AP US HISTORY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT YOU SHOULD HAVE THIS DONE BEFORE SCHOOL STARTS! Due: September 8, 2015 Hello and welcome to the exciting world that is Advanced Placement United States History. This summer’s assignment comes as a result of the time constraints placed on us all in covering the immense content in this course. To allow for a more in depth study of the various periods of American History, it is necessary to cover some of the early history during the summer individually. Please be sure to put aside a good amount of time to complete this assignment. Your first inclass essay will be based upon your summer reading, as will the activities and assignments in the first weeks of class. It will be VERY DIFFICULT to complete this assignment once school has begun in addition to the other work you will be doing for this course. The assigned reading will come from American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley. You need to identify the meaning and/or significance of each of the key terms relating to each chapter AND complete the Reading Questions for each chapter. Sometimes there will be terms included that are not included in the Brinkley text. It is your responsibility to research these terms for identification as well. The terms and questions will be collected on the first day of class, September 8, 2015 and the first chapter quiz is scheduled for Thursday, September 10, 2015. Please be aware that you are going to be held responsible for this textbook. If you decide to change your course selection you must return the textbook to me on the first day of school. If the textbook is damaged or lost you will be charged for the textbook. Please sign to acknowledge you are aware of what is expected of you and share this information with your parents. Then return the bottom portion of this letter to Mrs. Schweiss in L-8 no later than June 4, 2015. Thanks and I look forward to working with you next year! --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------AP US History Summer Reading Assignment Student Name (Printed): ____________________________________________ Student’s Signature: ________________________________________________ Parent’s Signature: _________________________________________________ Date: ____________________________________________________________ Textbook Number: _________________________________________________ APUSH – APO 01 and VUS 02 Study Guide - The Collision of Cultures (Ch 1) NAME ______________________ The text we will be using is American History: A Survey, 13th edition by Alan Brinkley. These web sites will also provide you with excellent practice: 13th edition - http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073385492/student_view0/ 12th edition – www.mhhe.com/brinkley12ap (click on “Student Edition” in the left-hand side bar) www.apstudent.com – the “Note Cards” give definitions for all important terms and has an excellent “search” feature for specific terms www.historyteacher.net – click on “AP US Quizzes” at the top for both multiple choice (left-hand side) and matching key term (right-hand side) practice. Excellent PPTs for U.S. History are also on this site under “PowerPoint Palooza.” APUSH students are strongly encouraged to use these resources. At the end of each chapter, students will take a Chapter Quiz. Each Chapter Quiz will be comprised of multiple- choice questions (primarily from text reading), and sometimes identification (primarily from key terms from the reading and lecture notes) and/or a free-response essay. Although the lecture notes and the text reading overlap, students will need to read the text carefully to earn high test scores. The chapter study guides are designed as reading guides to help students locate important information closely related to the multiple-choice and identifications on the test. The study guide questions are not graded, however the key terms will periodically be checked as part of the student’s notebook. Students who have not read the text carefully may be seriously disadvantaged on the AP or CLEP exams. Items from this chapter that surface most frequently on the AP and CLEP exams: Columbian Exchange, mercantilism, Iroquois Confederacy, Native American dependency on the furand-hide trade, decimation of Native Americans by European diseases, similarities and differences between Native Americans and English settlers, general characteristics of the major Native American civilizations, differences between English, French and Spanish societies in America GEOGRAPHY Location of Mayan, Aztec and Inca civilizations Location of China, England, Portugal, France, Netherlands, Spain KEY TERMS 1. Amerigo Vespucci 15. Franciscans 2. Anglican Church 16. Henry VIII 3. Aztecs 17. Inca 4. Balboa 18. Iroquois Culture 5. Christopher Columbus 19. Isabella and Ferdinand 6. Columbian Exchange 20. Jamestown (1607) 7. Conquistadores 21. Jesuit missionaries 8. Cortes 22. John Cabot 9. coureurs de bois 23. John Calvin 10. creoles 24. Lost Colony at Roanoke 11. Elizabeth I 25. maize 12. encomiendas 26. matrilineal/matriarchal 13. English colonization of Ireland 14. Ferdinand Magellan (differences??) 27. Maya 28. mercantilism 40. Puritans 29. mestizos 41. Quebec 30. missions 42. Reconquista 31. New France 43. Renaissance 32. Northwest Passage 44. Samuel de Champlain 33. patrilineal/patriarchal (differences?) 45. smallpox 34. Phillip II of Spain 46. Spanish Armada (1588) 35. Pizarro 47. Treaty of Tordesillas 36. Predestination 48. Vasco da Gama 37. presidios 49. viceroy 38. Protestant Reformation 50. Walter Raleigh 39. Pueblo Revolt (Pope’s Rebellion) READING QUESTIONS 1. What were the general characteristics of Native Americans prior to the arrival of Columbus? 2. What were the primary elaborate, sophisticated societies of Central and South America? 3. What were some of the cultural achievements the Central and South American civilizations developed prior to the arrival of the Europeans? 4. How did different Native American societies fill their food needs before 1492? 5. Were all Native Americans able to communicate together? Why or why not? 6. Why were Native American alliances fragile? 7. What was one task common to all Native American women, regardless of tribe? 8. What were some of the important incentives for Europeans to engage in overseas exploration? 9. Which was the first European country to launch long ocean voyages of exploration? 10. Where did Christopher Columbus think he had arrived? 11. How many voyages did Christopher Columbus make? 12. Which country dominated the exploration of the New World between 1500 and 1550? 13. What areas had the Spanish discovered by 1550? 14. How were the Spanish able to conquer the Aztecs? 15. What were the motives for Spanish exploration between 1500 and 1600? 16. What happened to the Pueblo population as a result of contact with the Spanish between 1550 and 1650? 17. What were some of the important characteristics of Spanish colonial enterprises? 18. Which European country did not “people” their colonies but imposed a European ruling class over them? 19. What did the Europeans bring with them when they arrived in the Americas? 20. What practices did the Spanish use to try and subjugate the Native Americans? 21. What were the characteristics of the political system of southern and western Africa before the 22. Europeans arrived? 23. Before the arrival of the Europeans, how did male-female relations in western and southern Africa differ from those of the Europeans? 24. Why did interest in English colonization grow? 25. What were the key ideas of mercantilism? 26. What uses did England anticipate for her colonies? 27. Why did the “separatists” come to the New World? Where had they first gone? 28. Why did Henry VIII start the English Reformation (Henrician Reformation)? 29. What was the primary goal of the English Puritans who were religious dissenters? 30. How did the experience of English colonists in Ireland affect their ideas about native peoples? 31. What were the characteristics of French colonization in North America? Where did they settle? 32. What were the characteristics of Dutch colonization in North America? Where did they settle? 33. What was the most important event (and date!) that most influenced England’s decision to colonize the New World? 34. Where were the first English settlements in the New World established? 35. Did the first few English expeditions to North America result in successful permanent settlements? 36. Where was the first permanent English colony established? 37. Who was the first American-born child of an English settler? 38. To what event is the cryptic message “CROATOAN” related? APUSH – APO 02 & VUS SOL 02 NAME_______________________ Study Guide – Transplantations and Borderlands (Ch 2) Items that surface most frequently on the AP and CLEP exams: The Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, change from servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake region 1607-1690, Bacon’s Rebellion of 1676, growth of plantation economies and slave societies, Puritans, dissenters such as Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson, Pennsylvania and the Quakers, mercantilism and the Navigation Acts GEOGRAPHY Know the locations of the 13 colonies KEY TERMS 1. Act of Toleration (1649) 28. indentured servants 2. Anglican Church 29. Jacob Leisler 3. Anne Hutchinson 30. James I 4. aristocracy 31. James II 5. backcountry 32. James Oglethorpe 6. Bacon’s Rebellion 33. John Rolfe 7. Barbadian slave codes 34. John Smith 8. Caribbean sugar trade 35. John Winthrop 9. charters 36. joint stock companies 10. “city on a hill” 37. King Philip (Metacomet) 11. corporate colonies 38. King Philip’s War (1675) 12. agrarian economy 39. Lord Baltimore 13. Calvert family (Lords Baltimore) 40. Magna Carta 14. Charles I (executed 1649) 41. Massachusetts Bay Colony 15. Charles II – Restoration monarch 42. Mayflower Compact 16. divine right 43. Nathaniel Bacon 17. English Civil War 44. Navigation Acts 18. Dominion of New England 45. New Netherlands 19. Edmund Andros 46. New York Colony 20. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 47. Oliver Cromwell 21. Georgia Colony 48. Pequot War (1637) 22. “Glorious Revolution” (“Bloodless 49. Pennsylvania Act of Toleration Revolution”) 50. Pennsylvania Colony 23. Governor William Berkeley 51. Plymouth Colony 24. Hanoverians – George I and George 52. Powhatan II 53. presidios 25. head right 54. proprietary 26. “holy experiment” and “inner light” 55. Puritans – separatists and 27. House of Burgesses moderates 56. Quakers 65. “The Starving Time” 57. Rhode Island 66. Thomas Hooker 58. Roger Williams 67. tobacco 59. Roman Catholics 68. transplantation 60. royal colonies 69. Triangular Trade 61. Saint Augustine, FL 70. Virginia Company 62. “saints” 71. William and Mary 63. Squanto and Samoset 72. William Bradford 64. Theocracy 73. William Penn READING QUESTIONS 1. What were the common characteristics of the English settlers in the 1600s? 2. What were the problems in early Jamestown? 3. What change related to the holding of land caused early Virginia to begin to prosper? 4. What crop was important to the survival and expansion of Virginia? 5. What “firsts” are associated with Virginia? 6. What caused the eastern region of Virginia to be saved from future Indian attacks? 7. What were the characteristics of the colony of Maryland? 8. How did the relationship change with Native Americans following the passage of the “Act Concerning Religion” by the Calverts in 1649? 9. What were the results of the rapid growth of the population of Virginia in the 1600s? 10. How did Bacon’s Rebellion begin? What were the results/significance? 11. Which group established the first enduring European settlement in New England? 12. How did the Pilgrims of Plymouth Plantation benefit from their relationship with the Indians? 13. What were early relationships between Plymouth settlers and local Indians like? 14. Who was the first governor of Plymouth Plantation? 15. What was the primary reason for the founding of the Massachusetts Bay colony? 16. What were the unique characteristics of Massachusetts Bay? 17. Who were some important dissenters in Massachusetts Bay and which other colonies did they help establish? 18. Why did the Massachusetts clergy criticize Anne Hutchinson? 19. What did the New England settlers believe about the Indians? 20. What was the name of the longest and bloodiest war between Europeans and Indians in the 1600s? 21. What were the dates/order of settlement of the 13 colonies? 22. Which colonies are known as the “Restoration colonies” b/c Charles II issued charters for them following the Stuart Restoration? 23. What were the characteristics of the Carolinas? 24. Against which European group did James, the Duke of York, use force in order to take possession of the colony Charles II granted to him? 25. From what colony did the colony of New Jersey originate? 26. What ideas did the Quakers have? What religious ideas did they not share with other groups? 27. What were some of the unique characteristics of the colony of Pennsylvania? 28. What island was a major British settlement in the Caribbean? 29. What were the influences of the Caribbean settlements on those in North America? What products traveled between the two areas? 30. What issue caused conflicts in Pennsylvania by the late 1690s? 31. Why was the colony of Georgia founded? 32. What caused resentment among the early settlers of Georgia? 33. What was the major problem with mercantile policy for the English colonists in North America? 34. How did the colonists of Massachusetts escape from under the control of an unpopular and autocratic governor in 1688? 35. Why did James II become unpopular with his British subjects? 36. Who was the self-appointed governor who ruled New York between 1689 and 1691? 37. In what area of North America did the English establish their trading centers? APUSH – APO 03 & VUS SOL 02 & 03 NAME_______________________ Study Guide – Society and Culture in Provincial America (Ch 3) Items that surface most frequently on the AP and CLEP exams: Enlightenment, Deism, Half-Way Covenant, (First) Great Awakening, Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield, “New Light” and “Old Light” ministers, divisions in Presbyterian and Congregational churches, itinerant ministers, Scots-Irish and “German” immigrants, Pennsylvania “Dutch”, Appalachia and the “back country”, legal status of colonial women, Stono Rebellion, tobacco and rice cultivation, slavery in Brazil and the Caribbean, Spanish Florida, Harvard College, Yale College, Princeton College, Anne Bradstreet, Phillis Wheatley, James Fenimore Cooper KEY TERMS 1. Anne Bradstreet 25. New Lights 2. “back country” 26. Old Lights 3. Benjamin Franklin 27. patriarchal 4. Cotton Mather 28. Pennsylvania “Dutch” (Deutsch) 5. dispersed settlement 29. Phillis Wheatley 6. Enlightenment 30. philosophe 7. “evidence of grace” 31. Poor Richard’s Almanac 8. French Huguenots 32. primogeniture 9. George Whitefield 33. Princeton College 10. Great Awakening (First) 34. religious declension 11. “German” immigrants 35. rice cultivation 12. Half-Way Covenant 36. Salem witch trials 13. Harvard College 37. Saugus (MA) Iron Works 14. indentured servitude 38. Scotch-Irish (Scots-Irish) immigrants 15. indigo 39. slave codes 16. James Fenimore Cooper 40. social mobility 17. “jeremiads” 41. Spanish Florida 18. John and Charles Wesley 42. Stono Rebellion 19. John Peter Zenger 43. tobacco cultivation 20. Jonathan Edwards 44. Triangular Trade 21. Middle Passage 45. William and Mary College 22. mulatto children 46. Yale College 23. natural increase 47. Zenger Trial 24. Navigation Acts READING QUESTIONS 1. What groups of people came as indentured servants to the English colonies in the 1600s? 2. What percentage of indentured servants were women? 3. Why did the system of indentured servitude become less popular during the late 1600s? 4. What element of society in the English colonies caused the greatest social unrest in the late 1600s? 5. Why was life expectancy greater in the northern colonies than in the southern colonies? 6. What were the characteristics of medical care in the 17th century? 7. Why did women have considerable choice for husbands in the Chesapeake region in the 1600s? 8. What were the characteristics of Puritan family life and gender roles in the 1600s? 9. Which groups were most active in the slave trade? 10. Approximately how many Africans were transported to the Americas during the time of the Atlantic slave trade? Describe their voyage across the Atlantic. 11. Were Africans viewed as equal to Europeans in the 17th and 18th centuries? 12. What were the rules of the slave codes of the English colonies by the early 1700s? 13. What groups began to immigrate to the Americas in large numbers during the late 1600s and early 1700s? 14. Why did immigrants from Europe come to the American colonies? 15. What are some of the different perspectives about slavery among historians who study the 17th and 18th centuries? 16. What were the characteristics of the southern and northern economies in the 17th and early 18th centuries? 17. What were some of the colonial exports? 18. What new staple crop was successful in South Carolina in the 1740s? 19. What currency problem did American merchants have in the 17th and 18th centuries? 20. What role did adventurous entrepreneurs play in the rise of commerce in the English colonies? 21. How would you describe plantations in the American South? 22. Which group dominated the southern agrarian economy? Were they in the majority? 23. What were some of the characteristics of the slave culture of the large plantations? 24. What types of resistance did slaves use to defy their masters’ wishes? 25. What was the basic unit of social life in colonial New England? 26. How did the witchcraft hysteria reflect the class differences in the New England colonies? 27. What were the characteristics of colonial cities? 28. What were the names of important cities in colonial times? 29. What were the various types of churches that existed in the colonies? 30. What was the Great Awakening of the 1700s? 31. Who were important Great Awakening preachers? 32. Did George Whitefield believe individuals could atone for their sins by admitting them directly to God? 33. What did Enlightenment philosophes think was the source for guidance and shaping society? 34. Which important American leaders were strongly influenced by Enlightenment thought? 35. How did Cotton Mather think smallpox could be eradicated? 36. Which group had the least access to education in the English colonies of North America? 37. What were the early American colleges? What was the reason most of them were founded? Which college(s) had no theological faculty? Which one was totally secular? 38. What are some examples of the increasing value of scientific knowledge in the American colonies? 39. Why did the American political system develop differently than the British political system? 40. What was the most popular non-religious publication in the colonies? 41. How was the use of humor in the almanacs significant? APUSH – APO 04 & SOL VUS 04 Study Guide – Empire in Transition (Ch 4) NAME__________________ GEOGRAPHY Be able to identify the following areas on a map of North America: Area that was to remain settled and past which colonists could not move after 1763 Area that Britain won from France in the Seven Years’ War (not completely settled) Territory that Britain gained from Spain (not completely occupied) Territory Span gained from France Which country no longer possessed territory on the North American continent after the Seven Years’ War? Locations: Hudson River, Montreal, Nova Scotia, New Orleans, Hudson Bay KEY TERMS 1. 1775 26. Iroquois Confederacy 2. Albany Plan of Union 27. James Otis 3. Battle of Quebec 28. John Adams 4. Benjamin Franklin 29. John Locke 5. Board of Customs Commissioners 30. King George III 6. Boston “Massacre” 31. King William’s War, Queen Anne’s 7. Boston Tea Party War and King George’s War 8. British East India Company 32. Lexington and Concord 9. Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) 33. Louisburg Campaign 10. Committees of Correspondence 34. martial law 11. Conciliatory Propositions 35. Massachusetts Circular Letter 12. Continental Association 36. minutemen (Paul Revere and 13. Crispus Attucks William Dawes) 14. Currency Act (1764) 37. Navigation Acts 15. Declaratory Act (1766) 38. Non-importation agreements 16. English Industrial Revolution (boycotts) 17. First Continental Congress (1774) 39. Ohio Valley 18. Fort Dusquesne 40. Patrick Henry 19. Gaspée 41. Paxton Boys 20. General Edward Braddock (Br) 42. Pontiac’s Rebellion 21. General Thomas Gage (Br) 43. Proclamation of 1763 22. George Grenville (Br Prime Minister) 44. Quartering Act (Mutiny Act of 1765) 23. George Washington 45. Quebec Act 24. homespun 46. Quebec and Montreal 25. impressments 47. republicanism 48. Regulator Movement 56. Sugar Act (Revenue Act of 1764) 49. Robert Walpole 57. Tea Act 50. salutary neglect 58. The Peace (Treaty) of Paris (1763) 51. Samuel Adams 59. Townshend Duties 52. Seven Years’ War (French and 60. Virginia Resolves Indian War) 61. virtual and actual representation 53. Sons and Daughters of Liberty 62. Whig ideology 54. Stamp Act (1765) 63. William Pitt (Br Prime Minister) 55. Stamp Act Congress 64. writs of assistance READING QUESTIONS 1. What characterized the relationship between the British Empire and the American colonies in the 1750s? By the mid 1770s, what had changed? 2. What was the relationship between the British Empire and the colonies immediately after the Glorious Revolution of 1688? 3. What was the role of Prime Minister? Who was the first Prime Minister? 4. On what basis were appointments to the positions of royal governor, customs collector or naval officer usually made? 5. What factors encouraged the colonists to work together in spite of their differences? 6. What three groups fought in the Seven Years’ War? 7. What is another name for the Seven Years’ War? Why is that name confusing? 8. What was the relationship between the French settlers in North America and the Native Americans during the late 1600s and early 1700s? 9. During the 1700s, which group of Native Americans was most powerful? 10. How did continued expansion of French and English settlements lead to the French and Indian War? 11. Which were the two nations who had a dispute that turned into King George’s War? 12. What were the names of the four British-French wars between 1680 and 1760 in which the Americans participated? Why are they considered “world wars”? 13. What were the effects of Queen Anne’s War in the colonies? 14. What were the phases of the French and Indian War? 15. From what location did English leaders lead the war? 16. Who was the English Secretary of State during the Seven Years’ War? How did he transform the war effort in America? 17. Who was the leader of the American militia at Fort Necessity? 18. What was the last major occurrence in America (Canada) during the French and Indian war? 19. What did the French agree to in the Peace of Paris? 20. What effects did the French and Indian war have on the postwar world? 21. What were the changes in British imperial design after 1763? 22. What problems did the British Empire face after the French and Indian War? 23. What was Prime Minister Grenville’s goal for the colonies? 24. What was the Proclamation of 1763? Who supported it? Who was strongly against it and why? 25. What effect did the Proclamation of 1763 have on the flow of colonists into the Ohio Valley? 26. What acts did the new imperial program of Grenville include after 1763? 27. What were the revenue-producing measures of Grenville’s imperial program after 1763? 28. After 1763, what were the reasons Americans began to feel a common bond against the British? 29. During the 1760s and 1770s, what political program angered the Americans the most? 30. Why did the Stamp Act of 1765 antagonize and unify the colonists against the British government more than the Sugar Act of 1764 had? 31. Why did the Stamp Act Congress petition the king and Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act? 32. What colonists from Virginia and Massachusetts took an early lead in the movement toward independence? 33. Why did the Stamp Act crisis subside and not bring the colonies to the brink of war? 34. What measures did Charles Townshend persuade Parliament to pass? 35. Why did the colonists resent the Mutiny (Quartering) Act of 1765? 36. What was the result of the establishment of Townshend’s board of customs commissioners? 37. What were the writs of assistance? 38. What did Samuel Adams create after the “Boston Massacre” of 1770? 39. On whose ideas did the colonial leaders base their opposition to British policies? What were these ideas? What other ideas influenced the colonists to oppose the British? 40. How were the protests of the Tea Act different from earlier responses to British laws? 41. What was the British Parliament’s reaction to Boston’s opposition to the Tea Act of 1773? 42. What responses to the Coercive Acts did the colonists take? What did they call these acts? 43. Why did the First Continental Congress meet? When? Where? 44. Where were the first shots of the Revolutionary War fired? 45. Which side had more casualties – British or American? 46. Was there much alcohol consumption in the colonies in the 1770s? APUSH – APO 04 & VUS SOL 04 Study Guide – The American Revolution (Ch 5) NAME__________________ KEY TERMS 1. Abigail Adams 35. Lord North 2. Alexander Hamilton 36. Loyalists, Royalists, Tories 3. Anglican/Church of England 37. manumission 4. Annapolis Convention 38. Mary Wollstonecraft – Vindication of the 5. Anthony Wayne Rights of Women (1792) 6. Articles of Confederation 39. Mercenaries 7. Battle of Fallen Timbers 40. Nathaniel Greene 8. Benedict Arnold 41. Newburgh Conspiracy 9. Benjamin Franklin 42. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 10. British Regulars 43. Northwest Territory 11. Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill) 44. Olive Branch Petition 12. camp followers 45. Patriots 13. Carl Becker 46. Privateers 14. Common Sense 47. propaganda 15. Continental Army 48. republican motherhood 16. Declaration of Independence 49. restitution 17. disestablishment 50. “remember the ladies” 18. Emancipation 51. Richard Henry Lee 19. Evangelical Christianity 52. Saratoga 20. France 53. Second Continental Congress 21. Franco-American Alliance 54. Shays’s Rebellion 22. Friedrich von Steuben 55. Thomas Gage 23. George Mason 56. Thomas Jefferson 24. George Washington 57. Thomas Paine 25. Hessians 58. Treaty of Paris (1783) 26. Horatio Gates 59. Trenton and Princeton 27. Inflation 60. Valley Forge 28. Iroquois Confederacy 61. Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) 29. John Dickinson 62. Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom 30. John Locke (Statute of Religious Liberty – 1786) 31. King George III 63. Wilderness Road 32. Land Ordinance of 1785 64. William Howe 33. Little Turtle 65. Yorktown (1781) 34. Lord Cornwallis READING QUESTIONS 1. What are the different ways that scholars view the American Revolution? 2. What organization met to discuss a possible course of action three weeks after the American Revolution began? What colony did not send delegates? 3. At the beginning of the Revolution what did most Americans believe was their goal? 4. Who wrote Common Sense? What were the arguments it put forth? Why was it so influential? 5. What were the main ideas of the Declaration of Independence? 6. From what other documents did the ideas in the Declaration of Independence originate? 7. What was the real center of authority during the American Revolution? 8. What was the name of the plan for a decentralized national government that states ratified in 1781? 9. How did the American national government obtain many of their war supplies that they needed to fight the American Revolution? 10. What were George Washington’s characteristics as commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution? Was he always an effective leader? Did any of his men ever want/plan to mutiny? 11. What were the advantages of the Americans over the British during the American Revolution? 12. Did the colonials lose many men at Bunker Hill? 13. What were some of the important American military leaders during the Revolutionary War? 14. Which side generally had the better trained troops – the colonials or the British? 15. What was the British strategy during the early years of the American Revolution (1775-76)? 16. During the second phase of the American Revolution (early 1776 and early 1778), what was the result of the fighting on the British forces? Were they generally winning? 17. During 1777, what did the British General Burgoyne attempt to capture in order to implement his plan for dividing the colonies? 18. What 1777 victory is considered the “turning point” of the American Revolution? Why? 19. What was the result of the American Revolution on the Iroquois Confederacy? 20. From which country did the Patriots receive military and financial assistance? 21. From which country did the British hire mercenaries? 22. What was the result when the British forced moved their efforts to the South in the final phase of the American Revolution (early 1778 to late 1783)? 23. What were some of the actions/reactions of the British Loyalists during the American Revolution? 24. Where was Cornwallis cornered and forced to surrender? 25. What did the Treaty of Paris provide for the Americans? 26. Do historians agree about the cause of the motivation for the revolution? 27. How did the Revolutionary War affect religious and social groups? 28. Which religious group most improved its position? 29. What were the wartime experiences of women? 30. What was the result of the American Revolution on the status of women? for Native Americans? 31. What was the result of the American Revolution for African Americans? Was there any change in the views on slavery? In what area of the country? 32. What were the economic results of the American Revolution? 33. What political assumptions did most Americans have in the 1770s and 1780s? 34. What were the characteristics of the state governments that formed during the 1770s? 35. What changes did the states make when they began to revise their governments during the 1780s? 36. What branch of government was the strongest in the early 1780s? 37. What was the position of the new American state governments on religious freedom during the 1770s and 1780s? 38. What were the significant characteristics of the Land Ordinances of 1785 and 1787? 39. What result did General Anthony Wayne’s 1794 victory over the Miami Indians and the Treaty of Greenville have for Native Americans and their land? 40. What problems did the Confederation Congress face and why did they become worse? 41. How did the states respond to the 5% duty on imported goods that the Continental Congress proposed? 42. During the 1780s, what actions did the farmers take as a result of their economic problems? 43. What was the result of Shays’s Rebellion? 44. What layout of the land characterized the westward settlement after the Land Ordinances?