37 - Ioannes Dantiscus' Correspondence

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37. Sigmund von Herberstein to Ioannes Dantiscus
Vienna, 11 October 1543.
Source materials:
1. fair copy – autograph: UUB, H. 155, f. 74r-75v; watermark type: Briquet No. 1008 (a.1533);
Herberstein’s signet impressed through the paper (type 1); next to the address, note in Dantiscus’
hand: XII Martii XLIIII, Heilsberg.
2. register: BPAU-PAN, 8250 TK, p. 62
Reverendissimo domino, domino Ioanni Dantisco episcopo Varmiensi etc. domino, domino
observandissimo.
Reverendissime Domine Praesul, Domine observandissime. Servitiorum meorum perpetuam
commendationem. Litterae Vestrae Reverendissimae Dominationis de XVII Augusti 1 sunt
mihi ante biduum praesentatae. Ex quibus magnam voluptatem accepi, maxime ex eo, cum
Vestram Reverendissimam Dominationem pristinae saluti restitutam intellexi et gratiam Suam
erga me pristinam continuat. De Sueciae tyrannoi 2libenter intellexi. Vestrae Reverendissimae
Dominationis mandatum cupidissime et fidelissime apud serenissimum regem meum3
exsequar4. Negotium serenissimae reginae Elisabethae5 (quod puto esse totius regni negotium)
Reverendissimae Dominationi Vestrae commendo. Patientiam omnes suadent et Vestra
Reverendissima Dominatio hanc ut habeat oportet. Sed ne quid nimis6. Deus iustus ulciscetur7
forte in omnes, qui sunt causa inviciiii et perseverantiae, quique non monent, urgent etc.
quorum tamen interest.
Et ut Vestrae Reverendissimae Dominationis mandato satisfaciam, perstringam breviter
omnia, quae apud nos acta sunt. Caesar Turcarum8 postquam Savum flumen9 attigit, obsidere
fecit castrum Valpo10. Quod tamen sui capere non potuerunt, usque ipse imperator met
accederet. Iam tandem statim quassatis muris deditum est. Deinde strato ponte per Dravum11
1
A reference to letter No. 36.
Gustav I Vasa, see letter No. 33, footnote 26!!!. The novitates about his actions, most likely undertaken in the
first half of 1541, were enclosed with letter No. 36 (see letter No. 36, footnote 22).
3
Ferdinand I, see letter No. 12, footnote 1.
4
A reference to Dantiscus’ request from letter No. 36 that Herberstein excuse him to Ferdinand I for failing to
comply with his orders and for not replying to his letter.
5
Elizabeth von Habsburg (see Letter No. 36, footnote 2) was persecuted by the mother of her husband and heir
to the throne Sigismund II Augustus, queen Bona. Bona challenged her son’s marriage, which not only gave him
an escape from her control but primarily gave him political independence in view of the approaching prospects
for his becoming the ruler of Poland and Lithuania. The estates demanded that this take place even while
Sigismund I was still alive, in view of his advanced age and poor health. Herberstein also informed Duke
Albrecht von Hohenzollern of Elizabeth’s situation, in his letter of December 6, 1543 (see Voigt, p. 287; cf.
Letter No. 38, footnote 16!!!).
6
Ne quid nimis – Ter. An. 61.
7
Deus iustus ulciscetur, cf. Adagia, No. 2863, cf.!!!Odyssea I 378-379.
8
Suleiman I, see Letter No. 13, footnote 24. Herberstein also informed Duke Albrecht von Hohenzollern about
Suleiman I’s Hungarian campaign in greater detail, in his letter from Vienna dated December 4, 1543 (see Voigt,
p. 286).
9
Sava, see letter No. 13, footnote 25!!!
10
Valpo, today’s Valpovo, in historical Slavonia, in today’s eastern Croatia; seized by the Turks on June 23,
1543, it remained under their rule until 1687. The capture of Valpovo enabled the Turkish army to cross the
Drava and seize Siklós (see Dziubiński, p. 154; Hammer-Purgstall, III, p. 251-252).
11
Drava, see letter No. 34, footnote 17!!!
2
flumen obsedit castrum Soclosch12 et hoc ipsum diu quatiensiii tormentis recepit. Ambo illa
castra domini Petri Perinei13 fuerunt.
Episcopus Quinquecclesiensis14 deserta arce Quinquecclesiensi15 et quidam nobiles
sollicitarunt cives ad deserendam civitatem. Diffugientes postea spoliarunt atque ita hanc
civitatem cum castro Turcae ingressi iam possident16. Dum hic apud Savum et Deravum
aguntur, non sine timore Australes17 erant, cum ex omni parte nuntiabaturiv Turcam Viennam
versus properare. Morabatur aliquandiu inundatione aquarum. Cum tormenta et commeatum
navibus veheret, venit Budam18, deinde relicta arce Vischegrad19, quam Germani Plintnpurg
appellant, ad Danubium20, ubi quondam corona regni servabatur, obsedit Strigonium21 et
admotis machinis omnem ferme murum deiecit, fecitque insultum quattuor continuis horis et
magno dedecore et damno suo repulsus22. Unde spes indubia posse ipsam conservare arcem.
Erant in ea veterani milites ex Germanis, Hispanis et Italis v quadringenti, de novis ferme
totidem Germani et sexingenti Itali, qui toto anno illic in civitate magnis expensis intertenti
sunt. Ex hiis quidam non admodum clam egressi in castra Turcarum et certi reversi et iterum
in castra hostium properantes. Sic factum, ut Italicus miles se amplius defendere nollet vi.
Postquam ad veteranos et novos delatum esset et illi non potuerunt sine aliis quicquam coacti
in sententiam Italorum descendere, arx dedita est23. Dimissis militibus data erat fides, ut armis
abirent, tamen in eo non est servata fides; coacti sunt relinquerevii sclopetos sive pyxides
manuales. Recepti sunt in custodiam duo capitanei primi, dominus Martinus Lascanus24, qui
12
Siklós, town and castle in southern Hungary (south of Pécs). The town was seized by the Turks on July 5,
1543, the castle surrendered three days later (Hammer-Purgstall, III, p. 252-254, cf. Dziubiński, p. 154, cf.
Elementa, XXXVII, No. 800, p. 34).
13
Péter Perényi (1502-1548), Hungarian magnate. In the dispute between Ferdinand I and János I Zápolya over
the Hungarian Crown, he changed sides several times. After 1526 he was a supporter of Zápolya, but sought an
agreement with Ferdinand I. In 1537 he openly supported Zápolya, but in 1540 went over to Ferdinand I again,
who made him a chancellor. In 1540-1541 he took part in the siege of Buda, and in 1542 – in the siege of Pest.
He was also the chief commander of the Hungarian army. Imprisoned by Ferdinand I in 1542, he regained his
freedom shortly before his death (Pál, p. 320, footnote 154; cf. letter No. 16, footnote 17).
14
Stanislav Škovránko (Várallyi) (d. 1548), bishop of Pécs (1541-1548).
15
Pécs (Ger. Fünfkirchen, Lat. Quinque Ecclesiae), town in southeastern Hungary, a bishopric from 1009, the
seat of the first university in Hungary from 1367; under Turkish rule from 1543 to 1686.
16
Pécs was prepared for defense, but the defection of the Walloon and Flemish merchants, among others, led the
bishop of Pécs to surrender the town (July 29, 1543), cf. Hammer-Purgstall, III, p. 254; Voigt, p. 286.
17
Australes – an adjective formed from the name Austria, to denote its residents.
18
Buda, see letter No. 34 footnote 11!!!
19
Visegrád (Ger. Plintenburg), town 40 km north of Budapest, on the right bank of the Danube, with an upper
and lower castle and a royal palace. The crown jewels of the Kingdom of Hungary were kept at the upper castle
until 1526 (cf. letter No. 16, footnote 11; Elementa, XLIX, No. 453, p. 59-61).
20
The Danube.
21
Esztergom (Gran), see letter No. 16, footnote 19!!!. The siege of Esztergom by the Turkish army, with the
participation of Suleiman I himself, was conducted from land and by the fleet that came along the Danube. It
lasted from July 26 to August 8, 1543 (Hammer-Purgstall, III, p. 254-257; Dziubiński, p. 154-155; cf. Elementa,
XXXVII, No. 798, p. 29, No. 800, p. 31, No. 801, p. 35-37, No. 803, p. 40-42, XLIX, No. 453, p. 59; Voigt, p.
286).
22
Probably a reference to the heavy Turkish attack of August 7, 1543, which Krzysztof Konarski describes in a
letter to Duke Albrecht von Hohenzollern in late August (Elementa, XXXVII, No. 803, p. 41, 44, cf. No. 807, p.
47-48, No. 808, p. 49).
23
The act of capitulation agreed upon by the commanders of the Esztergom (Gran) defense was signed on
August 10, 1543 (cf. footnote 21, 22; Elementa, XXXVII, No. 808, p. 50-51).
24
Herberstein also informed Jost Ludwig Decius about Martin Lascano being the commander of Esztergom’s
(Gran’s) defense (see Decius’ letter of August 19, 1543 to Duke Albrecht von Hohenzollern, Elementa, XLIX,
No. 452, p. 57; cf. Hammer-Purgstall, III, p. 255).
iam diu arcem in commendatione habuit, Hispanus, et Ioannes Salamanca25 et ipse Hispanus,
qui praefuit Italis, item certi Itali, qui sunt de proditione suspecti 26. Alios dimisit regia
maiestas27 abire. Heri coeptum est iudicium de capitaneis. Quis sequetur finis, cum tempore
resciemus.
Turca28 iam aliquandiu ordinavit omnia ad Strigonium. Deinde movit versus Albam
Regalem29, ubi coronaban[tur] et condebantur reges Hungariae. In itinere erat arx Tatta 30, non
admodum spernenda, etiam pulchra, in qua duo capitanei, alter Germanus, alter Italus,
venerunt obviam victori offerentes claves31. Hii laqueo deinde suspensiviii. Hanc arcem
demoliri fecit et venit ad Albam, cuius suburbium erat vallo et aggere munitum, praesidium
erat ex Germanis, Italis, civibus et bubulcisix quos heydocos 32 vocant. Item et Germani
equites aliquotx, qui omnes se strenuissime et fidelissime defendebant, multos insultus
repulerunt et iam ipsum imperatorem33 necesse erat praesentem interesse. Mane secunda die
Septembris densissima nebula prohibebat aspectum et sic quasi furto ingressi omne vivens
mactant. Portae civitatis clauduntur. Omnes potiores et primi capitanei, milites atque cives
interempti, reliquiae in civitate desperant et quarta eiusdem mensis oppidum dedunt34,
dimissis militibus uti in Strigonio.
Erant circa Viennam sancti pontificis35 milites Itali 4000 et Germani aliquanto plus36.
Expectabamus obsidionem37. At contentus hac victoria diu circa Albam moratus. Interim venit
regius exercitus Bohemicus, Moravicus et ex aliis principatibus suae maiestatis. Imo Bavari et
Francones miserunt suos38, ut profecto iustus cogeretur exercitus39. Descendit regia maiestas
Posonium40, ab uno latere habuit in castris Bohemos, Moravos, Slesitas et Lusacienses, ab alia
25
According to Joseph Hammer-Purgstall, this was not Juan but Francisco Salamanca, the same man who
accompanied Hieronim Łaski on his mission to Constantinople in 1541 (see Hammer-Purgstall, III, p. 255;
Dziubiński, p. 138-141, cf. Elementa, XXXVII, No. 801, p. 36-37).
26
Suleiman I sent renegades to besieged Esztergom (Gran): a Spaniard, an Italian and a German, to persuade
their compatriots to surrender (Hammer-Purgstall, III, p. 256-256).
27
Ferdinand I, see letter No. 12, footnote 1.
28
Suleiman I, see letter No. 13, footnote 24!!!.
29
Székesfehérvár (Ger. Stuhlweißenburg), town about 60 km southwest of Budapest and the first capital of
Hungary.
30
Tata, town and castle in northwestern Hungary, north of Székesfehérvár.
31
The commander of the defense of Tata in 1543 was Annibale Tasso. Tata’s voluntary surrender took place on
August 16 (Dziubiński, p. 154, cf. Elementa, XXXVII, No. 808, p. 49-50).
32
Heydoci (Haiduci) – a name for lightly armed foot soldiers, from the Hungarian haidu – servant, guard, foot
soldier (synonym of the Ger. Landsknecht).
33
Suleiman I, see letter No. 13, footnote 24.
34
According to the report of Giovanni Marsupino from late July 1543, Székesfehérvár was defended by 4,000
Italians, 2,000 Germans and 1,000 Hungarian horsemen sent there by Ferdinand I. The Austro-Hungarian
garrison of Székesfehérvár capitulated after a few attacks in early September. According to Jan Ocieski’s report,
the Turks executed the commander of Székesfehérvár, Georg Varcocs (see Dziubiński, p. 154-155, cf. HammerPurgstall, III, p. 259; Herberstein 1560, f. E2v; Elementa, XXXVII, No. 800, p. 33, No. 808, p. 49).
35
Paul III, see letter No. 32, footnote 23!!!.
36
The reports of Giovanni Marsupino, Habsburg agent in Poland, say of 4,000 Italian soldiers sent by the pope
and 8,000 German soldiers sent to Vienna by Ferdinand I (see Elementa, XXXVII, No. 800, p. 33, cf. Elementa
XLIX, No. 452, p. 58).
37
On June 27, 1543, Herberstein was appointed to Ferdinand I’s War Council. According to Krzysztof Konarski,
with Leonard von Fels as the chief commander (see Elementa, XXXVII, No. 800, p. 33) and Niklas II zu Salm
(see letter No. 36, footnote 12), he also took part in the preparations for the defense of Vienna (see Herberstein
1855, p. 361-363; Elementa, XXXVII, No. 800-801, p. 33, 35-36).
38
Most likely a reference to the reinforcements sent by Bavarian dukes Wilhelm IV and Ludwig X, and also by
Konrad von Bibra!!!, who used the title dux in Franconia (Ger. Franken), elected Prince-Bishop of Würzburg
(1540-1544).
39
According to Giovanni Marsupino’s reports, Ferdinand I intended to gather 40,000 soldiers by about August
10 (see Elementa, XXXVII, No. 800, p. 33).
40
Pressburg, see letter No. 11, footnote 9!!!.
parte Italicum et Germanicum militem strato quoque ponte apud Posonium. Interim Turca
personaliter transiitxi Danubium per pontem inter Budam et Pescht41xii, descenditque rediens et
reliquit in agro Peschtiensi quadraginta milia suorum. Itaque attento tempore frigido et aliis
quibus respectibus regia maiestas dimisit maiorem partem exercitus, certis tamen copiis pro
tuendis finibus reservavit. Vishegrad arx adhuc hodie est in manibus serenissimi regis mei,
sita inter Budam et Strigonium. Hoc castrum refectum est et forti praesidio munitum, ita etiam
Alba. Serenissimus rex festinat et celebrabit conventus in omnibus regnis et principatibus pro
futuri anni expeditione42.
Caesar43 noster expugnata Dura44 primo aggressu, nec muris satis deiectis Hispanus et Italicus
miles irrupitxiii. Iam tandem omnia ad deditionem veniunt et ipsexiv Clivensis dux45 septima
Septembris procidens in genua ante caesarem gratiam deprecatus est 46, totaque Geldria47 se
illius maiestati subdidit. Magnam profecto gratiam et clementiam caesar huic duci exhibuit.
Restituit omnes haereditarios principatus, remisit omnem culpam, omne damnum, omnes
expensas. Sunt condiciones ratione Ravenstain48, Citern49 et Ambsperg50, redibunt tamen
omnia ad ducem51. Quid actum est illic a die 24 Septembris, nondum habemus. Fuit autem
caesarea maiestas tunc in Valeneen52, ubi totum suum cogebat exercitum, ut Gallias tentaret.
Gallus53 quidem cum exercitu ingressus est civitatem Lucenburgi54 volens diverterexv
caesarem.
41
Pest, see letter No. 32!!!, footnote 20!!!.
Herberstein is referring to the consultations held in 1543 with the Austrian, Czech and Moravian as well as
Hungarian estates on increasing taxes to raise an army against the Turks, to which the Czech and Moravian
estates did not consent at the time. The meetings in Pressburg did not bring the expected result, either. The army
was sent home, and was supposed to gather again on St. George’s day (April 23/24) in 1544 (see Fichtner, p.
133, cf. Elementa, XXXVII, No. 810, p. 53-54, XLIX, No. 460, p. 69).
43
Charles V, see letter No. 13, footnote 2.
44
Düren, town in today’s Rheinland-Westphalia (Germany), on the Ruhr River, between Cologne and Aachen,
belonging to the historical Duchy of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. In August 1543 it was besieged by the forces of Charles
V, seized, plundered and burned on August 24 (Knecht, p. 487; Fernández Álvarez 1975, p. 128; Cadenas y
Vicent, p. 302).
45
Wilhelm V der Reiche (1516-1592), duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1539-1592). After the death of Karl von
Egmond, duke of Guelders, in 1538, he started a dispute over the succession to Guelders with Charles V. Francis
I joined the conflict for his own political reasons, bringing about the marriage of his niece and Wilhelm, and
supporting him militarily (Knecht, p. 486-487, cf. letter No. 32, footnote 25).
46
The obeisance of Wilhelm, duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, before Charles V took place in Venló (in today’s
province of Limburg) on September 7, and a peace treaty ending the war over Guelders was signed the next day
(see Fernández Álvarez 1975, p. 128; Cadenas y Vicent, p. 303; cf. footnote 63).
47
Guelders, former duchy whose territory today lies within the Netherlands province of Gelderland and the
German district of Kleve in northern Rhineland.
48
Heinsberg, in northern Rhineland-Westphalia (Germany), from 1484 under the authority of the Duchy of
Jülich (from 1521: Jülich-Cleves-Berg).
49
Sittard, town in the southeastern Netherlands, in Limburg province, from 1400 to 1794 a part of the Duchy of
Jülich.
50
Ravenstein, town in the Netherlands, in North Brabant province, from the 14th to the 17th century a county
belonging to the Duchy of Cleves.
51
Under the treaty of Venló signed on September 8, 1543, ending the war over the succession to Guelders, duke
Wilhelm V lost Guelders and the county of Zütphen to the emperor, who returned the Duchy of Jülich to the
duke as a fiefdom while retaining rule over the towns of Sittard, Heinsberg, Ravenstein (Heidrich 1896, p. 107;
Elementa, XXXVII, No. 810, p. 53).
52
Wallonia, today the southern, French-speaking part of Belgium. On September 24, 1543 Charles V was in
Diest, in Flemish Brabant which bordered on Wallonia. In Diest, the Estates-General were debating a
counteroffensive against France (Cadenas y Vicent, p. 304).
53
Francis I, see letter No. 28!!!, footnote 9!!!.
54
Luxembourg, town and duchy lying between today’s Germany, Belgium and France, inherited by the
Habsburgs together with Burgundy. Francis I occupied Luxembourg twice, first in September 1542 and then
from September 12, 1543 to August 6, 1544 (cf. Elementa, XXXVII, No. 810, p. 53, No. 817, p. 58; cf. letter No.
38, footnote 6!!!)
42
Turcica classis, cui praeest Barbarossus55, ad instantiam Galli venit in portum Tolon56, non
longe a Marsilia57, ubi etiam Delfinus58 advenerat persolvens stipendium Turcis. Minabantur
Hispaniis, tandem obsederuntxvi Nissam59, civitatem ducis Sabaudiae60. Qua potitus tentavit
arcem inaniterxvii, acceptis omnibus Christianis in urbe et extra solvit obsidionem, incendit
civitatem. Nam caesareus locumtenens in Italia et Pedemonte61 properabat in auxilium arcis
obsessae. Adiunxerunt gentes suas sanctus pontifex, Mantuanus62, Ferrariensis63, Florentini64
et Ianuenses65 nolentes hunc sibi vicinum. Nec alia su[nt], nisi ut servitia mea Vestrae
Reverendissimae Dominationi commendem.
Eur gnaden bit ich vmb ain pernstain oder als wir sprechn ain aigstain, obs gleich nur
fragmenta sein, ist alles guett66. Datum Viennae, XI Octobris anno Domini 1543.
Eiusdem
Vestrae
Reverendissimae
Dominationisxviii obsequentissimus Sigismundus
liber baro in Herberstain etc., manu propria.
i
tyranno] Tyrano
Invitium probably used here erroneously as convicium
iii
quatiens] quastiens
iv
nuntiabatur] nunctiabatur
v
ex Germanis, Hispanis et Italis added on the margin
vi
nollet] nolet
vii
after relinquere crossed-out scolepo
viii
Hi laqueo deinde suspensi added in the same hand on the margin
ii
55
Barbarossa, see letter No. 29, footnote 8!!!.
Toulon, port on the southeastern coast of France. In early September 1543, Barbarossa forced upon Francis I
maintenance of his fleet. Francis I gave him Toulon as its base (after the Christian inhabitatnts left the town) and
till May 23 1544, it was a kind of Turkish colony (see Ursu, p. 144-152; Knecht, p. 489, cf. Elementa, xLIX, No.
452, p. 58).
57
Marseille, town and most important port on the southeastern coast of France.
58
Henry de Valois (1519-1559), son of Francis I; duke of Orléans (until 1536), dauphin of France (1536-1547),
later king of France as Henry II (1547-1559). For more on his role during the Turkish attack on Nice see CDCV,
II, No. 261, p. 161-162.
59
Nice (It. Nizza), town and port on the southeastern coast of France, between Marseille and Genova, from 1388
the estate of the counts and subsequently (from the 15th century) the dukes of Savoy. The Turks attacked Nice
on August 6-7, 1543. After two weeks of bombardment the town surrendered on August 22. The fortress endured
the siege till September 8, when the Turks withdrew (see Janssen, VI, p. 235; Ursu, p. 143-144; Knecht, p. 487488).
60
Charles III (1486-1553), duke of Savoy (1504-1553).
61
Alfonso d’Avalos, marchese del Pescara e del Vasto (1502-1546), Italian condottiere; in 1525 he took part in
the battle of Pavia on Charles V’s side; commander general of the infantry in Italy (1525), in 1529 he conducted
military operations in Apulia, in a bid to protect queen Bona’s estates; in 1535 he was the commander of an
expedition to Tunis; in 1538 he became the governor of Milan and Piedmont and the commander general of the
imperial forces in Italy; in 1544 he was defeated by the French forces at Ceresole. He was a correspondent of
Dantiscus (Kohler I, p. 193, 256, 280; Pociecha, I, 176; IV, 234; cf. Letter No. 38).
62
Franceso III Gonzaga (1533-1550), duke of Mantua (1540-1550).
63
Ercole II d’Este (1508-1559), duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio (1534-1559).
64
A reference to the forces of Florence which was ruled by duke Cosimo I de’Medici (1519-1574) from 1537.
65
A reference to the forces of Genoa under Andrea Doria’s command (see letter No. 25, footnote 22; No. 29,
footnote10).
66
Herberstein brought in white amber from Prussia for medicinal purposes. In his letter of November 14, 1543,
Duke Albrecht von Hohenzollern informed Herberstein that he had sent the amber. We know that Herberstein
received a similar parcel from Duke Albrecht also in 1538 and then in September 1539. In 1540 Mikołaj Nipszyc
sent Herberstein an amber rosary as a gift (see Elementa, XLVII, No. 298, p. 191, XLVIII, No. 305, p. 5, No.
351, p. 93, LVI, No. 1539, p. 9, LVII, No. 2161, p. 213; Voigt, p. 273, 285-286; Faber, p. 532).
56
ix
after bubulcis crossed-out quod
aliquot] aliquott
xi
transiit] transiist
xii
Pescht] pesscht
xiii
The subject Caesar is missing a predicate.
xiv
after ipse crossed-out ni
xv
after divertere crossed-out exercitum
xvi
after obsederunt one letter crossed out
xvii
inaniter] Innaniter
xviii
Eiusdem Vestrae Reverendissimae Dominationis] E. V. r-me d.
x
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