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Chemistry Honors Final Exam Review Western Alamance HS DC Vernon First Nine Weeks 1. Measuring and Classifying Matter - Be able to use scientific notation - Count and Round using Significant Figures - Add, Subtract, Multiply, and Divide using Significant Figures - Identify sources of uncertainty in measurements - Conversions with SI system (old metric system) - Know how to classify matter (pure substances vs. mixtures, elements, compounds, homogeneous/heterogenous mixtures - Explain the differences the three phases of matter and the differences in forces holding solids, liquids, and gases together - Know about Physical and Chemical Properties and Physical and Chemical Changes (be sure to know evidence of chemical changes and that all phase changes are physical changes) - Density: be able to solve mathematical problems 2. Kinetic Molecular Theory and Phase Changes - Three phases of matter - Heat of Vaporization and Heat of Fusion - Know how to interpret the phase change diagram (draw and label it below) -Know the triple point diagram (draw it below) - Know the basic tenets of the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Know the relationship between average Kinetic Energy and Temperature in Kelvin - Explain Absolute Zero: what is its value in Kelvin and Celsius? - Know the values of STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure) - Understand the concept of atmospheric pressure and know the units of pressure (1 atm= 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 101.3 kPa) - Understand heat calculations and specific heat capacity q = mc (delta) T 3. Gas Laws - Know Charles’, Boyle’s, and Gay-Lussac’s Law: know equations, relationships, variables used in each, and graphs. -Know Combined Gas Law - Know Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure (be able to relate it to vapor pressure of water when collecting a gas over water). - Ideal Gas Law (PV=nRT) - Effusion and Diffusion (when comparing gases, be able to determine which gas would effuse or diffuse the fastest) Be able to use Graham’s Law 4. Atomic Structure/Nuclear Chemistry (part 1) - Be familiar with the history of the atom including these persons and experiments: (Democritus, the Alchemists, A. Lavoisier, John Dalton, JJ Thomson, RA Millikan, E. Rutherford) Know what their contribution to the study of the atom was. - Protons -----Neutrons------Electrons Know where each is located in the atom Know the charge and relative mass of each Know who discovered each Be able to find the numbers of each in an atom or ion using a nuclear symbol or hyphen notation 146C or C-14 -Know what an isotope is and how their number of subatomic particles compare -Know the difference between atomic number and atomic mass - Know difference between nuclear disintegration (nuclear radiation), fisson, and fusion. - Know the charges, strengths, and nuclear symbols of alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays. - Be able to balance nuclear equations - Be familiar with the E=mc2 formula and what it means - Know what a half-life is and how it can be calculated 5. The Mole (Stoichiometry I) - Know Avadagro’s Number and what it represents - Be able to convert (from grams to moles, liters or atoms) (from atoms to moles, grams or liters) (from liters of gas at STP to moles, atoms, or grams) - Know what a Diatomic Molecule is and which elements are of this type - Know how many liters are in one mole of a gas at STP 6. Atomic Structure II – - Know that electrons are the most important sub atomic particle in determining the physical and chemical properties - Know what photons are and how they are formed - Be able to use Bohr Model to explain energy differences between energy levels - What is the Aufbau Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle, and Hund’s Rule? - Know what the principal quantum numbers n, l, m,and s represent about electrons - What are the shapes of the sublevels represented by s, p, d, and and f ? How many electrons can each sublevel hold? - Remember that 2n2 is the formula to describe the maximum number of electrons on an energy level. - Be able to determine the electron configuration of elements through Kr. (ie: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, etc) - Be able to draw the orbital notation and Lewis Dot Diagram of atoms through Kr - Know what valence electrons are. What is an Octet? 7. Periodic Chart Trends - Know the four general trends: Chemical Reactivity, Atomic Radii (size), Ionization Energy, Electronegativity - The Periodic Law arranges the elements on the periodic chart based on increasing atomic number. - Know the names of common groups: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, representative elements, halogens, noble gases 8. Naming and Writing Formulas for Compounds - Know the difference between Ionic and Covalent Compounds (Molecular Formulas) -Be able to name or write the formulas of ionic and compounds (Ionic: use criss-cross method) Covalent: use the prefix method -Know: Ionic Compounds generally good conductors of electricity (Electrolytes), Covalent Compounds that dissolve are not good conductors) 9. Formula Mass, Percent Composition, Empirical Formulas, Molecular Formulas - Be able to find the Gram Formula Mass (Molar Mass) - Be able to find Percent Composition if given a formula - Know that Empirical Formulas are the lowest whole number ratios and Molecular Formulas are multiples of empirical formula. - Be able to find Empirical and Molecular Formulas 10. Chemical Reactions - Know the Law of Conservation of Mass - Be able to identify reactants and products - Be able to balance chemical equations - Know the five types of reactions and be able to predict the products of a reaction - Know how to interpret the Activity Series (ie: determine which metal is more reactive if given two metals) -Know how to use Solubilty Rules (listed in reference chart) to determine if a precipitate will form when two solutions are mixed. 11. Stoichiometry II -Be able to convert using the expanded mole-mole chart using a balanced equation (mass-mass type reactions) 12. Redox Reactions - In redox reactions, know that electrons are being transferred - Remember LEO……GER (Losing Electrons is Oxidation……Gaining Electrons is Reduction) RA……..OA (Reducing Agent…….Oxidizing Agent) (+) (-) (getting more positive or getting more negative) 13. Thermochemistry/Reaction Rates -Be able to distinguish between exothermic and endothermic reactions (exo: lose heat……endo: gain heat) - Be able to interpret heat energy diagrams (see below) -Be able to calculate enthalpy change in a thermochem equation using values from a chart (delta H = Products- Reactants) - Be able to calculate energy using a balanced equation: (ex: 2 Cl2 + 7 O2 + 130 kJ 2 Cl2O7 how much energy is needed to make 4 moles of Cl2O7 ?) - Know what Activation Energy is and how to identify it on a heat diagram (see below) - Know the factors that can increase the rate of reaction (how quickly a reaction can occur) - Know what a catalyst does to the rate of reaction and how it affects the activation energy of a reaction. 14. Soultions - Know terms solute and solvent - Know term solubility - Describe how temperature increases affect solubility of solids in liquids and gases in liquids - Be able to interpret Solubilty Curves - Be able to find Molarity (and to a lesser extent molality) - Be able to calculate dilutions (MV=MV) - Know the difference between miscible and immiscible - Know that colligative properties are independent of the type of substance----they rely on the number of dissolving particles [Boiling point elevation, freezing point depression] (EX: CaCl2 has a lower freezing point and a higher boiling point than NaCl because it has 3 ions when it dissolves vs. 2 for NaCl] - Water is the universal solvent because it is a polar molecule and has a bent shape 15. General Bonding - Know the difference between ionic and covalent compounds - Know that ionic compounds have higher melting and boiling points because their bonds are generally stronger - Be able to draw Lewis Structures for simple covalent compounds -Know the following structures: Linear, Trigonal Planar, Tetrahedral, Trigonal Pyramidal, Bent, Trigonal Bipyramidal, Octahedral…….know their shapes, number of bonds, and lone pairs on the central atom, bond angles, and whether the molecule is polar or nonpolar 16. Acids and Bases - Acids contain H+ ions and Bases contain OH- ions (this is an oversimplification) [Arrenhius Defintion] - Be able to identify Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and conjugate acids and conjugate bases - Be able to find pH and pOH - Be able to use Kw= [H+] [OH-] remember Kw=1 x 10-14 - Use pH + pOH =14