Compounds

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Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Name: _____________________________________ Per: _______________________
Unit 4 Homework and Lab Packet
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Updated November 2009
1
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Overall Objective: to be able to understand how and why atoms bond together
and to recognize ionic and covalent compounds.
At the end of the unit, you should:
1. be able to determine the common charge of the ions of the elements in groups IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA,
VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA.
2. be able to differentiate between molecular (covalent) and ionic compounds.
3. be able to differentiate between covalent and ionic bonds.
4. know what a polyatomic ion is and how it bonds with other ions.
5. define nomenclature.
6. recognize the difference between acids, covalent compounds, and ionic compounds by name and
formula.
7. correctly name acids, covalent compounds, and ionic compounds given a formula.
8. Write and give the formula for acids, covalent compounds, and ionic compounds given a chemical
name.
9. know the different types of particles (atoms, molecule).
10. Explain how the octet rule applies to atoms of metallic and nonmetallic elements
11. Distinguish between melting and boiling points of molecular and ionic compounds.
12. Describe three properties of ionic compounds
13. Explain the importance of alloys
2
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Common Ion Charges
Write in the Lewis Dot structures for the atoms in the THIRD PERIOD. Also, fill in the number of
protons, total electron (e), and valence electrons (Ve) for each atom
P=
P=
P=
P=
P=
P=
P=
P=
e=
e=
e=
e=
e=
e=
e=
e=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
For the table below, write the Lewis Dot structure for the most stable ion for each of the symbols written
above. Also fill in the number of protons, total electrons (e), and valence electrons (Ve) for each atom.
P=
P=
P=
P=
P=
P=
P
e=
e=
e=
e=
e=
e=
e=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
Ve=
1. Nonmetals tend to _____________________ electrons to form a ______________ charged ion.
2. Metals tend to ______________________ electrons to form a ________________ charged ion.
3. Look at the nonmetal ions. The electron configuration is the same as what family on the periodic
table?
_________________________________________
Why is this important to notice? ___________________________________
4. Complete the box for Neon. How do the positive ions compare to neon?
P=
e=
Ve=
Revised Fall 2005
3
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Name: _________________
Counting Atoms makes me hungry!
When atoms bond to form molecules, we use subscripts to tell how many atoms of each
element are in the compound. We also use coefficients to tell how many molecules there are.
For example, a sandwich has 2 slices of bread and one slice of meat. Using proper chemistry
notation, we would write this as:
Bread2Meat
This tells me that I have two breads, and only 1 meat. If I had three slices of meat, how would
I write that?
__________________
I can also use coefficients to tell me that I have more than one molecule. If I had two Big
Macs, we would write this as:
2Bread3Meat2
How many total breads do I have?__________________
How many total meats do I have? __________________
Finally, parenthesis set things aside, just like in math. For example, I have a salad that has 2
cucumbers for every one piece of tomato. There are two sets of tomatoes and cucumbers for
every 15 pieces of lettuce. We would write this as:
Lettuce15(Cucumber2Tomato)2
How many total lettuces do I have? __________________
How many total cucumbers do I have? _________________
How many total tomatoes do I have? _____________________
4
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Now you get to practice these with real compounds!
Fe(OH)3
3 Fe(OH)3
2 Fe(NO3)3
H2CO3
4 Fe(HCO3)3
2 Fe(NO3)3
3 FeCO3
CO2
2 CO2
NaHCO3
4 NaOH
NH4NO3
13 NH4NO3
SO2
A12(SO4)3
A12O3
2 NH4NO3
4 NH4NO2
Fe
O
H
N
C
Na
O
H
N
C
S
O
Al
N
H
5
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Ionic and Metallic Bonding Reading Guide
(Chapter 7; p.186-203)
Directions: Use your textbook to complete the following notes. As you read the section
and find the quote, explain the quote in your own words. Then, give an example of each
quote from the reading.
Summarize in your own words:
“Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest
occupied energy level of an element’s atoms. The
number of valence electrons largely determines the
chemical properties of an element.”
Example from the Textbook:
Summarize in your own words:
“…the octet rule: in forming compounds, atoms tend to
achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas. An
octet is a set of eight.
Example from the Textbook:
6
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Summarize in your own words:
“An atom’s loss of valence electrons produces a cation, or
a positively charges ion.
Example from the Textbook:
Summarize in your own words:
“The gain of negatively charged electrons by a neutral
atom produces an anion. The name of the anion typically
ends in –ide.”
Example from the Textbook:
7
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Chapter and Pages: 7.2 and 7.3; p.194-203
Topic: Ionic Bonds, Compounds, and Bonding in Metals
Directions: Read the pages in the textbook. Fill in the graphic organizer with the information that will best answer the
heading in each box.
Describe an ionic bond
What is a chemical formula vs. a
formula unit?
State and describe one property of
ionic compounds
State and describe a second
property of ionic compounds
State and describe a third property
of ionic compounds
What is an alloy? Why are they
important? Give two examples.
8
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Chapter + Pages: 8.1 and 8.2; p.212-222
Topic: Covalent Bonding
Read the pages in the textbook. Fill in the graphic organizer with the information that will best answer the heading in each
column.
Describe a covalent bond.
What is the similarity/difference
Describe the properties of molecular
between a molecule, diatomic
compounds
molecule, and molecular
compound?
What is a molecular formula and
what does it show? List 4 examples.
What do electrons do in covalent
bonds to achieve an octet?
Compare and contrast, single,
double, and triple bonds.
9
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Type of Compounds Jigsaw
Group 1
Your group’s very important job is the following:
1) Look at the following examples of ionic compounds
2) Figure out what is the same about all of the ionic compounds
3) Come up with rules for identifying ionic compounds from either the chemical symbols or the
names
4) Prepare to teach the class your rules (you can use overhead transparencies, butcher paper, the
chalk board, or anything else that you find useful)
Ionic Compound Examples
KF
Li2O
CaBr2
Ba3N2
FeS
AlI3
Pt2Se
FrF
Copper(I) iodide
Magnesium chloride
Cesium chloride
Manganese(III) telluride
Lithium carbide
Gold(I) astatide
Rubidium sulfide
Strontium bromide
For comparison, these are NOT ionic compounds:
CCl4
Silicon Dioxide
PI3
Carbon Dioxide
O2
Antimony tribromide
10
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Group 2
Your group’s very important job is the following:
1) Look at the following examples of ionic compounds’ formulas and names
2) Figure out the process to go from the formula to the name and vice versa
3) Come up with rules for writing formulas for ionic compounds from their names and vice
versa
4) Prepare to teach the class your rules (you can use overhead transparencies, butcher paper, the
chalk board, or anything else that you find useful)
Ionic Compound Examples
KF
Potassium flouride
Li2O
Lithium oxide
CaBr2
Calcium bromide
Ba3N2
Barium nitride
FeS
Iron(II) sulfide
AlI3
Aluminum iodide
Pt2Se
Platinum(I) selenide
FrF
Francium flouride
Copper(I) iodide
CuI2
Magnesium chloride
MgCl2
Cesium chloride
CsCl
Manganese(III) telluride
Mn2Te3
Lithium carbide
Li4C
Gold(I) astatide
AuAt
Rubidium sulfide
Rb2S
Strontium bromide
SrBr2
11
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Group 3
Your group’s very important job is the following:
1) Look at the following examples of covalent compounds
2) Figure out what is the same about all of the covalent compounds
3) Come up with rules for identifying covalent compounds from either the chemical symbols or
the names
4) Prepare to teach the class your rules (you can use overhead transparencies, butcher paper, the
chalk board, or anything else that you find useful)
Covalent Compound Examples
CCl4
PI3
O2
NF3
Cl2
Silicon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Antimony tribromide
Carbon monoxide
Selenium dioxide
Nitrogen trioxide
Silicon tetrabromide
Sulfur dioxide
For comparison, these are NOT covalent compounds:
KF
Copper (I) iodide
Li2O
Magnesium chloride
CaBr2
Cesium chloride
12
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Group 4
Your group’s very important job is the following:
5) Look at the following examples of covalent compounds
6) Figure out the process to go from the formula to the name and vie versa.
7) Come up with rules for writing formulas for covalent compounds from their names and vice
versa.
8) Prepare to teach the class your rules (you can use overhead transparencies, butcher paper, the
chalk board, or anything else that you find useful)
Covalent Compound Examples
CCl4
Carbon tetrachloride
PI3
Phosphorous triiodide
O2
Oxygen
NF3
Nitrogen triflouride
Cl2
Chlorine
Silicon dioxide
SiO2
Carbon dioxide
CO2
Antimony tribromide
SbBr3
Carbon monoxide
CO
Selenium dioxide
SeO2
Nitrogen trioxide
NO3
Silicon tetrabromide
SiBr4
Sulfur dioxide
SO2
13
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Group 5
Your group’s very important job is the following:
1) Look at the following examples of acids’ formulas and names
2) Figure out the process to go from the formula to the name and vice versa
3) Come up with rules for writing formulas for acids from their names and vice versa
4) Prepare to teach the class your rules (you can use overhead transparencies, butcher paper, the
chalk board, or anything else that you find useful)
Acid Examples
HF
hydrofluoric acid
HCl
hydrochloric acid
HBr
hydrobromic acid
HI
hydroiodic acid
H2SO4
sulfuric acid
HNO3
nitric acid
HClO3
chloric acid
HC2H3O2
acetic acid
HNO2
nitrous acid
HClO3
chlorous acid
14
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Bond Identification
1. When atoms share electrons to fill their outermost energy levels, they form
________________________ bonds.
2. When atoms transfer electrons to fill their outermost energy levels, they form
________________________ bonds.
3. Indicate whether the atoms listed below will share electrons or transfer electrons (HINT: when
electrons are transferred, both atoms will have complete outermost energy levels. Otherwise, atoms
share electrons.)
a.
O -- O
a. ____________________________
b.
K -- Cl
b. ____________________________
c.
C -- O
c. ____________________________
d.
H -- F
d. ____________________________
e.
I -- I
e. ____________________________
f.
S -- O -- O
f. ____________________________
g.
Na -- Na -- S
g. ____________________________
h.
Li -- Cl
h. ____________________________
i.
Ca -- Br -- Br
i. ____________________________
j.
N -- N
j. ____________________________
4. Write IONIC or COVALENT under each substance below to identify the type of bond.
a. Calcium chloride
b. Sulfur trioxide
c. Phosphorus pentaflouride
d. Sodium iodide
e. Carbon monoxide
e. Cesium fluoride
15
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Ionic Bonding and Chemical Formulas
When a chemical formula for a compound is written correctly, it shows the number of each type
of atom in the compound. These numbers, called subscripts, are determined by the bonding between the
atoms.
The table shows two columns of elements. The elements in the first column usually give up
electrons when they form compounds. The elements in the second column usually gain electrons when
they form compounds. The column next to the elements gives the number of electrons found in the
outer level of each element. Using this information, determine the charge on the ion after the exchange
of electrons. Remember, atoms that give up electrons become positive ions, while atoms that gain
electrons become negative ions.
Now, show how the positive ion would combine with the negative ion to make a neutral
compound. For example, sodium (Na) has one electron in its outer level. It gives up this electron and
becomes a 1+ ion. Sulfur (S) having six electrons in its outer level gains two electrons to fill this outer
level with eight electrons. Sulfur becomes 2- ion. These two ions then combine to form Na2S. This
formula is correct because it takes two sodium ions to match the 2- charge on one sulfur ion.
Element
Sodium
Electrons
in the
outer
level
1
Charge
on the ion
+1
Element
Sulfur
Magnesium
Bromine
Sodium
Oxygen
Lithium
Oxygen
Calcium
Phosphorus
Barium
Chlorine
Beryllium
Sulfur
Strontium
Fluorine
Sodium
Astatine
Aluminum
Oxygen
Electrons
in the
outer
level
6
Charge
on the ion
2-
Formula
Na2S
16
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Name: ____________________________
Date: _______________
Hour: _____
Information: Naming Ions
To write an ion, you write the symbol of the atom and put the charge in the upper right
corner. Consider the following examples: Al3+, O2-, Mg2+. You should verify that each of the
charges is correct.
Positive and negative ions are named differently. Positive ions retain the same name
as the parent atom. For example, Al3+ is called the “aluminum ion” and Mg2+ is called the
“magnesium ion.” Negative ions are named a little differently. For negative ions, you change
the ending of the name to “-ide”. Therefore, O2- is named oxide and P3- is named phosphide.
Critical Thinking Questions
1. Write the symbol (including the charge) and name for each of the ions for each of the
following:
a) Ca
b) Cl
c) N
d) K
e) S
f) B
g) P
Information: Ionic Bonding and Formulas
There are two ways in which atoms can “bond” to each other and form a compound. The
means of bonding that we will consider now is called ionic bonding, which occurs between a
metal and a nonmetal. As you know, opposite charges attract. Ionic bonding is when two ions
of opposite charge attract and bond to each other forming an ionic compound. Consider the
following examples of formulas for ionic compounds:
•
•
•
•
One Na+ (sodium ion) and one Cl- (chloride ion) bond to make NaCl, “sodium chloride.”
One Mg2+ (magnesium ion) and two F- (fluoride ion) bond to make MgF2, “magnesium
fluoride.”
Three Ca2+ (calcium ion) and two N3- (nitride ion) bond to make Ca3N2, “calcium nitride.”
One Al3+ (aluminum ion) and one N3- (nitride ion) bond to make AlN, “aluminum nitride.”
The small numbers at the bottom right of each symbol in a formula are called “subscripts”.
Subscripts tell us how many of each type of atom are present. For example in the formula
Mg3N2 there are three magnesium ions and two nitride ions.
17
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Critical Thinking Questions
2. Consider the formula NaCl in the above example. It tells us that one Na+ ion is bonded to
one Cl- ion. What is the overall charge for NaCl? Is it positive, negative, or neutral?
3. Consider MgF2. This formula tells us that one Mg2+ ion bonds with two F- ions. What is the
overall charge on MgF2?
4. What is the overall charge on any ionic compound?
5. Why is calcium nitride written like Ca3N2 and not something like CaN2 or Ca2N3? In other
words why do exactly three calcium ions bond with exactly two nitride ions?
6. The formula Ca3N2 can never be written as N2Ca3. To find out why, take note of each of the
four example formulas given above.
a) In terms of charge, what do the first ions named all have in common?
b) In terms of charge, what do the second ions named all have in common?
c) Now, why can’t Ca3N2 ever be written like N2Ca3?
7. There are two rules to follow when writing formulas for ionic compounds. One has to do
with charges (see questions 4 and 5) and the other has to do with which atom to write first
and which one to write second (see question 6). What are these two rules?
8. What is wrong with the following formulas?
a) Al2S
b) PNa3
c) Mg2S2
18
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
9. Write the formula and name for the compound that forms when the following atoms form
ionic compounds. The first is done for you.
a) nitrogen and sodium
b) barium and sulfur
c) magnesium and iodine
Na3N
sodium nitride
d) oxygen and aluminum
e) calcium and phosphorus
f) sodium and sulfur
10. Given the following compounds, determine the charge on the unknown ion “X”.
a) X2S
b) MgX
c) X3P2
19
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Formula Writing for Binary Ionic Compounds
Write the formula for the following binary compounds.
1. sodium bromide
________________________________________________
2. manganese (IV) oxide
________________________________________________
3. iron (II) sulfide
________________________________________________
4. barium nitride
________________________________________________
5. silver chloride
________________________________________________
6. copper (II) oxide
________________________________________________
7. nickel (II) bromide
________________________________________________
8. magnesium phosphide
________________________________________________
9. aluminum iodide
________________________________________________
10. calcium oxide
________________________________________________
11. strontium arsenide
________________________________________________
12. lead (IV) chloride
________________________________________________
13. silver selenide
________________________________________________
14. copper (I) phosphide
________________________________________________
15. magnesium chloride
________________________________________________
16. thallium (VI) oxide
________________________________________________
17. barium iodide
________________________________________________
18. iron (I) bromide
________________________________________________
19. Lithium bromide
________________________________________________
20. palladium (III) sulfide
________________________________________________
WHAT RULES DO I NEED TO REMEMBER TO ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS?
20
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Nomenclature Writing for Binary Ionic Compounds
Write the name for the following binary ionic compounds.
1. CaBr2
________________________________________________
2. AlCl3
________________________________________________
3. Zn3N2
________________________________________________
4. KCl
________________________________________________
5. Na2S
________________________________________________
6. AlN
________________________________________________
7. CsI
________________________________________________
8. Ca3P2
________________________________________________
9. BaO
________________________________________________
10. BeF2
________________________________________________
11. FeCl2
________________________________________________
12. FeCl3
________________________________________________
13. Ag2O
________________________________________________
14. CuS
________________________________________________
15. CoP
________________________________________________
16. MnBr3
________________________________________________
17. NiN
________________________________________________
18. ZnF2
________________________________________________
19. VO2
________________________________________________
WHAT RULES DO I NEED TO REMEMBER TO ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS?
21
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Formula Writing for Polyatomic Ionic Compounds
Write the formulas for the following polyatomic ionic compounds.
1. sodium hydroxide
________________________________________________
2. iron (III) sulfate
________________________________________________
3. potassium permanganate ________________________________________________
4. copper (II) hydroxide
________________________________________________
5. ammonium sulfide
________________________________________________
6. ammonium sulfate
________________________________________________
7. mercury (I) sulfite
________________________________________________
8. magnesium phosphate
________________________________________________
9. cobalt (IV) bicarbonate
________________________________________________
10. zinc bicarbonate
________________________________________________
11. aluminum phosphate
________________________________________________
12. lithium carbonate
________________________________________________
13. strontium acetate
________________________________________________
14. copper (II) nitrate
________________________________________________
15. sodium phosphite
________________________________________________
16. rubidium carbonate
________________________________________________
17. tin (II) thiocyanate
________________________________________________
18. ammonium arsenate
________________________________________________
19. iron (II) hydroxide
________________________________________________
20. manganese (VI) carbonate ______________________________________________
WHAT RULES DO I NEED TO REMEMBER TO ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS?
22
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Nomenclature Writing for Polyatomic Ionic Compounds
Write the names for the following polyatomic ionic compounds.
1. Cs2(Cr2O7)
________________________________________________
2. K2(SO4)
________________________________________________
3. (NH4)2SO4
________________________________________________
4. Co(ClO3)3
________________________________________________
5. NiPO4
________________________________________________
6. Fe(NO3)3
________________________________________________
7. MgCrO4
________________________________________________
8. CaCO3
________________________________________________
9. KMnO4
________________________________________________
10. NaC2H3O2
________________________________________________
11. PbCrO4
________________________________________________
12. CoPO4
________________________________________________
13. NiCr2O7
________________________________________________
14. (NH4)2SO3
________________________________________________
15. KClO3
________________________________________________
16. Os3(PO3)2
________________________________________________
17. ZrHCO3
________________________________________________
WHAT RULES DO I NEED TO REMEMBER TO ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS?
23
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Chemical Formulas Pairs Check
Directions: Write the chemical formula for each word formula listed. Check your partner as
they are completing their formula. Praise or coach each other until both partners understand
all sixteen formulas.
1. Sodium Chloride
2. Magnesium Oxide
______________________________
_______________________________
3. Aluminum Sulfide
4. Potassium Oxide
______________________________
_______________________________
5. Calcium Chloride
6. Lithium Nitride
______________________________
_______________________________
7. Lead (II) Oxide
8. Iron (III) Flouride
______________________________
_______________________________
9. Copper (I) Flouride
10. Zinc Oxide
______________________________
_______________________________
11. Rubidium Bromide
12. Potassium Chloride
______________________________
_______________________________
13. Titanium (III) Sulfide
14. Calcium Iodide
______________________________
_______________________________
15. Lithium Phosphide
16. Silver Oxide
______________________________
_______________________________
24
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Bond with a Classmate
When you find another ion with which you can bond, write in each symbol and charge. Then write the
new compound formed by combining the two. Give the compound’s name. Remember-positive ions
can only bond with negative ions and vice versa!!!
Cation
Mg2+
Cl-
Anion
Compound
MgCl2
Name
Magnesium Chloride
25
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Supplemental Problems
Section 7.1 (p.193)
3) How can you determine the # of valence e- in an atom of a representative element?
4) Atoms of which elements tend to gain e-? Atoms of which elements tend to lose e-?
5) How do cations form?
6) How to anions forms?
7) How many valence e- are in each atom?
a. potassium
b. carbon
c. magnesium
d. oxygen
9) How many e- will each element gain or lose in forming an ion?
a. calcium (Ca)
b. fluorine (F)
c. aluminum (Al)
d. oxygen (O)
Section 7.2
14) How can you describe the electrical charge of an ionic compound?
15) What properties characterize compounds?
16) Define an ionic bond.
20) What pairs of elements are likely to form ionic compounds? Explain your answers.
a. Cl, Br
b. Li, Cl
c. K, He
d. I, Na
26
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Section 7.3 (p.203)
26) Describe what is meant by ductile and malleable.
27) Why is it possible to bend metals but not ionic crystals?
Standardized Test Prep (p.211)
1. Which of these is not an ionic compound? Circle your answer.
A. KF
b. Na2SO4
c. SiO2
d. Na2O
3. How many valence electrons does arsenic have?
a. 5
b. 4
c. 3
d. 2
4. For which compound name is the incorrect formula given?
a. magnesium iodide, MgI2
b. potassium selenide, K2Se
c. calcium oxide, Ca2O2
d. aluminum sulfide, Al2S3
6. When a bromine atom gains an electron
a. a bromide ion is formed.
b. the ion formed has a 1- charge.
c. the ion formed is an anion.
d. all the above are correct.
27
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
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Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
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29
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Formula Writing for Covalent Compounds
Write the formulas for the following covalent compounds.
1. Carbon dioxide
________________________________________________
2. Nitrogen dioxide
________________________________________________
3. Dinitrogen monoxide
________________________________________________
4. Sulfur trioxide
________________________________________________
5. Tetraphosphorus decaoxide ______________________________________________
6. Silicon tetraoxide
________________________________________________
7. Boron trichloride
________________________________________________
8. Phosphorus pentafluoride ________________________________________________
9. Tellurium hexabromide
________________________________________________
10. Diarsenic pentoxide
________________________________________________
11. Diphosphorus pentasulfide ______________________________________________
12. Xenon tetrafluoride
________________________________________________
13. Selenium Diiodide
________________________________________________
Write the formulas for the following acids.
14. Hydrochloric Acid
________________________________________________
15. Sulfuric Acid
________________________________________________
16. Acetic Acid
________________________________________________
17. Phosphoric Acid
________________________________________________
18. Nitric Acid
________________________________________________
19. Carbonic Acid
________________________________________________
30
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Name Writing for Covalent Bonds and Acids
Write the name for the following covalent and acidic molecules.
1. H2CO3
________________________________________________
2. CCl4
________________________________________________
3. SF3
________________________________________________
4. HCl
________________________________________________
5. N2O
________________________________________________
6. NO2
________________________________________________
7. P4O10
________________________________________________
8. PO3
________________________________________________
9. H3PO4
________________________________________________
10. XeF4
________________________________________________
11. PF3
________________________________________________
12. ICl
________________________________________________
13. KrCl2
________________________________________________
14. SiO2
________________________________________________
15. HC2H3O2
________________________________________________
16. Se2S4
________________________________________________
17. SO3
________________________________________________
18. H2SO4
________________________________________________
19. TeI2
________________________________________________
20. AsBr3
________________________________________________
31
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
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Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
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34
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Covalent & Ionic Bonding Lab
Materials
Distilled water
Ethanol
Salicylic acid
Sodium carbonate
Test tubes (8)
Sodium chloride
Sucrose
250 mL beakers (3)
400 mL beakers (2)
Graduated cylinder
Bunsen burner
Conductivity tester
Test tube holder
Stoppers (4)
Procedure
Part 1: Melting Point
Heat 0.5 g of each substance in a test tube, using a test tube holder, over a Bunsen burner for 30 seconds.
Hold the test tube so that the bottom of the test tube is held above the inner blue cone of the flame.
Observe and record whether any melting occurs. Do this for all four substances: salicylic acid, sodium
carbonate, sodium chloride, sucrose.
Part 2: Solubility in Water
For this part it is important that all of the glassware is extremely clean! Place 0.25 g of the four
substances, salicylic acid, sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sucrose, in its own test tube. Add 5.0 mL
of distilled water to each test tube, stopper, and shake. Observe and record whether or not the
substances dissolve.
Part 3: Conductivity
For this part it is important that all of the glassware is extremely clean! For those substances that
dissolved in water, pour the solutions into a 250 mL beaker, adding more distilled water if necessary to
cover the bottom of the beaker. Use the conductivity tester to determine whether the solutions conduct
electricity. Make sure that you clean off the conductivity tester leads between tests with distilled water.
Part 4: Solubility in Ethanol
Follow the same procedure as part 2, but use ethanol in place of water as the solvent.
35
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Data Table:
Salicylic acid
Sodium chloride
Sucrose
Sodium carbonate
Melting
Solubility in
Water
Solubility in
Ethanol
Conductivity
(dissolved in
water)
Questions
1) Using your textbook, identify properties of ionic and covalent compounds.
2) According to the data collected in the lab, which of the four compounds are ionic and which are
covalent. Explain your reasoning.
3) A ceramic company wants to put a glaze on their product so that it gives it a nice shine. The four
compounds in this lab are the choices they are considering. The glaze must be able to withstand
high temperatures, is soluble in water, and must conduct electricity when dissolved. According
to your data, which compound(s) would be appropriate for the company’s needs?
Conclusion
1) Was the purpose achieved? Support your answer with your data.
2) Two examples of events the affected your data. Where they errors or mistakes?
3) What principle(s) of chemistry were present in this lab?
36
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Compound Naming Race
Be the first team in the room to correctly get all the formulas on this sheet right. When you have
finished the first ten problems, bring them up to the teacher to be checked. Once these have been
checked, move to the second ten. Once all forty problems have been solved, you’re the winner!
1)
copper (II) acetate __________________
2)
sodium hydroxide __________________
3)
lithium oxide __________________
4)
cobalt (III) carbonate __________________
5)
aluminum sulfide __________________
6)
ammonium cyanide __________________
7)
iron (III) phosphide __________________
8)
vanadium (V) phosphate __________________
9)
sodium permanganate __________________
10)
manganese (III) fluoride __________________
11)
beryllium nitrate __________________
12)
nickel (III) sulfite __________________
13)
potassium oxide __________________
14)
silver bromide __________________
15)
zinc phosphate __________________
16)
copper (II) bicarbonate __________________
17)
nickel (II) selenide __________________
18)
manganese (IV) carbonate __________________
19)
lead (IV) nitride __________________
20)
tin (II) hydroxide __________________
37
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
21)
lithium arsenide __________________
22)
chromium (VI) sulfate __________________
23)
calcium bromide __________________
24)
ammonium sulfate __________________
25)
copper (II) oxide __________________
26)
platinum (IV) phosphate __________________
27)
aluminum carbonate __________________
28)
silver nitrate __________________
29)
magnesium acetate __________________
30)
nickel (III) cyanide __________________
31)
vanadium (IV) phosphate __________________
32)
silver sulfate __________________
33)
cobalt (III) sulfide __________________
34)
iron (II) sulfite __________________
35)
copper (II) nitrite __________________
36)
nickel (II) hydroxide __________________
37)
zinc nitride __________________
38)
manganese (VII) nitrate __________________
39)
gallium sulfate __________________
40)
sodium nitrate __________________
38
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Ultimate Nomenclature
Given the name, identify each of the following as Ionic (I), covalent (C), or acid (A). Then, write the
formula.
_____ 1. sulfuric acid
__________________________________________
_____ 2. sodium hydroxide
__________________________________________
_____ 3. sodium bromide
__________________________________________
_____ 4. barium hydroxide
__________________________________________
_____ 5. manganese (IV) oxide
__________________________________________
_____ 6. sulfur dioxide
__________________________________________
_____ 7. iron (II) sulfide
__________________________________________
_____ 8. hydrochloric acid
__________________________________________
_____ 9. potassium permanganate __________________________________________
_____ 10. sulfur trioxide
__________________________________________
_____ 11. copper (II) hydroxide
__________________________________________
_____ 12. ammonium sulfide
__________________________________________
_____ 13. nickel (II) bromide
__________________________________________
_____ 14. iron (II) oxide
__________________________________________
_____ 15. acetic acid
__________________________________________
_____ 16. ammonium chlorate
__________________________________________
_____ 17. diarsenic pentoxide
__________________________________________
_____ 18. iron (III) oxide
__________________________________________
_____ 19. magnesium phosphate
__________________________________________
_____ 20. nickel (III) bicarbonate __________________________________________
_____ 21. zinc carbonate
__________________________________________
39
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
_____ 22. diphosphorus pentoxide __________________________________________
_____ 23. aluminum phosphate
__________________________________________
_____ 24. thallium (I) oxide
__________________________________________
_____ 25. nitric acid
__________________________________________
_____ 26. lithium sulfite
__________________________________________
_____ 27. carbon monoxide
__________________________________________
_____ 28. strontium acetate
__________________________________________
_____ 29. copper (II) nitrate
__________________________________________
_____ 30. phosphorus trichloride
__________________________________________
_____ 31. nitrogen dioxide
__________________________________________
_____ 32. sodium phosphate
__________________________________________
_____ 33. phosphoric acid
__________________________________________
_____ 34. lead (IV) chloride
__________________________________________
_____ 35. tin (II) hydroxide
__________________________________________
_____ 36. ammonium hydroxide
__________________________________________
_____ 37. carbon dioxide
__________________________________________
_____ 38. dinitrogen perntoxide
__________________________________________
_____ 39. silver oxide
__________________________________________
_____ 40. aluminum nitride
__________________________________________
_____ 41. xenon tetrafluoride
__________________________________________
_____ 42. zinc oxide
__________________________________________
_____ 43. beryllium sulfide
__________________________________________
_____ 44. silicon tetraoxide
__________________________________________
40
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
Given the formula, identify each of the following as Ionic (I), covalent (C), or acid (A). Then, write the
name.
_____ 1. CaCO3
________________________________________________
_____ 2. FeO
________________________________________________
_____ 3. H2CO3
________________________________________________
_____ 4. AgCl
________________________________________________
_____ 5. N2O
________________________________________________
_____ 6. Ba(OH)2
________________________________________________
_____ 7. Na2S
________________________________________________
_____ 8. KrCl2
________________________________________________
_____ 9. H3PO4
________________________________________________
_____ 10. (NH4)2SO4
________________________________________________
_____ 11. HC2H3O2
________________________________________________
_____ 12. Zn(NO2)2
________________________________________________
_____ 13. CuSO4
________________________________________________
_____ 14. XeF4
________________________________________________
_____ 15. NaOH
________________________________________________
_____ 16. PbCl2
________________________________________________
_____ 17. SO3
________________________________________________
_____ 18. NH4NO2
________________________________________________
_____ 19. Ca(HCO3)2
________________________________________________
_____ 20. Ba(ClO3)2
________________________________________________
_____ 21. RhCN
________________________________________________
_____ 22. SF3
________________________________________________
41
Gen Chem
Unit 4: Chemical Compounds
_____ 23. K2SO3
________________________________________________
_____ 24. Hg(OH)2
________________________________________________
_____ 25. Cu2S
________________________________________________
_____ 26. KHCO3
________________________________________________
_____ 27. AlBr3
________________________________________________
_____ 28. CCl4
________________________________________________
_____ 29. NaClO4
________________________________________________
_____ 30. Be3N2
________________________________________________
_____ 31. Cs2Cr2O7
________________________________________________
_____ 32. Fe2(CrO4)3
________________________________________________
_____ 33. AlCl3
________________________________________________
_____ 34. HCl
________________________________________________
_____ 35. NO2
________________________________________________
_____ 36. NO2
________________________________________________
_____ 37. KNO3
________________________________________________
_____ 38. Mg(CN)2
________________________________________________
_____ 39. Ca3(PO4)2
________________________________________________
_____ 40. PbO2
________________________________________________
_____ 41. P4O10
________________________________________________
_____ 42. PO3
________________________________________________
_____ 43. KF
________________________________________________
_____ 44. FeCl2
________________________________________________
_____ 45. ICl
________________________________________________
42
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