1 Drake and Cermeno in California: Sixteenth Century Chinese Ceramics EDWARD P. VON DER PORTEN The search for Francis Drake’s California encampment is about a century old. George Davidson, the great nineteenth century cartographer, was the first systematic searcher for the Drake site (Davidson, 1908), and many others have followed him. This is not the place to analyze all the research on the Drake story: in one sense there is too much to study, because so much research has been done through the years (Wagner, 1926; Heizer, 1947; Aker, 1956, and Oko, 1964, among others); in another sense there is too little, because a major paper presenting the twenty years of work by a research group called the Drake Navigators Guild has recently been published (Aker, 1970) and is not yet generally available. In the briefest possible summation, the results of most researchers’ work, from Davidson to the Guild, are to identify Drakes Bay as the site of Drake’s harbor (Davidson, 1908: 107108; Aubrey Neasham, quoted in Aker, 1956:25; Aker, 1956: 147-148; Oko, 1964: 152, and Martin, 1959: 18, among others) and, more recently, to identify Drake’s Cove as the site of his careenage and encampment (Aker, 1956; Oko, 1964, and Martin, 1959). There are a few dis- senting voices which speak for San Francisco Bay (Starr, 1962, and Power, 1954), San Luis Obispo (Pate, 1969), and other coastal points such as Bodega Bay (mentioned, with other possibilities, in Wagner, 1926: 154-169), but Drake’s Cove at Drakes Bay is supported by a mass of evidence, and it is accepted for the purposes of this paper. One noteworthy aspect of the work is its interdisciplinary nature, which has involved such diverse fields of study as navigation (throughout Aker, 1956, and Oko, 1964: 143), botany (Allen, 1971 a), cartography (Aker, 1956: 50-69), ethnology (Heizer, 1947), hydraulics (Aker, 1956: 70-93), zoology (Allen, 1971 b), shipbuilding (Aker, 1956: 118, 123, 124, and Aker, 1965, following p. 71), and archaeology, Within these fields, other interdisciplinary aspects often develop, with archaeology offering striking examples. Archaeological research in the Point Reyes Peninsula was begun after the discovery of the Plate of Brass. A major purpose of the first digs, in 1940, was to date the Indian cultures by identifying a sixteenth century level in the middens through the location of Euro- HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 1972 2 - 1 3 4 HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 1972 i t I t FIC~JFIE 2. T w of Ming porcelain vessels found at Drakes Bay. The $men shapar illustrated, plus a steep-sided small bowl similar to Tsrpe VI1 and a delicate bowl similar to Type IV but only about 5%" in diameter, are the only $hapar that hawe been reconrtructed. A possible fluted vase neck is the only identified oessel sherd that does not conform to these nine shapes, all of which are [email protected] wares. DRAKE AND pean artifacts from that period (Heizer, 1941: 319-320). Ironically, while sixteenth century artifacts were found, they were ascribed to the 1595 wreck of the Manila Galleon Sun Agustin commanded by Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno, not to the Drake expedition (Heizer, 1941: 320, 323-324).In addition, the materials were scattered at all depths in the middens, so no physical sixteenth century level could be located (Von der Porten, 1965: 54-55). Nearly thirty years were to pass before a physical datum was established using explorer artifacts, a group of Spanish-Colonial terra-cotta, fragments, and then it was not so valuable as had been anticipated because of the many variables and unknowns of the midden such as the date of the end of the occupation, the rate of deposit of Indian debris at different periods, and the disturbing action on the Indian artifacts of burrowing animals. The datum turned out to be a fixed point in a stratigraphic column with no other fixed points (Von der Porten, 1968: 34-37). In the following years, the purposes of the excavations shifted to attempts to separate Drake and Cermeno artifacts from each other (Von der Porten, 1965: 62-66), and to efforts to investigate the Indian cultures more thoroughly (Treganza, 1968). These efforts were always parallel to each other, for every dig provided both historic and aboriginal materials. The historians' effort to separate the two expeditions' materials proved to be as difficult a task as the archaeologists' effort to establish a datum level. The interpretatibn of the Indian materials is being handled by anthropologists (Treganza, 1968), and is beyond the limits of this study. At the same time, what started as a minor effort has turned into a major one: the interpretation of the individual explorer artifacts for whatever information they can yield on any subject. The largest group of artifacts is composed of blue-on-white porcelain sherds. When the sherds were first found in &e 1940 excavation, it was assumed that such artifacts were well known in Oriental art circles as they were, - cI"0 5 in a way-but it became evident later that the sherd collection could furnish as much information to the art historians as the art historians could furnish the archaeologists, altogether a very beneficial arrangement. The reason the group is so valuable is not the rarity of the specimens, as most of the sherds are of common trade wares, but because it is accurately dated to the period 1579 to 1595, or a little earlier if the date of manufacture is calculated.' The sherds give insights into many fields. They show that the porcelains carried in one or two shipments in @e first quarter century of the Manila Galleon porcelain trade (It began in 1573.Schurz, 1939: 27,70)were utility wares, almost entirely composed of rice bowls, plates, large and small low bowls, and very large, heavy, deep bowls (Von der Porten, 1968: 10-22).They were apparently stacked with similar vessels one inside the other and a minimum of padding. The wrapped stacks may have come from the manufacturing city, Ching-te Chen, without being opened and rewrapped at any stage of their travels. The final packing into chests was probably done either at a Chinese coastal city prior to its shipment by junk to Manila, or at Manila itself. Probably at that stage of the packing, any odd lots or single vessels that were in stock from any source in the western Pacific trades were added to fill out the chests, thus accounting for the fact that there are only six unusually shaped vessels (a tiny cup, three flaring-rim dishes, a fiat dish, and a possible fluted vase neck) and only two provincially made Swatow ware large bowls out of 230 identified specimens (Von der Porten, 1968: 9-11,20-22, and Appendix 3). While the shapes are simple and utilitarian, the decoration is quite varied. It includes careless, crude floral designs, notably on the rice bowls; and, at the other extreme, delicate moulded plates with minutely detailed, intricate designs which often include deer and birds in woodland scenes. Probably the Chinese were not sure of their new "barbarian" customers' tastes, so they loaded mixed wares The importance of the porcelain group haa been emphasized in personal correspondence and In vi& to the by Mr. Rene Yvon d'Argence', Director of the Avery Brunduge Foundation, M.H. de Young M e m o r h l Museum, Sun Francisco; Sir Ha- M . Gamer, K.B.E., C.B., Honorary Curator of the FitzwfUlam Museum, Cambridge, England; Dr. john A. Pope, Director of the Freer G a b of Art, Smithsonfan I d f u r i o n ; Dr. Michael Sullivan, Professor of Art, Stanford Unfversity, and 0 t h Oriental art historians. 1. dtap 6 HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY1972 a b 0 1 2 3 4 5 cenftneters d 1 e FIGURE3. Type I , Large Bowls - Sixteenth Century: “a”, Interior - Rim to Base, “b”, Exterior - Rim to Base, “c”, Rim Interior with Medallion, “d”, Base Interior with Crackled Glaze and Foliage, “e”, Base Interior with Deer and Foliage. DRAKE AND CERMENO 7 b a C d tI 0 I 2 3 4 5 centimeters f FIGURE4. Type 11, Tiny C u p - Wan-li: “a”, Interim, “h”, Exterior with Overlapping Petals. Type V I , Lou; Dish - Swatow Ware: “c”, Interior with Crane, Flying Bird, Rock and Foliage. Type 111, Flaring Rim Dishes -Swatow Ware: “d”, Base Exterior Showing Crude Finish of Swatow Ware, “e”, Base Interior with Phoenix and Foliage, “f”, Base and Cavetto Interior with Foliage, “g”, Rim Interim with Foliage. 8 HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 1972 b a C d e f FIGURE 5. Type N,Low B o w l s - Sixteenth Century: “a”, Exterior with Branch, “b”, Interior with Cloud Collars, “e”, Base Interior with Goldfish Pond, “d”,Base Interior with Goldfish Pond, “e”, Base Interior with Deer and Tree in Landscape, “f”, Base Interior with Landscape, “g”, Base Interior with Foliage. DRAKE AND CERMENO b a d 9 C e f i h k i 0 I 2 3 4 s csntimetars FIGURE 6. Type V , Phtes- Wan-li, White Caoetto Sub-Type: “a”, Rim Interior with Rocks and Foliage, “b”, Rim Interior with Duck W e e d , ‘dc’’,Rtm Exterior with Bird on Cuiietto, “d”, Rim Interior with Peacock, “e”, Rim lnterior with Duck, “f”, Rim Interior with Duck Weed a n d Water Plant, “g”, Rim Interior with Rocks and Foliage, “h”, Rim Interior with Rocks und Foliage, “i”, Rim Exterior with Foliage and Flowers, “i”, Beaded-Pendant-Rim Sub-Type, “k”, Base and Cavetto lnterim u i t h Rocks and Foliage in Landscape. HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 1972 10 i a b C d e J f 0 I 2 3 4 5 centimeters FIGURE 7. Type V , Plates -Wan-li, White Cavetto Sub-Type: “a”, Base and Cavetto Interior with Water Plants, “h”, Base and Cavetto Exterior with Bird on Branch, ‘‘c” and “d”, Base Interior with Deer in Landscape, “er’, Base Interior with Cloud Scrolls and Tree, “f”, Base Interior with Rocks and Pine Branches, “g”, Base and Cauetto Interior with Bird and Egg. DRAKE AND CERMENO 11 b a c t e C -t d FIGURE 8. Type V, Plates - Wan-li, Paneled Rim Stili-Types: “a”, Rim and Caaetto Interior with Moulded and Shaded Paneling, “h”, Rim and Caoetto Interior. Single-Line Panel Sub-Type, “c”, Rim to Base Interior, “d”, Rim to Base Exterior, “e”, Rim and Cavetto Exterior, “f”, Rim and Cavetto Interior with Butteffly, “g”, Rim and Cavetto Interior. 12 HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 1972 b a 0 I 2 3 4 5 cant C d FIGURE 9. Type Va, Small Low Bowls - Wan-li: “a”, Base Interior with Dragonfly and Spider W e b , “b”, Base Interior with Duck Next to Pond, “c”, Base Interior with Pond, “ d , Base Interior with Landscape. DRAKE AND CERMENO 13 b a e d C h u i 2 3 4 : i f c6 ni im aier s FIGURE 10. Type VII, Small Bowls - Sixteenth Century (Generally): “u”, Exterior with Spray of Foliage The Common Type, “b”, Exterior with Landscape, “E”, Exterior with Precious Object, “d”,Exterior with Flying Beast, “e”, Exterim with Phoenix, “f”, Base Interior with Foliage, “g”, Base Exterior with Good Luck Characters, “h”, Rim Interior with Diamond-Diaper Pattern, “i”, Exterior with Bamboo Shoots. HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 1972 14 C d f e i cl J h 0 I 2 3 4 5 centimeters FIGURE 11. Type V I I a , Small B o w l s - Wan-li: “‘a’’,Exterior with Deer and Foliage, “b”, Interior with Folinge, “e”, Base Interior with Foliage, “d”, Exterior with Flying Horse ocer Waves, “e”, Interior with Cloud Collar around Flower, “f”, Exterior with Beaded Pendant, “p”, Interior with Beaded Pendant, “h”, Exterior with Foliage, “i”, Exterior with Flying Horse, “i”, Lower Exterior with Lotus Petals. DRAKE AND CERMENO 15 f i ’rr I h I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ s FIGURE12. Indian-Modified Porcelain: “a”, Type V a Bowl Base Chipped Around Edge, “b”, Chipped-Edge Bead Blanks, “c”, Chipped and Grmtnd-Edge Bead Blanks, One with lnconiplete Perforation, “d”, Pendant Made f r o m “Beaded Pendant” Fragment of Largr Plate, “e”, Chipped and Ground-Edge Pendant, “f”, Bowl Base Chipped Around Edge to Form Scraper, “g”, S m a l l Scraper, “h”,Small Scraper or Large Bead Blank, “i”, Bow1 Foot Ring Chipped to Forrn Scraper, “i”, Beaked Scraper Made from Bowl Base. 16 HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 1972 on their junks. It is even possible to speculate, in the case of the common rice bowls, that a single, particularly attractive bowl was placed where it could easily be seen, at the bottom of a stack of ordinary bowls, to give the impression of a full stack of high-quality bowls when a stack was partially unwrapped for a prospective purchaser. The ratio of about 80% ordinary bowls to 20% fancy ones supports such a hypothesis (Von der Porten, 1968: 10-20). Turning from Oriental art and Spanish trade to the recipients of the porcelains, the Coast Miwok Indians, the results of the porcelain analysis become useful to the anthropologists. The impact of these exotic goods on the Indians was apparently small. The porcelains were not traded to inland villages, for instance. Some sherds were deliberately shattered, possibly to “release the spirit” of the sherds but equally possibly to reduce their sizes so beads, pendants, or scrapers could be made from them. Bead-making was a failure because the porcelain glaze was too smooth and hard to be drilled, but some persistence was shown, as eleven bead blanks have been recovered so far (Figure 12 b and c). One was drilled on one side, presumably where a flaw in the glaze allowed the chalcedony drill to bite, but clam shell disc beads were always biconically drilled, and, when the porcelain bead blank could not be drilled from the other side, it was thrown away - an interesting comment on habits of thought because the blank could have been drilled through from one side. These porcelain bead blanks also create a useful time marker by helping to confirm the existence of the clam shell disc bead industry at the end of the sixteenth century. Pendants were made by chipping and grinding, while scrapers were made by chipping sherds to form cutting edges. One sturdy, round scraper type was made by chipping the foot ring of a rice bowl which had earlier been sheared off above the foot and surf tumbled. The most remarkable piece of worked porcelain is a small, delicate low bowl which had its rim and cavetto carefully chipped off to leave a flat disc containing a duck in a pond scene (Figure 12 a). What this disc meant is unknown, as there is no known ethnographic parallel, but some idea of beauty is a possibility (Von der Porten, 1968: 28-31). A variety of pottery and porcelain sherds FIGURE 13. S e t 0 Ware Cup: A Japanese Sake Cup, 6 Centimeters in Diameter, with Crackled, WithredLeaf-Colored Glaze - The Only Zntact Porcelain from the Point Reyes Peninsula. throws light on the Pacific trades’ utility ware distribution patterns. Large vessels that were probably wine and water jars came from an unidentified Spanish-American kiln or kilns, from China, and from Indo-China. A tiny, intact sake cup is from Seto, Japan (Figure 13). A small grey jar, an An-p’ing Hu, represents a type often exported to Formosa from South China (Figure 14). A small, low bowl is Spanish American (Von der Porten, 1968: 32-45) (Figure 15). The Manila Galleon trade, then, fit into complex trades already existing in the western Pacific, and added some new elements to them. Many people representing many fields were needed in these studies, sometimes to identify objects, but often to provide the information that made it possible to understand the artifacts’ background and therefore to know what to look for in them. Some objects, however, defy everyone. Metal objects are the worst. A copper or brass cone 2%“long, and a small metal bar with a pin in the middle have been intensively studied, to no avail (Von der Porten, 1965: 47-49) (Figure 14). Interesting and useful as the artifact studies were, the research kept coming back to the basic historic question: what could the artifacts tell about the Drake and Cermeno expeditions to Drakes Bay? DRAKE AND CERMENO 17 a I b 0 I 2 3 4 5 centimetsrs FIGURE 14. Miscellaneous Materials: a ” , An-p’ing H u , A Grey Jar from South China-Base and Exterior, Left; Base and Interior, Right, “b”, Square-Shanked Iron Spike and Flat Iron Object with Pin in Center of One Side. ia HISTQRICALAR~~AEOLOGY 1972 r ] e I 0 1. 2 . fd, FIGURE15. Terra-Cotto Bowl. Many sherds of thts m u terra-cotta bowl were found, whtch permitted its reconstruction. I t b probably from a Spanbh-Amertcan source. The most famous object of all, the Plate of Brass, has proved to be a disappointment as an artifact. It helps to support the Drakes Bay location for Drake’s camp because it was found near the bay and because it had been fastened to a massive post, a necessity at treeless Drakes Bay. However, it is a small, easily portable object that was found on the surface of the ground. Such a lone find is nearly meaningless in the nature of archaeological evidence (Bolton, 1937;Fink, 1938; Ellison, 1943; Chickering, 1937,and Von der Porten, 1965: 12-18, among others). The source of some of the porcelains did prove to be identifiable, however. Sherds from eight vessels that had been surf tumbled before they were broken were found. By a process of elimination, all probable sources except the Sun Agustin wreck could be written off for these porcelains, making them the first artifacts associated with a specific expedition since the Plate of Brass a quarter century before (Von der Porten, 1968: 24-25).Of the 97 sherds that were abraded after they were broken, many can be assumed to be from the Sun Agwtin wreck, but the degree of probability is somewhat reduced, as many circumstances could have led to their abrasion (Von der Porten, 1968: 25-28}. Iron ship spikes, the most common sixteenth century artifacts after the porcelains, tell nothing by themselves because a small craft Drake left at the bay and the Sun Agustin used the same type of spike. However, the Sun Agustin anchorage is known, her wreck site can be calculated, and the drift of wreckage after a storm can be estimated fairly well. Where much wreckage, and therefore many spikes, would be expected, such as the north shore of Limantour Estero, they appear-except in one place, on the sandspit where the Spanish camp is believed to have been located. There, the Spaniards gathered the wreckage to build into the small craft that eventuallv took them to Mexico (Von der Porten, 1965; 34-40,63,and Aker, 1965: 22-23,35-39,and Figures 4, 5, 8). This spike distribution suggested that a study of the distribution of sixteenth century artifacts might prove valuable, and so it has. The gaIleon wreck is represented by the spike concentration in the Indian middens on the north shore of Limatour Estero, and by the eight probable shipwreck porcelains, some of the other abraded porcelains, and three surf-tumbled Spanish-American terra cottas, all found in the Limantour Spit Indian sites (Von der Porten, 1968: 33-34,38, 48). The Indian sites on Limantour Spit contain a variety of materials which appear to be associated with the Spanish camp site. This site is not located yet archaeologically, but it has been located on eastern Limantour Spit by documentary research (Aker, 1965: 30-31,4-42). This artifact grouping includes large quantities of bitumen (Von der Porten, 1965: 57-59,and Treganza, 1968: 73-74), five unabraded Spanish-American terra cottas, the Asian water jars, and other ceramics - all in combination with the scarcity of spikes which suggests Spanish utilization of wreckage (Von der Porten, 1968: 47). About three miles away, on the western shore of Drakes Estero, a midden has produced an unusual group of artifacts. These include the copper cone, the iron bar with its pivot pin, a wool cloth fragment, and “clinkers,” as welI as the more common bitumen, spikes, and porcelains. This concentration of objects so far from the Cermeno campsite yet three-quarters of a mile northwest of Drake’s Cove supports the cove as the site of Drake’s careenage (Von der Porten, 1968: 48-49, and Von der Porten, DRAKE AND CERMENO 19 a 0 I 2 3 4 5 centimeters b c FIGURE16. Modified Porcelain: “a”, Percussion-Shattered Large Bowl Fragment, “b”, Sherd Surf-Abraded Before Breakage - On Exterior Only, “c”, Shmh Surf-Abraded After Breakage. HISTORICAL AR~HAEOLOGY1972 FIGURE 17. Large Terra-cotta Vessel. The fragments from this ahipwzeck-damged and woter-abrcrded vessel provrcEed a physical 1600e20 datum in an Indian midden. Most of the s h e d lay at the same level in the midden, undisturbed by small animals bemuse t h are so large and heaoy. 1965: 47-48, 51-59). The three-quarters of a mile distance was given by Drake’s chronicler, and the site is located on a quiet inner waterway where sounds carry from the village to the cove, another requirement of the documents (Penzer, 1926: 55). A Cermeno expedition document suggests that the archaeologists have failed to find an artifact type: it mentions that the Indians ”had bows and arrows, and we could find no other kind of iron . , . ,” (Wagner, 1924: 13) suggesting that they did have iron arrowheads, a logical gift from Englishmen who still used the long bow (Von der Porten, 1965: 60-61). DRAKE AND CERMENO 21 Where are the camps themselves? The probable remains of Drake's ditch-and-parapet fort at Drake's Cove have been found in the form of a stone layer much disturbed by storms. More work in that area would be valuable but it would have to be a very large-scale excavation (Aker, 1956: 135-146). Cermeno's camp and his cache of wreck cargo (Father Antonio de la Ascension in Wagner, 1929: 249, and Aker, 1965: 37-38), have not been found. They probably lie buried under the stable dunes of Limantour Spit. Historic archaeology at Drakes Ray promises many discoveries for the future, but what they may be, and what interdisciplinary approaches may be needed for their interpretation, can not be predicted. FIGURE18. Wan-li Plate: A Small Version of the Type V Plate with Beaded Pendant Design -Not from the Point Reyes Peninsula. - 0 1 2 3 4 5 centimeters FIGURE20. Wan-li Bowl: A Type V u Low Bowl- Not from the Point Reyes Peninsula. CREDITS: Photographs were taken by Mr. James Datta, San Francisco State College, and printed b y M r . Don Cabral, S o n o m a State College. FIGURE 19. sixteenth Century Bowl: The Most Common Porceluin Type and Decoration, The Type VI1 Bowl, Has Two Sprays of Foliage on the Exterior, with and without a Bird - Not from the Point Reyes Peninsula. REFERENCES AKER, RAYMOND, M.P. DILLJNGHAM, ANI) ROBERTPARKINSON 1956 “Nova Albion Rediscovered,” Point Reyes, Drake Navigators Guild, duplicated m. MARTIN,No’& B. 1959 The Drake Naoigafors Guild and the Quest for Portus Nooae Albionis, Point Reyes, Drake Navigators Guild. OKO, ADOLPH s. 1964 “Francis Drake and Nova Albion,” California Historical Society Quarterly, h, RAYMOND XLIII:2 (June 1964), 135-158. 1965 The C m e n o Expedition at Drakes Bay-1595, Point Reyes, Drake NavigaPATE, ROBERT W., AND ELLEN tors Guild. 1969 “Drake’s Treasure,” Western Treasures, (January l-), 14-21. 1970 Report of Findings Relating to Zdentification of Sir Francis Drake’s EncampPENZER,N. M., ed. ment at Point Reyes National Seashore, 1926 The World Encompassed and A d o Point Reyes, Drake Navigators Guild. gous Contemporay Docum&, London, The Argonaut Press. ALLEN, ROBERTW. 1971 Identification of *an herbe much like Po-, ROBERTH. our lectuce. . . . ,” Point Reyes, Drake 1954 “Portus Novae Albionis RediscoverNavigators Guild. ed?” Pacific Discovery, VII:3 (May-June 1954), 10-12. AILEN, ROBERT w., AND ROBERT w. PARKINSON 1971 Ihntificution of the Nooa Albion SCHVRZ, WILLIAML. Conie, Point Reyes, Drake Navigators 1939 The Manila Galleon, New York, E. P. Guild. Dutton & Company, Inc. BOLTON, HFZIBEFIT E., AND DOUGLAS S. WATSON STARR,WALTERA. 1937 Drake’s Plate of Bras, San Francisco, 1962 “Drake Landed in San Francisco Bay California Historical Society. in 1579. The Testimony of the Plate of Brass,” California Historical Society QuarCHICKERING, ALLAN L. terly, XLI:3 (September 1962), Adden1937 “Some Notes With Regard to Drake’s dum, 1-29. Plate of Brass,” California Historical Society Quarterly, XVI: 3 (September 1937), TREGANZA, A. E.,AND T. F. KING,eds. 275-281. 1968 Archaeological Studies in Point Reyes National Seashore 1959-1968, San FranDAVIDSON, GEORGE cisco State College, n.d 1908 Francis Drake on the Northwest Coast of America in the Year 1579, Transactions VON DER PORTEN,EDWARD P. and Proceedings of the Geographical So1965 Drake-Cermeno: An Analysis of Arciety of the Pacific, Vol. V, Series 11. tifacts, Point Reyes, Drake Navigators Guild. ELLISON,JOSEPH W. 1943 T r u e or False?“ The Saturday Eve1968 The Pmcehins and Terra Cottas of ning Post, CCXV: 40 (April 3, 1943), 32, Drakes Bay, Point Reyes, Drake Naviga35-36. tors Guild. FINK, COLING., AND E. P. POLUSHKIN WAGNER, HENRYR., ed. 1938 Drake’s Plate o f Brass Authenticu1924 “The Voyage to California of Sebasted, San Francisco, California Historical tian Rodriguez Cermeno in 1595.” Cdifornia Historical Society Quarterly, 1II:l Society. (April 1924), 3-24. HE”, ROBWT F. 1926 Sir Francis Drake’s Voyage Around 1941 “Archaeological Evidence of Sebastian the World, San Francisco, John Howell, Rodriguez Cermeno’s California Visit in 1926. 1595,” California Historical Society Qwr1929 Spanish Voyages to the Northwest terly, xX:4 (December 1941), 315-328. Coast of America in the Sixteenth Cen1947 Francis Drake and the California Zntury, San Francisco, California Historical dianr, Berkeley and Los Angeles, UniverSociety. sity of California Press.