due to the distances involved, could not prevent the Battle of New Orleans two weeks later. The treaty made no boundary changes and had minimal effect; both sides were ready for peace and considered the war a futile and fruitless endeavor. 4. The Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more. 5. The Adams-Onís Treaty (1819) settled a boundary dispute between the U.S. and Spain that arose following the Louisiana Purchase. It was negotiated by then-Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and most notably sold Florida to the U.S. in exchange for the payment of its citizens' claims against Spain. It also delineated the U.S.-Spain border to the Pacific Ocean leading to its alternate name, the Transcontinental Treaty. 6. The Camp David Accords (1978) were negotiated at the presidential retreat of Camp David by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel Menachem Begin; they were brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter. They led to a peace treaty the next year that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal, and more-orless normalized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. This isolated Egypt from the other Arab countries and led to Sadat's assassination in 1981. 7. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ended the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) and was signed in its namesake neighborhood of Mexico City. Its most significant result was the "Mexican Cession" transferring California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of four other states to the U.S. It also made the Rio Grande the boundary between Texas and Mexico. 8. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) was a "separate peace" signed by the Bolshevik government of the new USSR and Germany. The USSR needed to make peace to focus on defeating the "Whites" (royalists) in the Russian Civil War, and it gave up Ukraine, Belarus, and the three Baltic countries after Germany invaded, an outcome worse than a German offer which chief Soviet negotiator Leon Trotsky had rejected. The treaty was negotiated in modern-day Brest (in Belarus) and was nullified by the subsequent Treaty of Versailles following Germany's defeat. 9. The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) ostensibly divided the New World (and, in later interpretations, the entire world) between Spain and Portugal. It resulted from a bull by (Spanish-born) Pope Alexander VI granting lands to Spain and established a line west of the Cape Verde islands between future Spanish possessions (west) and Portuguese possessions (east). The line passed through Brazil, allowing the Portuguese to establish a colony there while Spain received the rest of the Americas. Endless wrangling and repeated revisions ensued. 10. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) is the collective name for two treaties ending the Thirty Years' War that were signed by the Holy Roman Empire, minor German states, Spain, France, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic. It confirmed the principle of "cuius regio eius religio" (that a ruler's religion determined that of his country) introduced by the Peace of Augsburg, but mandated relative tolerance of other (Christian) faiths. It adjusted the borders of German states and strengthened their princes with respect to the Emperor and transferred most of Lorraine and some of Alsace to France. 11. The Lateran Treaty (1929) created the independent country of the Vatican City, made Catholicism the state religion of Italy (ended in 1984), and determined the proper remuneration for Church property taken by Italy. It was signed by Benito Mussolini and a representative of Pope Pius XI in the namesake papal residence and ended the so-called "Roman Question" that arose out of the unification of Italy and the dissolution of the Papal States. 12. The Treaty of Paris (1898) was, surprisingly, the only Treaty of Paris to make the list. It ended the Spanish-American War and transferred Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico to the U.S. while making Cuba (ostensibly) independent. The treaty was the beginning of American imperialism and underwent a lengthy and contentious ratification. You Gotta Know These Artistic Creations The following table lists the 40 most-frequently referenced works of visual art in NAQT questions as of November 1, 2007. While you really gotta know their creators, these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written, so teams should be prepared for questions on their materials, design, technique, depicted action, and circumstances of creation. This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. Rank Title Genre Creator Date Freq. 1 Louvre Building Pierre Lescot Francis I of France (patron) 1546 137 2 Parthenon Building Ictinus and Callicrates Pericles (patron) 447 BC 136 3 Notre Dame Cathedral Building unknown 1160-1345 108 4 Mona Lisa Painting Leonardo da Vinci 1500 104 5 Statue of Liberty Sculpture Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi 1886 100 6 Guernica Painting Pablo Picasso (y Ruiz) 1937 89 7 Westminster Abbey Building Henry III of England (patron) 1245 78 8 Taj Mahal Building Ustad Ahmad Lahori Shah Jahan (patron) 1632 77 9 Sistine Chapel Building Giovanni Del Dolci Pope Sixtus IV (patron) 1473 76 The Birth of Venus Painting Sandro Botticelli 1480 76 10 11 Saint Paul's Cathedral Building Sir Christopher Wren 1708 74 12 Mount Rushmore Sculpture (John) Gutzon (de la Mothe) Borglum 1927-1941 74 13 Nighthawks Painting Edward Hopper 1942 70 14 Empire State Building Building (Firm of) Shreve, Lamb & Harmon 1931 68 15 St. Peter's Basilica Building Donato Bramante et al. 1626 66 16 The Persistence of Memory Painting Salvador (Felipe Jacinto) Dalí (y Domenech) 1931 65 17 Abraham Lincoln Memorial Building Henry Bacon 1922 64 18 The Thinker Sculpture (René-François)Auguste Rodin 1900 64 19 The Shooting Company of Captain Franz Banning Cocq Painting Rembrandt (Harmenszoon Van Rijn) 1642 64 20 Fallingwater Building Frank Lloyd (Lincoln) Wright 1936 63 21 School of Athens Painting Raphael 1509 61 22 Last Supper Painting Leonardo da Vinci 1495-1498 60 23 American Gothic Painting Grant Wood 1930 60 24 David Sculpture Donatello c. 1440 59 25 The Arnolfini Wedding Painting Jan van Eyck 1434 57 26 The Death of Marat Painting Jacques-Louis David 1793 56 27 Solomon R. Building Guggenheim Museum Frank Lloyd Wright 1959 56 28 Uffizi Palace Building Giorgio Vasari Cosimo I de' Medici (patron) 1560-1581 55 29 The Gates of Hell Sculpture (René-François)Auguste Rodin 1880 55 30 The Third of May, 1808 Painting Francisco (José) de Goya (y Lucientes) 1814 53 31 Chrysler Building Building William Van Alen 1930 52 32 Starry Night Painting Vincent (Willem) Van Gogh 1889 50 33 Arrangement in Gray and Black, No. 1: The Painting Artist's Mother James (Abbott) McNeill Whistler 1871 50 34 Alhambra Building Mahomet Ibn Al Ahmar (patron) 1354 49 35 Gateway Arch Building Eero Saarinen 1965 49 36 Eiffel Tower Building (Alexandre-)Gustave Eiffel 1889 49 37 Cathedral of Florence Building Filippo Brunelleschi 1420 49 38 Temple of Jerusalem Building Solomon (patron) 10th century BC 49 1793-1811 (reconstructed 1815-1826) 49 1656 48 39 United States Capitol Building Wiliam Thornton (original) Benjamin Latrobe, Charles Bullfinch, et al. (revisions) 40 Las Meninas Painting Diego (Rodríguez de Silva y) Velázquez You Gotta Know These Musical Works The following table lists the 50 most-frequently referenced works of music in NAQT questions as of November 1, 2007. While you really gotta know their creators, these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written, so teams should be prepared for questions on their style, instrumentation, performance, lyrics, key, program, and circumstances of creation. This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. Rank Title Genre Creator Date Freq. 1 Carmen Opera Georges Bizet 1845 147 2 Aida Opera Giuseppe Verdi 1871 146 3 The Ring of the Nibelung Opera (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner 1876 122 4 Messiah Oratorio George Frideric Handel 1741 102 5 Symphony No. 9, "Choral" Symphony Ludwig van Beethoven 1823 100 6 Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral" Symphony Ludwig van Beethoven 1808 97 7 Symphonie fantastique Symphony (Louis-)Hector Berlioz 1830 92 8 The Nutcracker Ballet Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 1892 91 9 The Rite of Spring Ballet Igor (Fyodorovich) Stravinsky 1913 90 10 Madama Butterfly Opera Giacomo Puccini 1904 89 11 Symphony No. 3, "Eroica" Symphony Ludwig van Beethoven 1804 86 12 The Barber of Seville Opera Gioacchino (Antonio) 1816 85 Rossini 13 The Magic Flute Opera Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1791 84 14 Appalachian Spring Ballet Aaron Copland 1944 83 15 Rigoletto Opera Giuseppe Verdi 1851 82 16 Don Giovanni Opera Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1787 79 17 La Bohème Opera Giacomo Puccini 1896 78 18 Fidelio Opera Ludwig van Beethoven 1805 77 19 The Four Seasons Concerto Antonio Vivaldi 1725 73 20 Rhapsody in Blue Composition George Gershwin 1924 72 21 The Marriage of Figaro Opera Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1784 72 22 West Side Story Musical Leonard Bernstein 1957 68 23 Siegfried Opera (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner 1876 66 24 Moonlight Sonata Sonata Ludwig van Beethoven 1801 63 25 The Planets Suite Gustav(us Theodore von) Holst 1918 61 26 Symphony No. 6, "Pathétique" Symphony Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 1893 60 27 Porgy and Bess Opera George Gershwin 1935 60 28 William Tell Opera Gioacchino Rossini 1804 59 29 Peter and the Wolf Composition Sergei (Sergeyevich) Prokofiev 1936 59 30 The Song of the Earth Symphony Gustav Mahler 1909 59 31 Swan Lake Ballet Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 1877 58 32 The Flying Dutchman Opera (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner 1843 58 33 Lohengrin Opera (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner 1850 57 34 Boléro Composition (Joseph) Maurice Ravel 1928 55 35 The Phantom of the Opera Musical Andrew Lloyd Webber 1910 54 36 Tosca Opera Giacomo Puccini 1900 54 37 Turandot Opera Giacomo Puccini 1762 53 38 La Traviata Opera Giuseppe Verdi 1853 53 39 Pictures at an Exhibition Composition Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky 1874 53 40 A German Requiem Sacred Choral Johannes Brahms 1868 51 Work 41 Symphony No. 94, "Surprise" Symphony (Franz) Joseph Haydn 1791 50 42 Symphony No. 41, "Jupiter" Symphony Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1788 50 43 Symphony No. 9, "From the New World" Symphony Antonín (Leopold) Dvorák 1893 49 44 The Mikado Musical Arthur Sullivan (music) William S. Gilbert 1885 (words) 48 45 My Fair Lady Musical Frederick Loewe 1956 47 46 Falstaff Opera Giuseppe Verdi 1893 47 47 Boris Godunov Opera Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky 1869 47 48 Cats Musical Andrew Lloyd Webber 1982 46 49 Enigma Variations Composition Edward (William) Elgar 1899 46 50 Salome Opera Richard (Georg) Strauss 45 1905 You Gotta Know These Works of Literature The following table lists the 100 most-frequently referenced works of literature in NAQT questions as of November 1, 2007. While you really gotta know their authors, these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written, so teams should be prepared for questions on their characters, plots, settings, and circumstances of creation. The Bible was excluded from this list because its total would swamp the other work. This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. Rank Title Genre Creator Date Freq. 1 Hamlet Drama William Shakespeare 1601 292 2 Oedipus Rex Drama Sophocles 430 BC 196 3 Macbeth Drama William Shakespeare 1606 182 4 King Lear Drama William Shakespeare 1605 156 5 Othello Drama William Shakespeare 1622 156 6 The Tempest Drama William Shakespeare 1611 145 7 Moby-Dick Novel Herman Melville 1851 139 8 The Great Gatsby Novel F(rancis) Scott (Key) Fitzgerald 1925 138 9 Don Quixote Novel Miguel de Cervantes 1605 137 Saavedra 10 Jane Eyre Novel Charlotte Brontë 1847 128 11 Iliad Poem Homer 8th century BC 125 12 Pride and Prejudice Novel Jane Austen 1813 123 13 1984 Novel George Orwell 1948 122 14 Ulysses Novel James (Augustine Aloysius) Joyce 1922 121 15 Romeo and Juliet Drama William Shakespeare 1594 121 16 The Merchant of Venice Drama William Shakespeare 1596 119 17 Paradise Lost Poem John Milton 1667 119 18 The Canterbury Tales Poem Geoffrey Chaucer 1387 117 19 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Novel Mark Twain 1884 116 20 The Scarlet Letter Novel Nathaniel Hawthorne 1850 115 21 A Streetcar Named Desire Drama Tennessee Williams 1947 114 22 Our Town Drama Thornton (Niven) Wilder 1938 113 23 The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Novel Mark Twain 1876 111 24 The Divine Comedy Poem Dante (Alighieri) 1314 111 25 Crime and Punishment Novel Fyodor (Mikhaylovich) Dostoyevsky 1866 109 26 The Red Badge of Courage Novel Stephen Crane 1895 108 27 Candide Novel Voltaire 1759 107 28 Billy Budd: Foretopman Novel Herman Melville 1891 106 29 Les Misérables Novel Victor(-Marie) Hugo 1862 105 30 Anna Karenina Novel Leo Tolstoy 1877 105 31 A Midsummer Night's Dream Drama William Shakespeare 1595 105 32 Pygmalion Drama George Bernard Shaw 1912 103 33 Julius Caesar Drama William Shakespeare 1599 103 34 War and Peace Novel Leo Tolstoy 1865 101 35 The Three Musketeers Novel Alexandre Dumas (père) 1844 100 36 A Farewell to Arms Novel Ernest (Miller) Hemingway 1929 100 37 Vanity Fair Novel William Makepeace Thackeray 1848 100 38 To Kill a Mockingbird Novel (Nelle) Harper Lee 1960 99 39 For Whom the Bell Tolls Novel Ernest (Miller) Hemingway 1940 99 40 The Grapes of Wrath Novel John (Ernst) Steinbeck 1939 98 41 Lolita Novel Vladimir Nabokov 1955 98 42 A Tale of Two Cities Novel Charles (John Huffam) Dickens 1859 98 43 Little Women Novel Louisa May Alcott 1868 97 44 As You Like It Drama William Shakespeare 1599 97 45 The Waste Land Poem T(homas) S(tearns) Eliot 1922 95 46 Aeneid Poem Virgil 19 BC 95 47 Odyssey Poem Homer 8th century BC 94 48 Heart of Darkness Novella Joseph Conrad 1902 94 49 Pilgrim's Progress Novel John Bunyan 1678 94 50 David Copperfield Novel Charles (John Huffam) Dickens 1850 94 51 One Hundred Years of Solitude Novel Gabriel García Márquez 1967 93 52 Antigone Drama Sophocles 441 BC 92 53 Faust Poem Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1808 92 54 The Count of Monte Cristo Novel Alexandre Dumas (père) 1845 91 55 A Doll's House Drama Henrik (Johan) Ibsen 1879 90 56 Robinson Crusoe Novel Daniel Defoe 1719 88 57 Animal Farm Novel George Orwell 1945 87 58 The Call of the Wild Novel Jack London 1903 87 59 Much Ado about Nothing Drama William Shakespeare 1598 87 60 The Glass Menagerie Drama Tennessee Williams 1945 86 61 The Crucible Drama Arthur Miller 1953 86 62 Brave New World Novel Aldous (Leonard) Huxley 1932 85 63 Beowulf Poem unknown 8th century 85 64 The Sun Also Rises Novel Ernest (Miller) Hemingway 1926 83 65 The Jungle Novel Upton (Beall) Sinclair 1906 83 66 Twelfth Night Drama William Shakespeare 1623 83 67 Great Expectations Novel Charles (John Huffam) Dickens 1861 82 68 The Rime of the Ancient Poem Samuel Taylor Coleridge 1797 82 Mariner 69 Oliver Twist Novel Charles (John Huffam) Dickens 1838 81 70 Uncle Tom's Cabin Novel Harriet Beecher Stowe 1852 81 71 Rip van Winkle Short Story Washington Irving 1818 79 72 The Catcher in the Rye Novel J(erome) D(avid) Salinger 1951 77 73 Waiting for Godot Drama Samuel (Barclay) Beckett 1952 77 74 Death of a Salesman Drama Arthur Miller 1949 77 75 Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Children's Lewis Carroll 1865 76 76 Long Day's Journey Into Night Drama Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill 1956 75 77 All the King's Men Novel Robert Penn Warren 1946 75 78 Things Fall Apart Novel (Albert) Chinua(lumogu) Achebe 1958 75 79 Slaughterhouse Five Novel Kurt Vonnegut Jr. 1969 75 80 The Charge of the Light Brigade Poem Alfred, Lord Tennyson 1854 74 81 The Merry Wives of Windsor Drama William Shakespeare 1600 74 82 The Importance of Being Drama Earnest Oscar (Fingal O'Flahertie Wills) Wilde 1895 73 83 The Magic Mountain Novel (Paul) Thomas Mann 1924 73 84 Invisible Man Novel Ralph (Waldo) Ellison 1952 72 85 The Taming of the Shrew Drama William Shakespeare 1593 72 86 Eugene Onegin Poem Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) Pushkin 1833 72 87 Sense and Sensibility Novel Jane Austen 1811 72 88 The Brothers Karamazov Novel Fyodor (Mikhaylovich) Dostoyevsky 1880 72 89 Inferno Poem Dante (Alighieri) c. 13101314 71 90 The Stranger Novel Albert Camus 1946 71 91 Catch-22 Novel Joseph Heller 1961 70 92 A Raisin in the Sun Drama Lorraine Hansberry 1959 70 93 Wuthering Heights Novel Emily Brontë 1847 69 94 The Sound and the Fury Novel William (Cuthbert) Faulkner 1929 69 95 Oresteia Series Aeschylus c. 458 BC 69 96 Decameron Poem Giovanni Boccaccio 1353 69 97 The Raven Poem Edgar Allan Poe 1845 69 98 Ivanhoe Novel Sir Walter Scott 1820 68 99 The House of the Seven Gables Novel Nathaniel Hawthorne 1851 68 My Ántonia Novel Willa (Sibert) Cather 1918 68 100 You Gotta Know These Non-Fiction Works The following table lists the 50 most-frequently referenced works of non-fiction in NAQT questions as of November 1, 2007. While you really gotta know their creators, these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written, so teams should be prepared for questions on their key ideas, cultural context, and circumstances of creation. This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. Rank Title Genre Creator Date Freq. 1 Bible Religious divinely inspired, many authors 2 U.S. Constitution Document James Madison (chiefly) 1787 465 3 Qur'an Religious Mohammed (transcriber) Uthman (codifier) 660 178 4 Book of Genesis Religious Moses 950-500 BC 147 5 The Gospel According to Religious Matthew Saint Matthew 1st century 137 6 The Declaration of Independence Document Thomas Jefferson 1776 122 7 Federalist Papers Politics Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison 1787 94 8 Book of Exodus Religious Moses (attributed) c. 900 500 BC 94 9 Book of Revelation Religious John of Patmos c. 95 91 10 Book of Psalms Religious David (traditionally) various 86 11 Leviathan Politics Thomas Hobbes 1651 81 12 The Republic Politics Plato 4th cent. BC 73 13 Magna Carta Document King John (signer) 1215 71 varies 751 14 The Elements Math Euclid c. 300 BC 69 15 The Prince Politics Niccoló Machiavelli 1513 68 16 The Gospel According to Religious John St. John the Apostle c. 100 68 17 The Social Contract Politics Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1762 66 18 Book of Numbers Religious Moses (traditionally) 6th century BC 65 19 Ninety-Five Theses Religious Martin Luther 1517 64 20 Vedas Religious divinely inspired, author 1500 to unknown 1000 BC 59 21 The Wealth of Nations Economics Adam Smith 1776 58 22 Acts of the Apostles Religious Luke (traditionally) AD 70-90 57 23 J'accuse Open Letter Émile(-ÉdouardCharles-Antoine) Zola 1898 57 24 Pragmatism Philosophy William James 1907 55 25 Principia Mathematica Physics Isaac Newton 1667 54 26 Bill of Rights Document James Madison 1789 54 27 Book of Mormon Religious Joseph Smith (Jr.) (traditional translator) 1830 54 28 Book of Ecclesiastes Religious Solomon (traditionally) 3rd century BC 53 29 Torah Religious Moses (traditionally) 6th century BC 52 30 Talmud Religious divinely inspired, author c. 300 to unknown 600 51 31 Utilitarianism Philosophy John Stuart Mill 1863 51 32 Common Sense Politics Thomas Paine 1776 51 33 Coming of Age in Samoa Anthropology Margaret Mead 1928 50 34 The Communist Manifesto Politics Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels 1848 49 35 Rig Veda Religious divinely inspired, author c. 1500 unknown BC 49 36 Critique of Pure Reason Philosophy Immanuel Kant 1781 47 37 Cross of Gold speech Speech William Jennings Bryan 1896 47 38 Meditations Philosophy Marcus Aurelius c. 161180 45 39 On The Origin of Species Biology Charles Darwin 1859 45 40 Walden Philosophy Henry David Thoreau 1854 45 41 Deuteronomy Religious Moses (traditionally) 950-500 BC 44 42 Book of Jeremiah Religious Jeremiah c. 600 BC 44 43 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Philosophy John Locke 1690 44 44 The Book of Judges Religious Samuel (traditionally) c. 550 BC 44 45 On Liberty Politics John Stuart Mill 1859 43 46 King James Bible Religious 54 scholars on 6 committees 1611 43 47 Book of Leviticus Religious Moses (traditionally) 7th century BC 41 48 Mishna Religious divinely inspired, author 3rd unknown century 40 49 The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Sociology Max Weber 1904 40 50 Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Religious Jonathan Edwards 1741 39 You Gotta Know These Sculptors 1. Michelangelo (1475 - 1564) A Florentine "Renaissance man" also known for architecture (the dome of St. Peter's Basilica), painting (The Last Judgment and the Sistine Chapel ceiling), poetry, and military engineering. His sculpted masterpieces include David, a Pietà, Bacchus, and a number of pieces for the tomb of Pope Julius II (including Dying Slave and Moses). He preferred to work in Carraran marble. 2. Auguste Rodin (1840 - 1917) A French sculptor known for stormy relationships with "the establishment" of the École des Beaux-Arts [ay-kohl day boh-zar] and his mistress, fellow artist Camille Claudel. His works include The Age of Bronze, Honoré de Balzac, The Burghers of Calais, and a massive pair of doors for the Museum of Decorative Arts (the Gates of Hell) inspired by Dante's Inferno. That latter work included his most famous piece, The Thinker. 3. Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 - 1680) A Roman who, with the rarely asked-about Francesco Borromini, defined the Baroque movement in sculpture. Bernini is principally known for his freestanding works including David and The Ecstasy of St. Theresa. Bernini's David differs from that of Michelangelo in that the hero is shown "in motion," having twisted his body to sling the rock. Bernini is also known for his massive fountains in Rome including the Triton and the Fountain of the Four Rivers. 4. Donatello (1386 - 1466) A Florentine sculptor who helped define Renaissance sculpture as distinct from that of the Gothic period. He is known for St. Mark and St. George in the Or San Michele [OR SAHN mee-KAY-lay] (a Florentine church), the bald Zuccone (which means "pumpkin-head," though it depicts the prophet Habbakuk), and the first equestrian statue to be cast since Roman times, the Gattamelata in Padua. He is also known for mastering the low relief form of schiacciato. 5. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 - 1455) A Florentine sculptor and goldsmith who taught both Donatello and Filippo Brunelleschi. He is best known for two pairs of bronze doors on the Florence Baptistery (associated with the Duomo, or Florentine Cathedral). He produced a single, low-relief panel to win a 1401 competition (defeating Brunelleschi) for the commission to design the 28 panels for the north doors. After that, he was given another commission to design ten panels for the east doors. This latter work, by far his most famous, was dubbed the "Gates of Paradise" by Michelangelo. 6. Gutzon Borglum (1867 - 1941) An American known for crafting Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills of South Dakota. He is also known for The Mares of Diomedes and an unfinished (and later replaced) tribute to Confederate heroes on Stone Mountain in Georgia. 7. Phidias (c. 480 BC - c. 430 BC) An Athenian considered the greatest of all Classical sculptors. He created the chryselephantine (gold and ivory) Statue of Zeus at Olympia (one of the Wonders of the Ancient World, now lost) and the statue of Athena in the Parthenon (now lost). He was supported by money from the Delian League (that is, the Athenian Empire) run by his friend Pericles; he was later ruined by charges of corruption generally considered to be part of a political campaign against Pericles. 8. Constantin Brancusi (1876 - 1957) A Romanian sculptor who was a major figure in Modernism. He is best known for The Kiss (not to be confused with the Rodin work or the Klimt painting), Sleeping Muse, and Bird in Space. He's also the center of anecdote in which U.S. customs taxed his works as "industrial products" since they refused to recognize them as art. 9. Daniel Chester French (1850 - 1931) An American who created The Minute Man for Concord, Massachusetts and Standing Lincoln for the Nebraska state capitol, but who is best known for the seated statue in the Lincoln Memorial. 10. Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904) A French sculptor primarily known as the creator of Liberty Enlightening the World, better known as the Statue of Liberty. He also executed The Lion of Belfort and a statue of the Marquis de Lafayette in New York's Union Square. You Gotta Know These Mathematicians These are the ten people that have come up most frequently in NAQT's questions as a result of their accomplishments in pure mathematics. 1. The work of Isaac Newton (1643-1727, English) in pure math includes generalizing the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, doing the first rigorous manipulation with power series, and creating "Newton's method" for the finding roots. He is best known, however, for a lengthy feud between British and Continental mathematicians over whether he or Gottfried Leibniz invented calculus (whose differential aspect Newton called "the method of fluxions"). It is now generally accepted that they both did, independently. 2. Euclid (c. 300 BC, Alexandrian Greek) is principally known for the Elements, a textbook on geometry and number theory, that was used for over 2,000 years and which grounds essentially all of what is taught in modern high school geometry classes. Euclid is known for his five postulates that define Euclidean (i.e., "normal") space, especially the fifth (the "parallel postulate") which can be broken to create spherical and hyperbolic geometries. He also proved the infinitude of prime numbers. 3. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855, German) is considered the "Prince of Mathematicians" for his extraordinary contributions to every major branch of mathematics. His Disquisitiones Arithmeticae systematized number theory and stated the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. He also proved the fundamental theorem of algebra, the law of quadratic reciprocity, and the prime number theorem. Gauss may be most famous for the (possibly apocryphal) story of intuiting the formula for the summation of an arithmetic series when given the busywork task of adding the first 100 positive integers by his primary school teacher. 4. Archimedes (287-212 BC, Syracusan Greek) is best known for his "Eureka moment" of using density considerations to determine the purity of a gold crown; nonetheless, he was the preeminent mathematician of ancient Greece. He found the ratios between the surface areas and volumes of a sphere and a circumscribed cylinder, accurately estimated pi, and presaged the summation of infinite series with his "method of exhaustion." 5. Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716, German) is known for his independent invention of calculus and the ensuing priority dispute with Isaac Newton. Most modern calculus notation, including the integral sign and the use of d to indicate a differential, originated with Leibniz. He also invented binary numbers and did fundamental work in establishing boolean algebra and symbolic logic. 6. Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665, French) is remembered for his contributions to number theory including his "little theorem" that ap will be divisible by p if p is prime. He also studied Fermat primes (those of the form 22n+1) and stated his "Last Theorem" that xn + yn = zn has no solutions if x, y, and z are positive integers and n is a positive integer greater than 2. He and Blaise Pascal founded probability theory. In addition, he discovered methods for finding the maxima and minima of functions and the areas under polynomials that anticipated calculus and inspired Isaac Newton. 7. Leonhard Euler (1707-1783, Swiss) is known for his prolific output and the fact that he continued to produce seminal results even after going blind. He invented graph theory with the Seven Bridges of Königsberg problem and introduced the modern notation for e, the square root of -1 (i), and trigonometric functions. Richard Feynman called his proof that eiπ = -1 "the most beautiful equation in mathematics" because it linked four of math's most important constants. 8. Kurt Gödel (1906-1978, Austrian) was a logician best known for his two incompleteness theorems proving that every formal system that was powerful enough to express ordinary arithmetic must necessarily contain statements that were true, but which could not be proved within the system itself. 9. Andrew Wiles (1953-present, British) is best known for proving the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture that all rational semi-stable elliptic curves are modular. This would normally be too abstruse to occur frequently in quiz bowl, but a corollary of that result established Fermat's Last Theorem. 10. William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865, Irish) is known for extending the notion of complex numbers to four dimensions by inventing the quaternions, a non-commutative field with six square roots of -1: ±i, ±j, and ±k with the property that ij = k, jk = i, and ki = j. You Gotta Know These Deserts NAQT has a quota for geography questions at all levels of play; these are the deserts that have been most frequently asked about in our past packets. 1. Antarctica (5.4 million sq. mi.) Because it is covered with (solid) water, it is somewhat surprising that Antarctica is considered a desert, but it is classified as such due to its lack of precipitation. Players should be familiar with its tallest mountain (Vinson Massif, in the Ellsworth Mountains), its active volcano Mount Erebus, the surrounding Ross and Weddell Seas, and the Ross Ice Shelf. Norwegian Roald Amundsen was the first to reach the South Pole (1911), while Englishman Robert Scott died trying to reach it. Ernest Shackleton had to abandon his ship, the Endurance, during an attempt to cross Antarctica on foot. 2. Sahara Desert (Northern Africa; 3.5 million sq. mi.) The Sahara is the world's second largest desert, but its largest hot desert. Players should know the Atlas Mountains (which bound the western Sahara on the north) and the Sahel, a savannah-like strip that bounds it on the south. It is dominated by rocky regions (hamada), sand seas (ergs), and salt flats (shatt) and dry river valleys (wadi) that are subject to flash floods. Its most asked-about inhabitants are the Berbers and Tuaregs. 3. Atacama Desert (Chile; 70,000 sq. mi.) The Atacama's chief claim to fame is the rain shadow of the Andes which makes it the driest (hot) desert in the world. The desert was the primary bone of contention in the War of the Pacific (1879-1883, Chile defeats Peru and Bolivia) that sought to control its nitrate resources (which were necessary for the production of explosives). 4. Kalahari Desert (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa; 360,000 sq. mi.) The Kalahari is a large region, not all of which is arid enough to qualify as a desert. It is known for its red sand, large game reserves (meerkats, gemsbok, springbok, steenbok), and mineral deposits (notably uranium). Most famous are its San Bushmen and their click language. 5. Mojave Desert (U.S.; 25,000 sq. mi.) The Mojave is bounded by the San Gabriel and San Bernardino mountain ranges along the San Andreas and Garlock Faults. It lies between the Great Basin and the Sonoran Desert and it contains the lowest and driest point of North America, Death Valley. It is most strongly associated with the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia). 6. Gobi Desert (China and Mongolia; 500,000 sq. mi.) The Gobi, Asia's second largest desert (after the Arabian Desert), is bounded on the north by the Altai Mountains. It is known for its role in the Silk Road trading route and the Nemegt Basin, where fossilized dinosaur eggs and human artifacts have been found. 7. Rub' al-Khali (Arabian Peninsula; 250,000 sq. mi.) Its name means "Empty Quarter" in English and this desert can be considered the most inhospitable place on earth. It is known for the world's largest oil field, the Ghawar, and for once being part of the frankincense trade. 8. Namib Desert (Namibia and Angola; 30,000 sq. mi.) The Namib, a coastal desert, is known for its bizarre Welwitschia and medicinal Hoodia plants. It is thought to be the oldest desert in the world. 9. Painted Desert (Northern Arizona) The Painted Desert, which is shared by Grand Canyon and Petrified Forest National Parks, is known for its colorful, banded rock formations. 10. Negev Desert (Israel; 4,700 sq. mi.) The triangular Negev covers the southern half of Israel. 11. Taklamakan Desert (China; 105,000 sq. mi.) The Taklamakan is an extremely cold, sandy desert known for splitting the Silk Road into branches running north and south of it. It is bounded by the Kunlun, Pamir, and Tian Shan mountain ranges. 12. Great Sandy Desert (Western Australia; 140,000 sq. mi.) Part of the Western Desert, and the ninth largest in the world. Oddly, half of the world's ten largest deserts don't make this frequency-based list: the Arabian Desert (#3, which includes the Rub' al-Khali), the Patagonian Desert (#5), the Great Victoria Desert (#6), the Great Basin (#7), and the Chihuahuan (#8).