Chapters 7 & 8 Quiz

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Chapters 7 & 8 Quiz
Name _______________________
For each statement, choose a term from the word bank that best identifies each statement.
1. The contingent presentation of a stimulus immediately following a response, which
increases the future rate and/or probability of the response. Written as SR+.
2. A stimulus that when presented immediately after a response increases the future rate
and/or probability of that response.
3. Allowing students to come in contact with potential reinforcers.
4. Stimuli (such as food) that may have biological importance to an individual; such stimuli
are innately motivating.
5. A condition that occurs when there no longer is a state of deprivation.
6. A condition in which the student has not had access to a potential reinforce.
7. Stimuli that are initially neutral but acquire reinforcing qualities through pairing with a
primary reinforce object of event received in exchange for a specific number of tokens,
points, etc.
8. A category of secondary reinforcers that includes facial expressions, proximity, contact,
privileges, words, and phrases.
9. A stimulus that has acquired a reinforcing function through pairing with an unconditioned
or natural reinforcer; includes most social, activity, and generalized reinforcers.
10. Simultaneous presentation of primary and secondary reinforcers to condition the
secondary reinforcer. Once the association has been established, the secondary reinforcer
takes over the reinforcing function, and the primary reinforcer is no longer necessary.
11. A principle stating that any high-probability activity may serve as a positive reinforcer
for any low-probability activity.
12. A reinforcer associated with a variety of behaviors or with access to a variety of other
primary or secondary reinforcers; may simply be called generalized reinforce.
13. Placing contingencies for reinforcement (if…, then statements) into a written document.
This creates a permanent product that can be referred to by teacher and student.
14. The patterns of timing for delivery of reinforcers.
15. Withholding reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior to reduce the occurrence
of the behavior.
16. Schedules in which reinforcement follows some, but not all, correct or appropriate
responses or follows when a period of appropriate behavior has elapsed.
17. Schedules for the delivery of reinforcers contingent on the number of correct responses.
18. Schedules for the delivery of reinforcers contingent on the occurrence of a behavior
following a specified period or interval of time.
19. Schedules for the delivery of reinforcers contingent on how long a student engages in a
continuous behavior.
20. A schedule in which the number of appropriate responses required for reinforcement is
held constant.
21. A schedule in which the interval of time is standard.
22. A schedule in which the interval of time varies.
23. A procedure used with interval schedules of reinforcement that restricts the time during
which the reinforcer is available.
24. A response schedule in which the amount of time required for reinforcement varies.
25. Making reinforcement gradually available less often or contingent on greater amounts of
appropriate behavior.
26. A disruption of response performance that follows when the schedule of reinforcement
has been thinned so quickly that the ratio between correct responding and reinforcement
is too great to maintain an appropriate rate of responding.
27. A schedule in which the number of appropriate responses required for reinforcement
varies.
28. Delivering reinforcement when the number of responses in a specified period of time is
less than or equal to a prescribed limit. This maintains a behavior at a predetermined rate,
lower than at its baseline or naturally occurring frequency.
29. Delivering reinforcement when the target behavior is not emitted for a specified period of
time. Reinforcement is contingent on the nonoccurrence of a behavior.
30. Reinforcing a more appropriate form of a behavior than the one in which the student is
currently engaged and is often used in conjunction with redirecting behavior.
31. Reinforcing a response that is topographically incompatible with a behavior targeted for
reduction.
32. Withholding reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior to reduce the occurrence
of the behavior.
33. A consequent stimulus (SR) that increases or maintains the future rate and/or probability
of occurrence of a behavior.
34. A consequent stimulus that decreases the future rate and/or probability of a behavior.
35. Reducing inappropriate behavior through withdrawal of specific amounts of reinforcer
contingent upon the behavior’s occurrence.
36. Reducing inappropriate behavior by denying the student access, for a fixed period of
time, to the opportunity to receive reinforcement.
37. A time-out procedure wherein the student is not removed from the instructional setting in
which reinforcers are being dispensed. The teacher denies access to reinforcement and
manipulates the environment to signal a period of time during which access is denied.
38. Denying access to reinforcement by removing a student from an ongoing activity.
39. A time-out procedure that removes the student from the instructional setting as the means
of denying access to reinforcement.
40. A stimulus that decreases the rate or probability of a behavior when presented as a
consequence; as such, it is a type of punisher. Alternatively, an aversive stimulus may
increase the rate or probability of a behavior when removed as a consequence; as such, it
is a negative reinforce.
41. A stimulus that has acquired secondary aversive qualities through pairing with an
unconditioned aversive stimulus, such as pain or discomfort.
42. A procedure used to reduce the occurrence of an inappropriate behavior. The student is
taught the appropriate behavior through an exaggeration of experience.
43. Massed or exaggerated practice of an inappropriate behavior. Decreased occurrence
results from fatigue or satiation.
44. A condition that occurs when there no longer is a state of deprivation.
Word Bank
Punisher
Reinforcer
Overcorrection
Social reinforcers
Pairing
Stimulus satiation
Interval schedules
Exclusionary time-out
Seclusionary time-out
Fixed-interval
schedule (FI)
Nonseclusionary
time-out
Premack principle
Extinction
Response-duration
schedules
Limited hold (LH)
Thinning
Variable-ratio
schedule (VR)
Variable-responseduration schedule
(VRD)
Primary reinforcers
Unconditioned
aversive stimuli
Backup reinforcer
Conditioned aversive
stimuli
Negative practice
Satiation
Aversive stimuli
Response-cost
Differential
Extinction
reinforcement of other
behaviors (DRO)
Deprivation state
Reinforcer sampling
Conditioned
reinforcers
Positive
reinforcement
Time-Out
Positive reinforcer
Fixed-ratio schedule
(FR)
Variable-interval
schedule (VI)
Schedules of
reinforcement
Ratio strain
Generalized
conditioned reinforcer
Intermittent schedules
Secondary reinforcers
Differential
reinforcement of
lower rates of
behavior (DRL)
Differential
reinforcement of
alternative behavior
(DRA)
Differential
reinforcement of
incompatible behavior
(DRI)
Natural
Reinforcement
Token Economy
Ratio schedules
Contracting
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