Study Guide for Chapter 8, 9.1, 10-11 Text Exam - Fund. of Cell Biology Study Guide for Lab Exam is at very end of this Study Guide It is important to use the on-line resources that are available: www.ravenbiology.com Simply click on the eighth edition book cover on the right side of the screen and then click on the "Resources" tab at the top left. Click on chapter and select from drop-down menu. This will give you access to answers to end-of-chapter (EOC) questions, pretest and post-test quizzes, along with multiple other study resources. Test consist of 100 questions (50 questions from chapter 8 and 50 questions from chapters 9.1, 10 & 11). Lab exam worth 43 points. 1st semester final worth 143 pts (10% of your semester grade. (100 from text exam & 43 pts. from lab exam portion). - The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are responsible for the production of what molecules? - Which region of a chloroplast is associated with the capture of light energy? - The colors of light that are most effective for photosynthesis are _?_. - The colors associated with pigments (colors you actually see) such as chlorophyll or carotenoids are a product of the wavelengths of light _?_ by the pigment. - A photosystem can be describe as a collection of _?_ that transfer energy captured from light to a reaction center pigment. - How is a reaction center pigment different from a pigment in the antenna complex? - What happens to the energy from an excited reaction center electron in the cyclic photophosphorylation of sulfur bacteria? (Hint: use to make _?_) - During noncylic photosynthesis, photosystem I functions to _?_, and photosystem II functions to _?_. - How does the reaction center of photosystem I regain an electron during noncyclic photosynthesis? - Is rubisco associated with the thylakoid membrane? - Carbon fixation occurs when a molecule of CO2 reacts with a molecule of _?_. - The function of the Calvin cycle is to fix _?_. - What is photorespiration? - The adaptation of fixing CO2 from the atmosphere at night (i.e. pineapple) is characteristic of _?_ plants. - The energy in photosynthesis is required to create what two molecules? - The formation of organic molecules from carbon dioxide occurs as a result of _?_ reactions. - The purpose of the C-H rich hydrocarbon tail of chlorophyll is to help anchor the pigment to the _?_ membrane. - When bacteria use a single photosystem (such as the sulfur bacteria), which term best describes the path of the electron? - In the generalized schematic of the Calvin Cycle, what is the correct order of the events starting with CO2 and ending with the production of an organic molecule? - The apertures which control gas exchange in photosynthetic tissues are called _?_. - Which isotope was instrumental in determining that water is split during light reactions? - The analysis of bacterial density growing in a spectrum of light separated with a prism onto an algal filament can allow us to create an action spectrum of photosynthesis. In this experiment, the amount of photosynthesis that can occur with different colors of light is measured because the bacteria are attracted to _?_ released from the algae as it photosynthesizes. - What is the ultimate origin (donor) of electrons that are passed along through activities in the reaction centre? - The enzyme responsible for fixation of CO2 (and which, interestingly, is also the most abundant enzyme on Earth!) is called _?_. - CAM plants use a(n) _?_ method to avoid photorespiration while C4 plants use a(n) _?_ separation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and oxygen. -Cyclic photophosphorylation produces only _?_. - Be able to recognize the correct sequence of events in noncyclic photophosphorylation. - The Calvin Cycle takes place in the _?_ of chloroplasts. - The Calvin Cycle uses _?_ & _?_, which are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis. - The Calvin cycle begins by the attachment of CO2 to what molecule? - Carbon atoms of CO2 are incorporated into organic molecules in a series of dark reactions called carbon _?_. - Most plants incorporate carbon dioxide into sugars by means of a cycle of reactions called the _?_ cycle. - Flattened sacs of internal membranes associated with photosynthesis are called _?_. - In green plant photosynthesis, the electron donor for the light dependent reaction is _?_. - In the dark reactions of photosynthesis, CO2 is added to a five-carbon sugar-phosphate known as _?_. - Light consists of units of energy called _?_. - Visible light has a wavelength range of _?_ - _?_ nanometers. - Know which component of sunlight causes sunburns. (Proper term for that wavelength range) - Molecules that absorb light are called _?_. - Chlorophyll b absorbs in green wavelengths of light that chlorophyll a cannot absorb. In this respect, chlorophyll b acts as an _?_ pigment. - In the photosystem I photocenter, light energy captured by pigment molecules is passed on to a special molecule called _?_. - Photosystem II absorbs protons that are slightly more energetic than photosystem I, but similarly pass this energy to a pigment called _?_. - The dark reactions of photosynthesis are those that convert _?_ into reduced _?_. - How many revolutions of the Calvin cycle are required to produce the sugar glucose? - In which part of the chloroplasts are the Calvin cycle enzymes located? - What products of light reactions of photosynthesis are used in the Calvin cycle? - CO2 is released without the production of ATP or NADPH. This process is called _?_. - Most of the atmospheric oxygen occurs as a result of photosynthesis. From which of the following molecules is the oxygen derived? - Carotenoids are important to many plants because these pigments are able to do what? - Fall leaf color on deciduous trees is a result of what process / event? (molecular answer) - What is a ligand? (two different questions based on this) - In the case of paracrine signaling the ligand is secreted by _?_ cells. - A neurotransmitter functions as a ligand in which type of signaling? - The function of a _?_ is to add phosphates to proteins, whereas a _?_ functions to remove the phosphates. - Which method of communication is most often observed between nerve cells? - Know steps involved in binary fission in prokaryotes. - Chromatin is composed of _?_. - What is a nucleosome? - How do sister chromatids differ from homologous chromosomes? - What is the role of cohesin proteins in cell division? - Replication of the organelles of the eukaryotic cell occurs during which stage of the cell cycle? - Replicated copies of each chromosome are called_?_ and are connected at the _?_. - Kinetochores are associated with which of the following on a sister chromatid? - Separation of the sister chromatids and elongation of the cell occurs during which stage of mitosis? - Why is cytokinesis an important part of cell division? - At which stage in the cell cycle does a cell make a commitment to undergo cell division? - How is the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk’s) regulated? - Why is the function of the protein p53 important for preventing cancer? - What is a protooncogene? - Know the term that best describes how bacteria divide. - A visual arrangement of all the chromosomes in a cell is called a _?_. - What is the name for the position at which the chromosome is constricted so that the sister chromatids are manipulated as a unit? - Why is cell division in plants so different from that in animals? (Hint: think how cell structure is different) - What does cyclin do? - The process of creating two chromosomes from an original template is termed _?_. - Although all the DNA in a chromosome has been completely replicated after the S phase of the cell cycle, the centromere is a single unit that holds sister chromatids together until after cell division. Which protein holds the sister chromatids together at the centromere region? - What happens if mitosis occurs without cytokinesis? - The genetic material in bacteria is _?_ -stranded DNA. - DNA replication in bacteria begins at a _?_ origin and proceeds in _?_ directions. - Cohesin complexes hold _?_ together during early mitosis. - The arms of the sister chromatids dissociate from each other during _?_ of mitosis. - The sister chromatids of a chromosome fully separate during _?_ of mitosis. - Using the symbols S, M, G2, & G1, know the correct order of the phases of the cell cycle. - The division of the cytoplasm is called _?_. - Know the correct order of the phases of mitosis. - The _?_ serve(s) to identify the two poles of the cell during mitosis. - Gametes contain _?_the number of chromosomes found in somatic cells. - Somatic cells are _?_, whereas gametes are _?_. - An organism is said to be diploid if it contains genetic information from _?_ parents. - What are homologous chromosomes? - When homologous chromosomes form chiasmata (during prophase I of meiosis), they are doing what? - Telophase 1 (meiosis) results in the production of _?_ cells containing _?_ homologue of each homologous pair. - Be able to recognize cell activities that contribute to genetic diversity and those that do not. - How does S phase following meiosis I differ from S phase in mitosis? - What occurs during anaphase of meiosis II? - During which phase of meiosis does crossing over occur? - Why do homologous chromosomes pair in prophase I and not in prophase II? - When do centromeres divide in both mitosis and meiosis? - Meiosis II in humans results in what change in chromosome number, if any? Study Guide for Lab Exam Portion of 1st Semester Final Exam You may use your lab handouts on this exam. This handout or other photocopies of papers belonging to others WILL NOT BE PERMITTED during the lab exam! You will need to mark answers on YOUR personal lab papers BEFORE taking exam. Paper Chromatography Lab: - Know how to measure and calculate Rf value of various pigments. - Name and describe the two factors involved in the separation of the pigments? - Would you expect the Rf value of a pigment to be the same if a different solvent were used? Be able to explain. Stomata Lab: - How did you calculate number of stomata? - Would you expect a desert plant to have the same number of stomata per high-power power field of view? Be able to explain. - What are two advantages to using sampling techniques? - What are two disadvantages to using sampling techniques? - Would an aquatic floating plant (i.e. water lily) have its stomata found on the upper or lower surface of its leaves? Explain your answer based on the function of the stomata. Cell Cycle Activity: - Be able to recognize a photo of a cell undergoing mitosis and state the proper stage. - Know the correct sequence of the phases of mitosis. - If cells in an eukaryotic organism is undergoing mitosis, are the cells haploid or diploid? - Be able to interpret information from your pie graph concerning length of mitosis phases from lab data.