Functional Academics

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The illustrator imagined a classroom setting - a teacher presenting to children.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR FUNCTIONAL ACADEMICS
Subcomponent
Page #
COMPONENT 1 – FUNCTIONAL ACADEMICS
Subcomponent 1
Subcomponent 2
Subcomponent 3
Subcomponent 4
Subcomponent 5
Subcomponent 6
Subcomponent 7
3
Pre-Requisite Concepts
6
Appendix A – C
31
Math
9
Appendix D
36
Reading
15
Appendix E
37
Writing
17
Appendix F
38
Social Skills
19
Appendix G
40
Communication
22
Appendix H
42
Science
28
REFERENCES
44
RESOURCES AND MATERIALS
46
APPENDIX A
31
Early Developmental Skills
31
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TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR FUNCTIONAL ACADEMICS CONT.
Page #
APPENDIX B
Fine Motor Skills
APPENDIX C
Listening
APPENDIX D
Telling Time
APPENDIX E
Reading Progression
APPENDIX F
Writing Sequence
APPENDIX G
Basic Social Skill Sequence Chart
APPENDIX H
Communication Skills
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34
35
35
36
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37
37
38
38
40
40
42
42
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I. Pre-Requisite Concepts
Wisconsin Content Standard for Math, Language Arts, and Social Studies: Students in Wisconsin will draw on a broad body of
mathematical knowledge and apply a variety of mathematical skills and strategies, including reasoning, oral and written communication,
and the use of appropriate technology, when solving mathematical, real-world and non-routine problems.
Wisconsin Content Standard: Students in Wisconsin will listen to, understand, and will speak clearly and effectively for diverse purposes.
Rationale: These skills lay the foundation for academic subjects. Basic skills & general knowledge concepts are broken down into steps
that are more easily managed by the child with special needs. Pre-Requisite concepts include very basic skills needed to be able to move
into the other academic sub-components.
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate Performance
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Indicators:
Math A.4.1 Use reasoning abilities
to:
•
Perceive patterns
•
Identify relationships
•
Formulate questions for further
exploration
•
Justify strategies
•
Test the reasonableness of
results
Math C.4.1 Describe two and three
dimensional figures, (e.g., circles,
polygons, trapezoids, prisms,
spheres) by:
•
Naming them
•
Comparing, sorting, and
classifying them
•
Drawing and constructing
physical models to
specifications
•
Identifying their properties (e.g.,
number of sides or faces, two or
three dimensionality, equal
sides, number of right angles)
•
Predicting the results of
combining or subdividing twodimensional figures
•
Explaining how these figures are
related to objects in the
environment
A. Demonstrate visual discrimination
Color
1.a. Use sensory input to match colors
1.b. Sequence colors to follow a given
pattern
B. Use receptive/expressive language
1.c. Point to requested color
1.d. Name/sign basic colors as requested
C. Recognize similarities and differences
1.e. Sort by color
1.f. Sort by attribute (same/different)
D. Demonstrate visual and/or auditory discrimination
Shape
2.a. Use sensory input to match shapes
2.b. Sequence shapes and follow a given
pattern
E. Use receptive/expressive language
2.c. Point to requested shape
2.d. Name/sign shape as requested
F. Recognize similarities and differences
2.e. Sort by shape
2.f. Sort by attribute (color, size)
-
-
flash cards for matching
coloring books
manipulatives (i.e., vehicles, fruits,
animals)
bean bags
commercial games
crayons
paints
markers
music/songs about colors
shape templates
geoboards
attribute blocks
shape books
bean bags
manipulatives (i.e., vehicles, fruit,
animals)
puzzles
flash cards
commercial games
buttons
glove with Velcro shapes attached to
it
safety signs
sand paper shapes
music/songs about shapes
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Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate Performance
Indicators:
Math C.4.1 continued
G. Demonstrate visual and/or auditory
discrimination
Language Arts A.4.1 Use effective
reading strategies to achieve their
purposes in reading:
•
Use a variety of strategies and
word recognition skills,
including re-reading, finding
context clues, applying
knowledge of letter-sound
relationships, and analyzing
word structures
•
Infer the meaning of unfamiliar
words in the context of a
passage by examining known
words, phrases, and structures
•
Demonstrate phonemic
awareness by using letter/sound
relationships as aids to
pronunciation
Math A.4.1 Use reasoning abilities
to:
•
Perceive patterns
•
Identify relationships
•
Formulate questions for further
exploration
•
Justify strategies
•
Test the reasonableness of
results
Sample Performance Tasks:
Comparisons
3.a. Use sensory input to make a comparison between two-,
three- dimensional figures.
3.b. Find similarities or differences between or among
sensations, sizes, colors, shapes, amounts, etc.
H. Demonstrate understanding of terms “same” and
“different”
3.c. Sort according to requested attribute
3.d. Make a comparison of two items and indicate whether
they are the same or different
3.e. Answer questions related to similarities and differences
I. Recognize patterns
3.f. Identify a given pattern
3.g. Continue a given pattern
J. Use receptive/expressive language
3.h. Point to items with a specific attribute
3.i. Name/sign the attribute
K. Demonstrate visual and/or auditory discrimination
Alphabet
4.a. Recognize letters as symbols
4.b. Verbalize letter names
L. Use receptive/expressive language
4.c. Identify letter as requested
4.d. Name letter as requested
M. Demonstrate phonemic awareness
4.e. Give letter sound
4.f. Produce blended sounds
N. Demonstrate visual and/or auditory
discrimination
Matching
5.a. Use sensory input to match items with patterns
O. Demonstrate understanding of the terms “match”
or “same”
5.b. Match according to the same attribute, i.e., size, shape,
color, texture, etc.
5.c. Explain why items do not match
P. Use receptive/expressive language
5.d. Point to items that match
5.e. Name/sign the qualifiers that make the items match
5.f. Answer questions related to the match
Instructional Tools:
-
same/different manipulatives
blocks
games, music activities
balances, scales
same/different flash cards
foods
clothes
dishes
shapes
colors
-
flash cards
chart/posters, alphabet strip
calendar, visual aids, & manipulatives
phonics games
music activities
alphabet puzzles
sandpaper letters
magnetic letters
alphabet tubs containing objects
based on initial letter
finger spelling
individual chalkboards, magic slates,
clothesline alphabet, games
doodle boards
-
manipulatives
sorting kits
flash cards
commercial games
crayons, pencils, pens
real life objects
card games
pictures for matching
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Performance Standard:
Social Studies E.4.1 Explain the
influence of prior knowledge,
motivation, capabilities, personal
interests, and other factors on
individual learning
Sample Alternate Performance
Indicators:
Q. Increase gross motor skills to perform functional
activities
R. Increase fine motor skills to perform functional
activities
Language Arts C.4.2 Listen to and
comprehend oral communications:
•
Follow basic directions
•
Identify and summarize key
points of a story or discussion
•
Retell stories and reports of
events in proper sequence
•
Follow sequence in plot and
character development, predict
outcomes, and draw
conclusions
•
Recall the content of stories
after hearing them, relate the
content to prior knowledge, and
answer various types of factual
and interpretive questions about
the stories
•
Distinguish fact from fantasy
and fact from opinion
•
Understand increasingly
complex sentence structures
•
Understand a variety of word
structures and forms, such as
affixes, roots, homonyms,
antonyms, synonyms, and word
analogies.
S. Demonstrate auditory discrimination
T. Use receptive/expressive language
U. Retain/recall information that is
meaningful/familiar
Sample Performance Tasks:
Gross Motor
6.a. Perform gross motor skills as modeled
6.b. Use sensory input to discern what is needed to perform a
given task
6.c. Demonstrate understanding of skills involved in using
large muscles for coordination, balance and stamina
See Appendix A. for sequential skills in this area.
Fine Motor
7.a. Demonstrate understanding of fine motor requirements
involving arms, hands, and fingers
7.b. Perform skills related to cutting, writing, and using
manipulatives
See Appendix B. for sequential skills in this area.
Listening
8.a. Demonstrate ability to focus on sounds
8.b. Demonstrate ability to separate speech/sounds from
unimportant background sounds
8.c. Demonstrate the ability to look in the direction of the
sound
8.d. Demonstrate the ability to understand words, concepts,
signs, pictures and printed words
8.e. Follow a simple directive
Instructional Tools:
-
carry object from point A to point B
carry supplies
carry lunch tray
lift objects
take off coat
-
pouring
holding crayon
tying shoe laces
buttoning/unbuttoning
zipping/unzipping
snapping/unsnapping
buckling/unbuckling
-
listening games
listening to stories and answering
follow up questions
following directions
musical instruments/ activities
pictures and posters that require
students to point as requested
listening games
listening/comprehension worksheets
computer games
computer stories
tape recorded stories
direction/following worksheets
-
8.f. Answer questions related to the topic
8.g. Show understanding by performing a task related to
information.
8.h. Give directions for a familiar task
See Appendix C. for sequential skills in this area.
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II. Math
Wisconsin Content Standard for Math: Students in Wisconsin will draw on a broad body of mathematical knowledge and apply a variety
of mathematical skills and strategies, including reasoning, oral and written communication, and the use of appropriate technology, when
solving mathematical, real-world and non-routine problems.
Rationale: Math skills are taught bearing specifically on their functionality for the future needs of the student. These skills will be used in
the student’s everyday experiences. The math skills range from quantitative concepts to using a calculator.
Performance Standard:
Math F.4.1 Use letters, boxes, or other symbols to
stand for any number, measured quantity, or object in
simple situations, (e.g., N+O=N is true for any
number)
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
A. Use one-to-one
correspondence
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
-
manipulatives
counting cubes
numeral cards
worksheets
match up puzzles
real money (pennies, nickels, etc.)
plates, cups, napkins, crackers, milk,
etc.
setting the table for “x” number of
people
lunch count
Counting
2.a. Demonstrate counting by rote
2.b. Count by multiples (2, 5, 10)
-
finger counting
flash cards
manipulatives
numeral lines
music activities
number chart with insertable numerals
100’s board
signing numerals
real money
real clocks
clock manipulatives
candy jar/gumballs
100 day of school activities
Quantifying
3.a. Recognize differences, i.e., more/less, all/none,
bigger/smaller, etc.
3.b. Demonstrate comprehension of quantity by giving a
corresponding amount
3.c. Quantify items to correspond to a given numeral
-
numeral cards
manipulatives
pegs and boards
real money
paper clips
One-to-one Correspondence
1.a. Point to each object while counting
objects in a group
1.b. Match similar groups of objects according to number of
items in a group
1.c. Identify the correct number of objects to correspond to
each numeral
-
Math B.4.2 Determine the number of things in a set
by:
•
Grouping and counting (e.g., by three’s, five’s,
hundreds)
•
Combining and arranging (e.g., all possible coin
combinations amounting to thirty cents)
•
Estimation, including rounding
Math A.4.2 Communicate mathematical ideas in a
variety of ways, including words, numbers, symbols,
pictures, graphs, tables, diagrams, and models
B. Count by 1’s, 2’s, 5’s, 10’s,
and/or 100’s
C. Quantify items
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Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Math B.4.1 Represent and explain whole numbers,
decimals, and fractions with:
•
Physical materials
•
Number lines and other pictorial models
•
Verbal descriptions
•
Place-value concepts and notations
•
Symbolic renaming (e.g., 43=40+3=30+13)
D. Identify numerals
Numeral Recognition
4.a. Recognize that numerals are symbols which serve a
specific function in the math process
4.b. Read/sign a given numeral
4.c. Demonstrate numeral recognition by finding numerals
on a calculator, calendar, chart, etc.
4.d. Count out items to correspond with
given numeral
-
math stamps
number cards
large dice
clay
commercial games
sand paper numerals
magnetic numerals and boards
calculators
find numerals in newspaper, calendar,
& in community
Math B.4.5 In problem-solving situations involving
whole numbers, select and efficiently use appropriate
conceptual procedures such as:
•
Recalling the basic facts of addition, subtraction,
multiplication, and division
•
Using mental math (e.g., 37+25, 40x7)
•
Estimation
•
Selecting and applying algorithms for addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division
•
Using a calculator
E. Integrate addition into real life
Addition
5.a. Write numerals 0-9
5.b. Perform pre-adding skills working with manipulative
5.c. Perform paper and pencil addition
5.d. Use games, other repetitive activities to facilitate
transition from paper/ pencil addition to mental additon
5.e. Develop mental addition skills by using supportive
strategies
5.f. Use a calculator to find a total
5.g. Recognize when answer on calculator does not make
sense
5.h. Use addition skills for:
• shopping
• banking
• working
-
manipulatives
worksheets, workbooks
story problems
checkbook
field trips
flash cards
calculators
coupons
lunch count
inventory of items
computer programs
sales tax chart
grocery ads
spinners, dice
commercial board games
number line
F. Integrate subtraction into real
life
Subtraction
6.a. Perform pre-subtraction skills working with
manipulatives
6.b. Count backwards from a given number
6.c. Perform paper and pencil subtraction
6.d. Use games, other repetitive activities to facilitate
transition from paper/ pencil subtraction to mental
subtraction
6.e. Perform simple subtraction facts mentally
6.f. Use a calculator to find a remainder or amount of
change that is due
6.g. Identify numerals that come before and after a given
numeral
-
calculators
coupons
manipulatives
worksheets, workbooks
story problems
checkbook
field trips
budget activities
number line
computer programs
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Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Instructional Tools:
6.h. Recognize when an answer on a calculator does not
make sense
6.i. Use subtraction skills for:
•
shopping
•
banking
•
working
Math B.4.5 continued
Math B.4.7 In problem-solving situation involving
money, add and subtract decimals
Sample Performance Tasks:
G. Integrate multiplication into real
life
Multiplication
7.a. Perform simple multiplication problems using
manipulatives
7.b. Develop strategies for reciting multiplication facts from
memory
7.c. Perform paper and pencil multiplication problems
7.d. Perform simple multiplication facts mentally
7.e. Use a calculator to determine cost of multiple items
7.f. Use a calculator to solve relevant story problems, i.e.,
“X” number of students paying admission to the zoo
7.g. Recognize when an answer on a calculator does not
make sense
-
calculator
manipulatives
worksheets, workbooks
story problems
field trips
H. Integrate division into real life
Division
8.a. Perform simple division problems using manipulatives
8.b. Develop strategies to perform simple division facts
mentally
8.c. Perform paper and pencil division problems
8.d. Perform division problems requiring remainders
8.e. Use a calculator to divide a total into smaller parts
8.f. Recognize when an answer on a calculator does not
make sense
-
calculator
manipulatives
story problems
worksheets, workbooks
field trips
individual cost for group, meal, etc.
activities dividing money, candy, or
groups of objects
computer programs
-
real coins, bills
play-store items
cash register
worksheets, workbooks
field trips
story problems
commercial games
calculator
vending machine
I. Use money appropriately in real
life situations
Money
9.a. Demonstrate comprehension of money, i.e., what
money is, how money is exchanged, how money is
obtained
9.b. Describe different ways money can be carried safely
for use in the community (in billfold, purse, pocket,
etc.)
9.c. Identify coins and bills
9.d. Explain the meaning of cent sign and dollar sign
9.e. Demonstrate understanding of the worth of coins and
bills
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Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Instructional Tools:
Sample Performance Tasks:
9.f. Count groups of coin/bill combinations
9.g. Compare the cost of items
9.h. Demonstrate correct bill and coin representations for
amounts up to $5.00
9.i. Use simple decimal concepts to add/subtract coins/bill
9.j. Count out the proper amount of money
9.k. Estimate amount of change to the nearest tenth
9.l. Make change for $1.00, $5.00
9.m. Use money skills by:
•
receiving a paycheck
•
going to the bank
•
opening a checking/savings account
•
writing a check
•
completing deposit/withdrawal slip
-
washer, dryers at laundromat
computer programs
craft sales, bake sales
coupons
food stamps
postage stamps
checks
ads
sales tax
lottery games
purchase items in a store
checkbook
bank, credit union
monthly statements, deposit slips
-
large model clocks
analog, digital clocks
student mini-clocks
timers, clocks, watches to set
worksheets, workbook
commercial games
flash cards
real life story problems
daily schedules
work timesheets
bus schedules to read
work schedule to read
field trips
9.n. Use a calculator to practice money skills
9.o. Recognize when an answer on a calculator does not
make sense
9.p. Use money skills in real life situations
Math D.4.3 Read and interpret measuring
instruments, (e.g., rulers, clocks, thermometers)
J. Tell time in daily living activities
Time
10.a. Understand or have an awareness of time:
• school day
• individual schedule
• day/night
• morning, afternoon, night
10.b Identify parts of clock
10.c. Discriminate between hour and minute hands
10.d. Count to 60 both by 1’s and 5’s
10.e. Tell time on:
• hour
• half hour
• quarter hour
• five minute intervals
10.f. Tell time using a clock (digital and/or analog), watch,
etc.
10.g. Plan ahead for time needed to complete activities
10.h. Use time skills in real life situations
(See Appendix D. for sequential skills in this
area.)
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Performance Standard:
Math A.4.2 Communicate mathematical ideas in a
variety of ways, including words, numbers, symbols,
pictures, graphs, tables, diagrams, and models
Math A.4.3 Connect mathematical learning with other
subjects, personal experiences, current events, and
personal interest and:
1. See relationships between various kinds of
problems and actual events
2. Use mathematics as a way to understand other
areas of the curriculum (e.g., measurement in
science, map skills in social studies)
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
K. Demonstrate calendar skills
L. Use numerals in ordinal
positions
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Calendar
11.a. State the day of the week
11.b. State the month of the year
11.c. State the current year
11.d. Recognize numerals 1-31
11.e. Point to days of the week
11.f. State the days of the week in order
11.g. Recognize days of the weekend
11.h. Explain meaning of terms: yesterday, today, tomorrow,
next week, etc.
11.i. State holidays specific to each month
11.j. Identify equivalent calendar units:
• 7 days equal 1 week
• 30/31 days equal 1 month
• 12 months equal 1 year
• 365 days equal 1 year
11.k. Read a calendar to determine:
• number of days in a given month
• day of the week when given a specific date
• future dates when given a specific holiday,
birthday, etc., e.g., “What is the date of Easter this
year?”
• time duration in number of days when given
beginning and ending dates
• time duration in weeks given beginning and
ending dates
• state the date in acceptable sequence, e.g.,
“Today is Wednesday, March 7, 2010.”
11.l. Write date on papers, assignments, etc.
11.m. Use calendar skills in real life situations
-
calendars
school calendar of events
timeline charts for yesterday, today,
tomorrow, days, months, etc.
daily planners
Ordinals
st
nd
rd
12.a. Understand the order concepts 1 , 2 , 3 , etc.
12.b. Understand the concepts of first, middle and last
12.c. Demonstrate understanding of ordinals by identifying
ordinal position in a group
-
manipulatives
music activities
number lines
visual aids
lining up in class
calendar
recipes
sequencing activities
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Performance Standard:
Math D.4.3 Read and interpret measuring
instruments, (e.g., rulers, clocks, thermometers)
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
M. Integrate measurement
concepts into real life
Sample Performance Tasks:
Measurement
13.a. Recognize various tools for measurement: ruler,
yardstick, measuring spoon, measuring cup, scale
and thermometer
. 13.b. Perform linear measurement to the 1 in., ½ in., ¼ in.,
foot and yard
13.c. Perform quantitative measurement using drop/pinch,
teaspoon, tablespoon, cup, pint, quart, liter and gallon
13.d. Perform fractional measurement to ¼, 1/3, ½, 2/3,
and ¾ quantity as related to a whole
th
th
13.e. Perform linear measurement to the 1/8 , and 1/16
of an inch
13.f. Perform weight measurements using ounces and
pounds
13.g. Order a given measuring task from smallest to largest
13.h. Read temperature on a thermometer
Instructional Tools:
-
rulers, tape measure, yard stick
measuring utensils
fraction manipulatives
recipes
worksheet, workbook
story problems
craft & sewing projects
field trips to grocery store, hardware
store to notice various containers &
measurements
measuring breakfast and lunch
portions, amounts
meter sticks
thermometer
oven dial
football game
ruler
tape measure
height & weight charts
pound, ounce, amount, per serving in
a candy bag
woodworking
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III. Reading
Wisconsin Content Standard for Language Arts: Students in Wisconsin will read and respond to a wide range of writing to build an
understanding of written materials, of themselves, and of others.
Rationale: Reading is a complex, interactive process that continues to be a primary means of acquiring and using information. Society
regards reading as essential to daily living. Because reading is fundamental to the mastery of other school subjects, students at all levels
must learn to understand what they read. They must know and use various strategies—ways of unlocking the meaning of words and
larger blocks of text—to become successful readers.
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Performance
Indicators:
Language Arts A.4.2 Read, interpret, and critically
analyze literature:
•
Recognize and recall elements and details of
story structure, such as sequence of events,
character, plot, and settings, in order to reflect on
meaning
•
Draw upon a reservoir of reading materials,
including fairy tales, fables, and narratives from
the United States and cultures worldwide, to
understand plots, make predictions, and relate
reading to prior knowledge and experience
•
Summarize ideas drawn from stories, identifying
cause-and-effect relationships, interpreting
events and ideas, and connecting different works
to each other and to real-life experiences
•
Extend the literal meaning of a text by making
inferences, and evaluate the significance and
validity of texts in light of prior knowledge and
experience
A. Draw upon reading skills
in everyday routines
Reading Readiness
1.a. Demonstrate visual tracking from left to right or top to
bottom by following an object on a drawing chart or in a
story
1.b. Use visual tracking to point to objects in a left to right
manner
1.c. Name objects in a horizontal array
1.d. Name objects in a multiple horizontal array
B. Interpret details of
literature
2.a.
2.b.
2.c.
2.d.
2.e.
2.f.
2.g.
Language Arts A.4.1 Use effective reading strategies
to achieve their purposes in reading:
•
Use a variety of strategies and word recognition
skills, including rereading, finding context clues,
applying knowledge of letter-sound relationships,
and analyzing word structures
•
Infer the meaning of unfamiliar words in the
context of a passage by examining known words,
phrases, and structures
•
Demonstrate phonemic awareness by using
letter/sound relationships as aids to
pronunciation
C. Demonstrate phonemic
awareness
Phonics
3.a. Acquire the alphabet skills stated in
the Pre-Requisite Concepts
3.b. Follow a systematic approach for the
acquisition of phonics skills
See Appendix E. for a checklist of phonics skills.
-
story charts
manipulatives
story cards to sequence
tape/book to follow along reading
comic strip sequencing
closed caption TV
-
cards sets (letter and picture)
alphabet cards
stories, books
worksheets, workbooks
sentence strips
board games
music activities
computer programs
Hold book (orient) correctly
Point to pictures in a book
Turn pages in a book one at a time
Look at and name picture
Predict the next event in a story
Name/relate a concept in a story
Answer “wh” questions
15
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Language Arts A.4.1 continued
D. Use sight-word
vocabulary to interpret
reading symbols in
everyday activities
Sight Words
4.a. Construct a word bank using
vocabulary acquired through reading
stories
4.b. Identify a word by pointing, signing, verbalizing,
matching, and/or associating with a
picture
4.c. Read “experience stories”
See Appendix E. for a checklist of sight-based
program progression.
-
flashcards
picture, word matching games
worksheets, workbooks
computer programs
functional pictures
survival signs
Language Arts A.4.4 Read to acquire information:
•
Summarize key details of informational texts,
connecting new information to prior knowledge
•
Identify a topic of interest and seek information
about it by investigating available text resources
E. Read and demonstrate
comprehension of words,
symbols, and pictures
Reading Comprehension
1.a. Recognize picture symbols
1.b. Demonstrate understanding of
picture symbols
1.c. Show understanding of what was
read:
•
in a word
•
in a sentence
•
in a paragraph
•
in a graded passage
•
in a short story
•
in a set of directions
•
on a computer screen
-
word cards
sentence strips
books, magazines, and newspapers
labels on classroom items
classroom discussion
stories to be read aloud
signs/directions
maps
charts
graphs
computer programs
Language Arts A.4.1 Use effective reading strategies
to achieve their purposes in reading:
•
Use a variety of strategies and word recognition
skills, including rereading, finding context clues,
applying knowledge of letter-sound relationships,
and analyzing word structures
•
Infer the meaning of unfamiliar words in the
context of a passage by examining known words,
phrases, and structures
•
Demonstrate phonemic awareness by using
letter/sound relationships as aids to
pronunciation
F. Use a variety of strategies
for word recognition:
phonics, sight words,
picture clues, etc.
Reading Recognition
1.a. Use phonics approach and/or sightword approach
1.b. Decipher word by either sounding
out or recognizing the word by sight
1.c. Use pictures for context clues
1.d. Use meaning clues:
•
self correcting
•
skipping and reading on
•
decoding
•
re-reading
•
predicting
•
context
•
sentence structure
•
inference
•
prior knowledge
-
word cards
books
signing
computer programs
16
IV. Writing
Wisconsin Content Standard for Language Arts: Students in Wisconsin will write clearly and effectively to share information and
knowledge, to influence and persuade, to create and entertain.
Rationale: Written communication skills are central to learning. Whether in academic life, in the work place, or in personal life, written
communication skills offer a powerful advantage in a world in which people must constantly learn new information. To become confident
and effective writers, students need to learn how to write for various purposes and audiences. They need to try different approaches and
to reconsider what they have written through revision and editing. To ensure that their writing is understood and well received, students
need a working knowledge of language as well as grammatical structures, diction and usage, punctuation, spelling, layout, and
presentation. This knowledge is also invaluable for discussing, critiquing, revising, and editing written communication in almost any form.
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Performance
Indicators:
Language Arts B.4.1 Create or produce writing to
communicate with different audiences for a variety
of purposes:
•
Write nonfiction and technical pieces
(summaries, messages, informational essays,
basic directions, instruction, simple reports)
that convey essential details and facts and
provide accurate representations of events
and sequences
•
Write expressive pieces in response to
reading, viewing, and life experiences
(narratives, reflections, and letters) employing
descriptive detail and a personal voice
•
Write creative pieces (poetry, fiction, and
plays) employing basic aesthetic principles
appropriate to each genre
A. Use a variety of writing styles,
printed word, and/or symbol
pictures to communicate
B. Use various technologies to
assist in written communication
(pencil, pen, computer,
adaptive writing tools, etc.)
Writing
1.a. Use left to right orientation
(directionality)
1.b. Use drawings, collages, pictures, and/
or symbols to communicate feelings,
directions, and/or messages
1.c. Use pictures and symbols to develop
a sequence to relate recipe
information, game instructions, or
directions to a place
1.d. Follow pre-existing lines, patterns,
letters, and/or numerals
1.e. Reproduce lines, patterns, letters,
and/or numerals with or without models as
needed
1.f. Produce lines, patterns, letters, and/
or numerals without models
1.g. Reproduce individual letters in a
connected form
1.h. Transcribe printing to cursive or
cursive to printing
1.i. Use writing skills in real life situations
1.j. Use computer software, as needed,
to communicate
See Appendix F. for sequential skills in this
area.
-
handwriting paper
adaptive writing tools
posters for visual references
worksheets, workbooks
chalkboards
slanted surfaces for writing
markers
tactile letters, numerals
dot-to-dot worksheets with letters, numerals
sandbox
shaving gel
finger paints/paper
computer programs
erasers
assistive technology
experience books
17
Performance Standard:
Language Arts B.4.3 Understand the function of
various forms, structures, and punctuation
marks of standard English and use them
appropriately in communications:
•
Understand and use parts of speech
effectively, including nouns, pronouns, and
adjectives
•
Use adverbials effectively, including words
and phrases
Language Arts B.4.1 Create or produce writing
to communicate with different audiences for a
variety of purposes:
•
Write nonfiction and technical pieces
(summaries, messages, informational
essays, basic directions, instruction, simple
reports) that convey essential details and
facts and provide accurate representations
of events and sequences
•
Write expressive pieces in response to
reading, viewing, and life experiences
(narratives, reflections, and letters)
employing descriptive detail and a personal
voice
•
Write creative pieces (poetry, fiction,
and plays) employing basic aesthetic
principles appropriate to each genre
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
C. Use punctuation marks in
phrases and sentences
Punctuation
2.a. Indicate or use punctuation in a given
group of phrases
2.b. Write questions ending in a question
mark
2.c. Use exclamation points to end
exclamatory sentences
-
worksheets, workbook
computer, word processing
sentence charts
overhead projector/transparencies
D. Use capital letters to begin
sentences, for proper nouns
and titles.
Capitalization
3.a. Use capital letters for the first letter of
first and last names
3.b. Use capital letters for titles
3.c. Use capital letter for first word of
sentence
3.d. Use capital letters in everyday writing
experiences.
-
worksheets, workbook
computer, word processing
sentence charts
overhead projector/transparencies
E. Use a variety of writing styles,
picture symbols and/or printed
words to communicate
Functional Written Communication
4.a. Write letters, numerals without models
4.b. Write words and phrases without models
4.c. Write complete sentence using capital
letters and ending punctuation
4.d. Write in increasingly smaller spaces
4.e. Write personal data
4.f. Write message for another person
4.g. Write sentences/paragraphs on a given topic
4.h. Address envelopes
4.i. Write letters
4.j. Use computer software, as needed,
to communicate
-
assistive technology
handwriting paper
envelopes
adaptive writing tools
simple forms to complete
a) information cards
b) Social Security forms
c) job applications
d) school forms
e) subscriptions
f)
catalog order forms
g) other forms
18
V. Social Skills
Wisconsin Content Standard for Language Arts and Social Studies: Students in Wisconsin will learn about the behavioral sciences
by exploring concepts from the discipline of sociology, the study of the interactions among individuals, groups, and institutions; the
discipline of psychology, the study of factors that influence individual identity and learning; and the discipline of anthropology, the study
of cultures in various times and settings.
Rationale: Social Skills are those abilities which allow the student to interact in many varied social groups and situations. Emphasis is
placed on personal data, manners, cooperation, and eating skills. It should be noted that these skills are not taught in isolation; rather
they complement skills that the student learns throughout the school year and are carried into real-life situations allowing the student to
be as independent as possible.
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Performance
Indicators:
Language Arts C.4.1 Orally communicate information,
opinions, and ideas effectively to different audiences
for a variety of purposes:
•
Identify and discuss criteria for effective oral
presentations, including such factors as eye
contact, projection, tone, volume, rate, and
articulation
•
Read aloud effectively from previously-read
material
•
Speaking from notes or a brief outline,
communicate precise information and accurate
instructions in clearly organized and sequenced
detail
•
Present autobiographical or fictional stories that
recount events effectively to large and small
audiences
•
Participate in group reading, such as choral, echo,
and shadow reading
•
Employ principles of agreement related to number,
gender, and case
•
Capitalize proper nouns, titles, and initial words of
sentences
•
Use punctuation marks and conjunctions, as
appropriate, to separate sentences and connect
independent clauses
•
Use commas correctly to punctuate appositives
and lists
•
Spell frequently used words correctly
•
Use word order and punctuation marks to distinguish
statements, questions, exclamations, and commands
A. Communicate in a purposeful
manner to convey concepts
pertaining to one’s environment
Personal Data
1.a. Respond with personal information
by verbalization, signing, gestures,
information cards, and/or using
assistive technology
1.b. Use personal information
appropriately in real life situations
See Appendix G. for sequential skills in this
area.
-
personal information cards
mirror
camera, pictures
identification bracelet
forms requiring personal data i.e.,
resume
portfolio
picture symbols
communication board/device, handheld pocket device/assistive
technology, etc.
19
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Language Arts C.4.3. Participate effectively in
discussion:
•
Volunteer relevant information, ask relevant
questions, and answer questions directly
•
Use appropriate eye contact and other nonverbal
cues
•
Use appropriate strategies to keep a discussion
going
•
Reflect on the ideas and opinion of others and
respond thoughtfully
•
Ask for clarification and explanation of unfamiliar
words and ideas
•
Summarize information conveyed through
discussion
B. Use simple social courtesies
appropriately
Manners
2.a. Demonstrate recognition of and respect for the
needs and feelings of others
2.b. Keep hands close to own body
2.c. Use socially appropriate greetings, courtesies in
various settings
2.d. Respond using appropriate eye contact and a
smile
2.e. Introduce self, others in a socially appropriate manner
2.f. Engage in conversational turn taking
2.g. Accept a compliment with an appropriate reply
C. Use socially acceptable table
manners
2.h.
2.i.
2.j.
2.k.
2.l.
Social Studies E.4.2. Explain the influence of factors
such as family, neighborhood, personal interest,
language, likes and dislikes, and accomplishments on
individual identity and development
D. Identify needs/values in personal
growth and in relating to others
Self Awareness
3.a. Increase perception of physical being
3.b. Increase emotional development
3.c. Increase value system
3.d. Explore how role in society may affect or
influence one’s life and the lives of others
3.e. Share personal insights and interests
E. Express opinions, feelings,
needs, likes/dislikes, abilities/
disabilities using verbal
expression, signing,
communication boards/books
and/or assistive technology
3.f. Use “I” messages to relate thoughts or feelings
regarding a person, object, and/or situation
3.g. Develop a list of descriptor words to express or
describe feelings
See Appendix G. for sequential skills in this area.
F. Develop a behavior pattern
consistent with values that are
acceptable within school, home,
and/or community
Peer Interaction
4.a. List ways to handle peer pressure
4.b. Name a peer who has a positive effect on one’s
behavior
4.c. Discuss qualities wanted in a friend
4.d. Explain how another’s qualities correspond to one’s
own values and define basic “values”
4.e. Apply one’s value system to group situations
See Appendix G. for sequential skills in this area.
Social Studies B.4.9. Describe examples of cooperation
and interdependence among individuals, groups, and
nations
Instructional Tools:
-
social skills resource books
role playing
posters, pictures
books
peer mediation
anger management strategies
videos
field trips
-
role playing
field trips
posters, pictures
job shadowing
videos
-
role playing
recess
situation cards
coping skills games
turn taking games
peer mediation
field trips
Use table utensils appropriately
Use napkin as needed
Request items in an appropriate manner
Maintain upright posture at table
Eat/chew with mouth closed
20
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Social Studies E.4.6 Give examples of group and
institutional influences such as laws, rules, and peer
pressure on people, events, and culture
G. Understand that one’s actions
lead to positive or negative
consequences
Coping/Self-control
5.a. Be aware of positive and negative feelings
5.b. Know that positive and negative feelings can be
expressed
5.c. Manage feelings and behaviors in a manner that is
acceptable within school, home, and/or community
5.d. Use appropriate outlets for dealing with self-control
issues:
•
ask for help
•
raise hand
•
make eye contact
•
use body language
5.e. Explain ways to deal with criticism and/or praise
See Appendix G. for sequential skills in this area.
-
role playing
situation cards
art activities
music activities
peer mediation
field trips
Social Studies C.4.6 Locate, organize, and use relevant
information to understand an issue in the classroom or
school, while taking into account the viewpoints and
interests of different groups and individuals
H. Make an appropriate choice
among several options
Decision Making
6.a. Assess situation and recognize the need for options
6.b. Make choices that are acceptable within school, home,
and/or community
See Appendix G. for sequential skills in this area.
-
role playing
problem solving
peer mediation
group discussions
worksheets
field trips
21
VI. Communication
Wisconsin Content Standard for Language Arts: Students in Wisconsin will listen, understand, and speak clearly and effectively for
diverse purposes.
Rationale: The spoken word, essential to our individual and social development, remains a central means to communication. Whether
in informal interactions or more formal settings, speakers are required to communicate clearly in a manner that benefits the occasion.
Listening is the most used and least understood of all communication skills. We spend approximately 45 percent of all communication
time and as much as 57 percent of school instruction time engaged in listening activities. The ability to listen and follow instructions is
highly prized in the work place.
The means to communicate are verbal, non-verbal, and/or alternative communication. Verbal communication involves verbal speech
and language skills and language acquisition. Non-verbal communication involves gestures, functional signing, and sign language to
demonstrate language skills and language acquisition. Alternative communication uses verbal, non-verbal and/or picture/symbols and
assistive technology devices. A student will usually acquire speech/language skills in developmental stages.
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Performance
Indicators:
Language Arts C.4.1 Orally communicate information,
opinions, and ideas effectively to different audiences for a
variety of purposes:
•
Identify and discuss criteria for effective oral presentations,
including such factors as eye contact, projection, tone,
volume, rate, and articulation
•
Read aloud effectively from previously-read material
•
Speaking from notes or a brief outline, communicate
precise information and accurate instructions in clearly
organized and sequenced detail
•
Present autobiographical or fictional stories that recount
events effectively to large and small audiences
•
Participate in group reading, such as choral, echo, and
shadow reading
•
Employ principles of agreement related to number, gender,
and case
•
Capitalize proper nouns, titles, and initial words of
sentences
•
Use punctuation marks and conjunction, as appropriate, to
separate sentences and connect independent clauses
•
Use commas correctly to punctuate appositives and lists
•
Spell frequently used words correctly
•
Use word order and punctuation marks to distinguish
statements, question, exclamations, and commands
A. Make eye-contact and use
visual tracking
Visual Skills
1.a. Look at or in the direction of the speaker
1.b. Follow a directive by using visual tracking
1.c. Maintain appropriate distance
between speaker and listener
See Appendix H. for sequential skills in
this area.
-
bubbles, blow pipes
clear tubing for visual tracking
favorite objects
worksheets
role playing
story telling
22
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Language Arts C.4.2 Listen to and comprehend oral
communications:
•
Follow basic directions
•
Identify and summarize key points of a story or discussion
•
Retell stories and reports of events in proper sequence
•
Follow sequence in plot and character development,
predict outcomes, and draw conclusions
•
Recall the content of stories after hearing them, relate the
content to prior knowledge, and answer various types of
factual and interpretive questions about the stories
•
Distinguish fact from fantasy and fact from opinion
•
Understand increasingly complex sentence structures
•
Understand a variety of word structures and forms such as
affixes, roots, homonyms, antonyms, synonyms, and word
analogies
B. Receive sounds and speech in
order to increase auditory skills,
auditory memory, discrimination,
and figure/ground discrimination
skills
Auditory Skills
2.a. Locate and attend to sounds
2.b. Separate a given sound from other sounds
and reproduce the sound in order to increase
auditory discrimination
2.c. Listen to speaker while blocking out
background noise
2.d. Recognize and adjust to various auditory
difficulties
2.e. Remember the meaning of words
See Appendix H. for sequential skills in
this area.
-
musical instruments
sound tapes and pictures
musical chairs game
bingo
books on tape
computer programs
clapping patterns
Simon Says game
songs, finger plays
mirroring
miming
Language Arts C.4.1 Orally communicate information,
opinions, and ideas effectively to different audiences for a
variety of purposes:
•
Identify and discuss criteria for effective oral presentations,
including such factors as eye contact, projection, tone,
volume, rate, and articulation
•
Read aloud effectively from previously-read material
•
Speaking from notes or a brief outline, communicate
precise information and accurate instructions in clearly
organized and sequenced detail
•
Present autobiographical or fictional stories that recount
events effectively to large and small audiences
•
Participate in group reading, such as choral, echo, and
shadow reading
•
Employ principles of agreement related to number, gender,
and case
•
Capitalize proper nouns, titles, and initial words of
sentences
•
Use punctuation marks and conjunction, as appropriate, to
separate sentences and connect independent clauses
•
Use commas correctly to punctuate appositives and lists
•
Spell frequently used words correctly
•
Use word order and punctuation marks to distinguish
•
Statements, question, exclamations, and commands
C. Use expressive communication
behaviors effectively to relay a
message
Gestures
3.a. Use hands, arms, head, etc. as means
of expression
3.b. Imitate motor skills as precursor to
imitating speech sounds
3.c. Use appropriate body or facial
gestures to communicate a need,
interest, or choice
-
role playing
reaching to be picked up
nodding “yes” or “no”
pointing to a wanted object
waving good-bye
using a “come here” motion
echoing songs
finger plays
nursery rhymes
sign language
Performance Standard:
Instructional Tools:
23
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Language Arts C.4.1 continued
D. Use vocal expressions
effectively to relay a message
Vocalizations
4.a. Imitate surrounding sounds
4.b. Imitate vocal sounds and words
4.c. Use meaningful speech
4.d. Use proper voice volume for each
situation
See Appendix H. for sequential skills in
this area.
-
Language Arts C.4.2 Listen to and comprehend oral
communications:
•
Follow basic directions
•
Identify and summarize key points of a story or discussion
•
Retell stories and reports of events in proper sequence
•
Follow sequence in plot and character development,
predict outcomes, and draw conclusions
Recall the content of stories after hearing them, relate the
content to prior knowledge, and answer various types of
factual and interpretive questions about the stories
•
Distinguish fact from fantasy and fact from opinion
•
Understand increasingly complex sentence structures
•
Understand a variety of word structures and forms
such as affixes, roots, homonyms, antonyms,
synonyms, and word analogies
E. Demonstrate communication
behaviors to show that a
message is received and
understood
Receptive Language Skills
5.a. Use visual and/or auditory stimuli to
receive and understand a message
5.b. Explore various means of receiving
signals, messages, information, etc.
5.c. Develop effective strategies in order
to increase receptive skills
See Appendix H. for sequential skills in
this area.
-
Language Arts C.4.1 Orally communicate information, opinions,
and ideas effectively to different audiences for a variety of
purposes:
•
Identify and discuss criteria for effective oral
presentations, including such factors as eye contact,
projection, tone, volume, rate, and articulation
•
Read aloud effectively from previously-read material
•
Speaking from notes or a brief outline, communicate
precise information and accurate instructions in clearly
organized and sequenced detail
•
Present autobiographical or fictional stories that recount
events effectively to large and small audiences
•
Participate in group reading, such as choral, echo, and
shadow reading
•
Employ principles of agreement related to number,
gender, and case
•
Capitalize proper nouns, titles, and initial words of
sentences
•
Use punctuation marks and conjunction, as appropriate, to
separate sentences and connect independent clauses
F. Demonstrate communication
behaviors to express needs,
wants, feelings, information etc.
Expressive Language Skills
6.a. Explore various means of expressing
signals, messages, information, etc.
6.b. Develop effective strategies in order
to increase expressive skills
See Appendix H. for sequential skills in
this area.
-
-
-
role playing
computer programs
materials appropriate for given
activity
communication books or boards
sequencing illustrations, cards
stories
role playing
role playing
interviews
daily life activities
dialoging
free time, peer play
telephones
computer programs
tape recorded language samples of
conversations, narratives
posters, charts illustrating
conversation reminders
24
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Language Arts D.4.1 Develop their vocabulary of words,
phrases, and idioms as a means of improving communication:
•
Consult dictionaries, thesauruses, and other resources to
find and compare definitions, choose among synonyms
and spell words correctly
•
Use their knowledge of roots, prefixes, and suffixes to
interpret and convey the meaning of words
•
Identify common figures of speech and use them
appropriately
G. Use and understand correct
sentence construction in real life
situations
Syntax/Grammar
7.a. Use correct word order to increase
communication skills
7.b. Use acceptable grammar to increase
communication skills
See Appendix H. for sequential skills in
this area.
-
writing journals
sentence corrections
worksheets, workbooks
computer programs
posters, charts with grammar rules
illustrated
Language Arts C.4.3 Participate effectively in discussion:
•
Volunteer relevant information, ask relevant questions,
and answer questions directly
•
Use appropriate eye contact and other nonverbal cues
•
Use appropriate strategies to keep a discussion going
•
Reflect on the ideas and opinions of others and respond
thoughtfully
•
Ask for clarification and explanation of unfamiliar words
and ideas
•
Summarize information conveyed through discussion
H. Transfer speech skills into useful
social conversations and
interactions with others
Pragmatics/Social Speech
8.a. Participate in a small group
discussion using an effective form of
verbal and/or non-verbal
communication
8.b. Give appropriate topical responses
8.c. Initiate conversation
See Appendix H. for sequential skills in
this area.
-
worksheets, workbooks
question & answer sheets
interviews
social situations
role playing
tape recorder
class discussion
video camera
Language Arts D.4.1 Develop their vocabulary of words,
phrases, and idioms as a means of improving communication:
•
Consult dictionaries, thesauruses, and other resources to
find and compare definitions, choose among synonyms
and spell words correctly
•
Use their knowledge of roots, prefixes, and suffixes to
interpret and convey the meaning of words
•
Identify common figures of speech and use them
appropriately
I. Use auditory and visual skills in
order to increase language and
vocabulary
Semantics
9.a. Match pictures to written, spoken or
signed words
9.b. Use word banks and dictionaries to
communicate basic wants/needs
9.c. Name item in one’s environment
See Appendix H. for sequential skills in
this area.
-
labeling exercises
role playing
social situations
computer software
Language Arts C.4.1 Orally communicate information,
opinions, and ideas effectively to different audiences for a
variety of purposes:
•
Identify and discuss criteria for effective oral
presentations, including such factors as eye contact,
projection, tone, volume, rate, and articulation
•
Read aloud effectively from previously-read material
J. Produce speech sounds
correctly and clearly
Articulation
10.a. Produce isolated sounds
10.b. Produce initial sounds of word(s)
10.c. Produce middle sounds of word(s)
10.d. Produce ending sounds of word(s)
See Appendix H. for sequential skills in
this area.
-
role playing
social situations
board games
modeling by peers & adults
school, classroom plays
listening to stories
videos
•
•
•
Use commas correctly to punctuate appositives and lists
Spell frequently used words correctly
Use word order and punctuation marks to distinguish
statements, question, exclamations, and commands
25
Performance Standard:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Speaking from notes or a brief outline, communicate
precise information and accurate instructions in clearly
organized and sequenced detail
Present autobiographical or fictional stories that recount
events effectively to large and small audiences
Participate in group reading, such as choral, echo, and
shadow reading
Employ principles of agreement related to number,
gender, and case
Capitalize proper nouns, titles, and initial words of
sentences
Use punctuation marks and conjunctions, as appropriate,
to separate sentences and connect independent clauses
Use commas correctly to punctuate appositives and lists
Spell frequently used word correctly
Use word order and punctuation marks to distinguish
statements, questions, exclamations, and commands
K. Use a combination of speech
sounds with gestures/signs in
order to be understood
Total Communication
11.a. Communicate wants and needs with
reduced/minimal frustration that may
accompany expressive language delays
11.b. Develop individually suited signing
vocabulary depending on one’s
specific needs
11.c. Use signs within one’s fine motor
capabilities
11.d. Use a sign while making the
corresponding sound/word
11.e. Experiment with various
communication devices to meet
individual needs
Instructional Tools:
-
mirrors
tape recorder
computer programs
-
assistive technology devices
picture, symbols
sign language books/ pictures
computer programs
26
Performance Standard:
Language Arts E.4.1 Use computers to acquire, organize,
analyze, and communicate information:
•
Operate common computer hardware and software
•
Use basic word-processing, graphics, and drawing
programs
•
Create, store, and retrieve electronic files
•
Access information using electronic reference resources,
such as library catalogs, encyclopedias, almanacs, and
indexes
•
Generate, send, and retrieve electronic messages
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
L. Operate assistive computer
hardware and software
Computer/Assistive Technology
12.a. Use computer switches to activate
cause/effect devices
12.b. Point to a symbol/word on a
communication board/device to
make needs or information known
12.c. Use touch screen, mouse, joystick,
keypad, IntelliKeys etc… to operate
computer software
-
assistive technology devices
computer programs
M. Use basic word processing,
graphics, and drawing
programs
13.a. Turn on and shut down computer properly
13.b. Locate letter, number, and function keys on
keyboard
13.c. Locate and open documents and programs
13.d. Type name on computer
13.e. Write a story or letter on the computer
13.f. Print copies
13.g. Create graphics
-
assistive technology devices
computer programs
N. Create, store, and retrieve
files
13.h. Use a computer to create files and save
data
13.i. Use a computer to retrieve data
27
VII. Science
Wisconsin Content Standard for Science: Students in Wisconsin will understand that science is ongoing and inventive, and that
scientific understandings have changed over time as new evidence is found. Students in Wisconsin will also investigate questions using
scientific methods and tools, revise their personal understanding to accommodate knowledge, and communicate these understandings to
others.
Rationale: Students should experience science in a form that engages them in actively constructing ideas and explanations and
enhances their opportunities to develop the skills needed for scientific inquiry. Such inquiry (problem solving) should include questioning;
forming hypotheses; collecting and analyzing data; reaching conclusions and evaluating results; and communicating procedures and
findings to others.
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Sample Performance Tasks:
Instructional Tools:
Performance
Indicators:
Science H.4.3 Show how science has
contributed to meeting personal needs,
including hygiene, nutrition, exercise, safety,
and health care
A. Demonstrate an understanding of
how science influences daily life
or
Science F.4.3 Illustrate the different ways that
organisms grow through life stages and
survive to produce new members of their type
B. Demonstrate an understanding of
animal life (e.g. similarities,
differences, habitats) using
common vocabulary of life
science
Life Science
The human body
1.a. Identify basic parts of the body by pointing to and naming
1.b. Explain the functions of basic parts of the
body
1.c. Explain maintenance of the body as
related to health:
•
eating a healthy diet
• seeing a doctor
• caring for vision needs
• caring for dental needs
1.d. Explain maintenance of the body as
related to hygiene:
• maintaining personal cleanliness
• caring for clothes
• using bathroom hygiene
-
The animal kingdom
2.a. Identify basic animals (naming) and characteristics of
animals
2.b. Identify adaptations made by animals
2.c. Differentiate between animal and
non-animal
2.d. Differentiate among types, families,
and categories of animals
2.e. Discuss and compare types of food
that various animals eat
2.f. Identify specific characteristics of each
animal
-
dolls, manipulatives
body posters
posters
food pyramid
exercise videos
matching games
field trips
skeleton
foods to label as healthy
and non-healthy
- menu planning
- grocery games
animal cards
posters
manipulatives
field trips
animal videos
animal bingo
worksheets
pets for classroom
information about pet care
diagrams
28
Performance Standard:
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
Sample Performance Tasks:
Science F.4.2 Investigate how organisms,
especially plants respond to both internal
cues (the need for water) and external cues
(changes in the environment)
C. Investigate how plants respond
to internal cues, e.g., the need
for water, and to external cues,
e.g., changes in the
environment
Plant Life
3.a. Identify basic parts of plants
3.b. Identify categories of plants
3.c. Explain the function of the parts of
the plant
3.d. Identify the needs of various types of
plants
3.e. Explain the importance of plants
3.f. Take part in activities demonstrating
change/growth in plants
3.g. Respond to cause/effect questions
about plants
Science E.4.5 Describe the weather
commonly found in Wisconsin in terms of
clouds, temperature, humidity, and forms of
precipitation, and the changes that occur over
time, including seasonal changes
D. Participate in activities involving
various seasonal and weather
conditions
Environmental Science
Seasons
4.a. Label and explain characteristics of
each of the four seasons
4.b. Demonstrate an understanding of the
differences among seasons
4.c. Explain the cycle of the seasons
4.d. Interpret seasonal information in
order to predict weather
4.e. Select and dress in clothing
appropriate for seasons and daily
weather
4.f. Interpret seasonal conditions in order
to choose recreational activities
E. Describe weather changes and
how they influence daily living
Weather
5.a. Explain how weather changes with each of the seasons
5.b. Identify different types of weather
and the clothing needed for varying
weather conditions
5.c. Apply acquired weather knowledge to dress
for weather conditions
5.d. Apply acquired weather knowledge
to plan for activities
5.e. Be aware of dangerous weather
conditions
Instructional Tools:
- pictures of trees, plant
common to the area where
students live
- various seeds to plant in containers
- various containers for planting
- experiments
- videos
- charts, posters
- worksheets
- hands-on manipulatives
- field trips
-
season cycle chart
weather, weekly calendars
daily temperature graph
worksheets
role playing
games e.g., “What would you
wear if…….?”
- classroom weather person
- field trips
-
weather charts
weather channel
weather pictures
dress-up drills
thermometer
daily weather graph
dress-up gear for weather
weather forecasts from
TV, radio, newspaper, computer
- classroom weather person
29
Performance Standard:
Science E.4.3 Develop descriptions of the
land and water masses of the earth and of
Wisconsin’s rocks and minerals, using the
common vocabulary of earth and space
science
Sample Alternate
Performance
Indicators:
F. Identify variations in land and
water and how they are affected
by people’s activities.
Sample Performance Tasks:
Activities:
Land
6.a. Demonstrate comprehension of basic
land features and land compositions
6.b. Explain various uses of land
6.c. Explain how land formations are
created
6.d. Experiment with various types of soil
for growing plants
-
land maps
geological samples, i.e., salt, rock, etc.
globes
salt dough maps
computer programs
community experiences
Water
7.a. Explain the importance of water in
everyday life
7.b. Give examples of water conservation
7.c. Explain the water cycle and its
importance to one’s surroundings
-
water cycle chart
water experiments
water samples
daily sampling and journal entries
list of ways water is used in real life
situations
-
community clean-up
recycling activities
field trips
videos
books
experiments
Pollution
8.a. Give examples of pollution
8.b. Identify sources of pollution
8.c. List ways to remedy polluted areas
30
Appendix A
Early Developmental Skills
A. Gross Motor
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
Roll over
Creep on hands and knees
Hold head erect and steady while sitting
Sit erect and unsupported for 5 minutes
Sit with enough balance and support to free hands for activity
Stand with no support
Pull self to standing position while holding onto stationary object
Stand up from a chair
Walk with arms up and out from sides
Make stepping movements when held in upright position
Walk 3 or more steps without assistance
Stand in upright position without support for 30 or more seconds
Carry large object while walking 10 feet
Stoop or squat to pick up object
Creep/crawl up 4 steps without assistance
Walk without support for 10 feet without falling
Move from sitting to standing without support from object or person
Walk up 4 stairs with support
Run 10 feet without falling
Walk up and down stairs without assistance (placing both feet on each step)
Jump forward with both feet together
Walk down stairs with alternating feet
Walk with arms swinging front and back
Walk sideways
Walk well, seldom falling
Walk backwards 3 steps
Walk backwards a distance of 2 meters
Walk on tiptoe 3 steps
Walk forward heel-to-toe 3 steps
Walk on tiptoe a distance of 2 meters
Walk a straight line
Walk a circular line 1 inch wide and 1 meter in diameter
Walk forward heel-to-toe a distance of 2 meters
Walk in scissors steps along a line 1 inch wide and a distance of 2 meters
Walk backwards toe-to-heel 6 steps
Walk backwards toe-to-heel a distance of 2 meters
Go up and down stairs using alternating feet
B. Running Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Run while stepping as high as he/she can with heels up and weight on toes
Run with swinging arms or pumping elbows
Run in place
Run with knees as high as they can go
Run on toes
Run backwards
31
Early Developmental Skills Cont.
C. Climbing Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Creep up stairs
Creep down stairs
Climb onto low furniture
Walk up stairs with one hand being held
Walk down stairs with one hand being held
Walk up stairs alone, holding rail
Walk down stairs using alternating feet with one hand being held
Climb ladder on low play equipment
Walk up stairs, alternating feet, while holding rail
Walk down stairs, alternating feet, while holding rail
Walk up stairs, carrying objects in one hand, without holding rail
Walk down stairs, carrying objects in one hand, without holding rail
Walk up and down stairs, carrying objects in both hands
D. Ball Skills (Playground Ball)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Catch beanbags and other lightweight objects
Use arms and body to catch and hold ball
Use arms and body to catch bounced ball
Use arms and chest to catch bounced ball
Use arms and body to catch thrown ball
Use both hands to catch a bounced ball
Use hand and chest to catch thrown ball
Use both hands to catch thrown ball
Use both hands to throw ball underhand
Use one hand to throw ball underhand
Use one hand to throw ball overhand
Use both hands to bounce ball to a partner
Use both hands to bounce ball in place then catch it with both hands
Take two or more coordinated steps and kick ball
E. Ball Skills (Tennis Ball)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Toss beanbag and other lightweight objects
Use both hands to catch bounced ball
Use one hand to catch thrown ball
Use both hands to roll ball
Use one hand to roll ball
F. Hopping Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Hop on dominant foot
Attempt to hop on non-dominant foot
Hop 1 or 2 hops on dominant foot
Hop 1 or 2 hops on non-dominant foot
Hop on dominant foot a distance of 1 meter
Hop on non-dominant foot a distance of 1 meter
Hop on dominant foot a distance of 2 meters
Hop on non-dominant foot a distance of 2 meters
G. Skipping Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
Swing arms in opposition
Shift body weight from side to side
Skip on one foot
Skip with alternating feet
32
Early Developmental Skills Cont.
H. Kicking Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
Kick playground ball without losing balance
Walk up to and kick stationary playground ball
Take 2 or more coordinated steps and kick playground ball
Perform beginning drop kick
I. Jump Rope Skills
1.
2.
3.
Clap hands or tap feet while listening to rope-jumping rhythms
Face a partner, hold hands, and jump along to rope-jumping rhythms
Jump with both feet to rhythm of jumping a rope
33
Appendix B
Fine Motor Skills
A. Early Fine Motor Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Bat at an object
Reach for an object
Place an object in a container
Pull, snap beads apart
Pull clothespins off a container and put them back on
Play with playdough
Tear paper
Turn pages in a book
Hold a paintbrush and make strokes
B. Fine Motor Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Hold and release an object
Use finger paints
Put objects into hole in a box
Pinch
Stack rings
Demonstrate visual tracking
Pick up small objects with pincher grasp
Turn knobs
String 1 inch beads
Screw and unscrew 2 inch lids
Fold paper
String ½ inch beads
Put paper clips on paper
Crease paper with fingers
Fold paper diagonally, then crease
Open lock with key
Build structures with blocks
Dial phone number
Thread large needle
Complete simple inset puzzle
Complete inset puzzle 3-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20 pieces
Complete puzzle (non-set) of 12 pieces or fewer, 12-25, 26-50 pieces
Draw a person with 6-8 recognizable parts
Draw a person with 9-12 recognizable parts
34
Appendix C
Listening
A. Listening
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Imitate simple actions demonstrated by teacher
Respond to name
Carry out simple command with physical prompt
Make eye contact with speaker
Identify objects
Come when called
Give requested object with physical prompt, without physical prompt
Give a requested object from set of 2 objects
Touch body parts with physical prompts
Demonstrate understanding of simple directives
Follow 2-step directives with prompts
Follow directive of 2 or more steps with fading prompts
35
Appendix D
Telling Time
A. The use of digital time will be taught along with the
face clock to compare the two methods. During the
day the teacher will ask the student to give the time of
day. This will determine if the student is able to
generalize the skill and use it functionally in his/her
life.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Label the numerals around the clock
Identify the hour hand and the minute hand
Explain that the short hand points to the hour, long hand points to the minute
Tell o’clock time for each numeral
Tell time by half-hour intervals
Tell time by quarter-hour intervals
Tell time by five minute intervals
Tell time by one minute intervals
36
Appendix E
Reading Progression
A. Phonemic Awareness
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Identify that each consonant has its own sound
Imitate the teacher as the consonant sounds are presented
Name and identify the soft and hard sounds of the consonants
Identify each of the 21 consonants by their sounds
Identify vowels
Imitate vowel sounds given by the teacher
Name short sounds of vowels
Name long sounds of vowels
Identify diphthongs and digraphs
Combine 1 vowel and 1 consonant to form a word
Combine 3 letter sounds to blend into a word with teacher assistance
Combine 4 letter sounds to blend into a word with teacher assistance
Identify and give sounds of consonants blends (sh, ch, br, pl, & etc.)
Identify vowel and consonant blends when they appear in words
Correctly use blends in words
Read 2 to 3 words in a row
Read 4 to 5 words in a row
B. Sight-Based Progression
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Identify name
Identify printed name among a group of names
Identify written names of family or peers upon request
Point to a requested color
Match printed word with appropriate color and label it upon request
Point to different functional signs in one’s daily life
Name functional community signs and name one purpose of the sign
Demonstrate role playing and knowledge of functional signs
Identify words of familiar objects as they are presented
Match printed word with object
Match printed word with object when presented among a group of words
Identify grocery words
Identify restaurant words
Read for specific information (i.e., television guide, directions, etc.)
37
Appendix F
Writing Sequence
A. Pre-Writing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Hold crayon, marker, thick pencil, etc.
Scribble randomly
Scribble spontaneously in horizontal direction
Scribble spontaneously in vertical direction
Scribble spontaneously in circular direction
Imitate horizontal scribble
Imitate vertical scribble
Imitate circular scribble
Imitate horizontal line
Imitate vertical line
Imitate circular line
Copy a horizontal line
Copy a vertical line
Copy a circle
Imitate a cross
Copy a cross
Imitate right/left diagonal
Copy right/left diagonal
Imitate a square
Copy a square
Imitate left/right diagonal
Copy left/right diagonal
Imitate an X
Copy and X
Imitate a triangle
Copy a triangle
Imitate a diamond
Copy a diamond
B. Tracing
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Trace his/her first name
Trace his/her last name
Trace upper case letters of the alphabet
Trace lower case letters of the alphabet
Trace numerals 0-9
Trace reading words
C. Copying
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Copy a word from a model
Recognize the top and bottom lines on the paper
Copy lower case letters of the alphabet
Copy upper case letters of the alphabet
Copy numerals 0-9
Copy words, given a model
Write a sentence, given a model
Print his/her name without models
Write words and phrases without models
Write numerals without models
38
Writing Sequence Cont.
D. Cursive
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Trace lower case cursive letters
Trace upper case cursive letters
Copy letters of the alphabet in cursive form
Transpose his/her name from printed to cursive form
Transpose familiar words from printed to cursive form
Write independently in cursive form
39
Appendix G
Basic Social Skill Sequence Chart
5.
6.
7.
Point to self when name is stated
Locate self in mirror
Recognize self in picture form
State first name, full name, address, city, state, phone number, age, birthday, gender, parents’ names, siblings’ name, and school
name
Identify his/her Social Security card and State ID card
Explain uses of Social Security card and State ID card
Use assistive technology device/communication board to give personal data
B. Eating Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
Swallow strained food
Use tongue to move food in mouth
Use lips to close mouth tightly
Feed crackers to self
Drink from cup with assistance
Hold cup with both hands to drink with assistance
Lift empty cup to mouth in imitation
Feed self finger food
Lift cup from table to drink
Return cup to table after drinking
Begin using spoon/other utensils to feed self
Hold cup with both hands with no assistance
Chew and swallow semi-soft food
Chew and swallow solid food
Lift spoon from plate to mouth with some spilling
Scoop food with spoon
Suck from straw
Ask for food with words, gestures
Hold glass with one hand
Chew food with rotary motion
Control the turn of spoon
Hold fork in fist
Feed self without assistance
Hold spoon in fingers
Use napkin
Use knife for spreading
Use knife for cutting
Hold fork with fingers
Pour from 1 or 2 quart pitcher
Prepare dry cereal
Prepare a sandwich
C. Self Awareness
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Learn to state personal data
Share information about oneself
Make positive statements about self and others
Develop an understanding of self concepts
Establish a positive self concept
Recognize that self concept influences behaviors and decisions
Realize that self concept is influenced by the changing demands of family, friends, and society
A. Personal Data
1.
2.
3.
4.
40
Basic Social Skill Sequence Chart Cont.
D. Expression of Feeling
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Acknowledge/label feelings in self and in others
Express negative feelings appropriately for age and situation
Express positive feelings appropriately for age and situation
List positive and negative feelings and describe situations in which these feelings occur
Recognize that feelings can change either rapidly or over time
Express personal feelings about a given topic or situation
E. Peer Interaction
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Take turns
Share toys with peers
Play simple cooperative, competitive games by the rules
Show concern, compassion for peers
Understand others’ point of view
Play complex competitive games by the rules
Give and receive affection in an appropriate manner and for appropriate age
Suggest a compromise to solve a problem
Demonstrate cooperative group behavior
Be aware that belonging to a group helps develop one’s self-esteem
Be able to discuss how and why values may differ among people
Develop an understanding of how values influence behavior
F. Coping/Self-Control
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Demonstrate non-aggressive, non-disruptive behavior
Limit non-compliant behavior
Utilize non-structured time appropriately
Take responsibility for own actions and not blame others
Realize that some situations are more stressful and place greater demands on coping skills
Develop impulse control to replace physical and verbal aggression
G. Decision Making
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Plan and organize activities
List responsibilities toward others and the effect of not fulfilling those responsibilities
Demonstrate care, respect for environment
List realistic long-term, short-term goals
Describe behavior necessary to achieve goals
Demonstrate understanding of criminal law and consequences for disobedience
Understand the reasons for the use and misuse of drugs, alcohol
Develop an awareness of sexual identity and understand that feelings and sexuality affect relationships.
41
Appendix H
Communication Skills
A. Visual Skills: The student will increase vocabulary
more readily when he/she can look at the object to
which the speaker refers. As visual tracking increases,
the student will be able to look at an object as directed.
1.
2.
Make eye contact with speaker
Follow an object using visual tracking
B. Auditory Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Turn toward, look for, and locate the source of a sound
Associate sound with source
Discriminate between disruptive sounds and sounds needed for learning
Listen to important sounds in his/her environment
Respond to his/her name from various locations
C. Vocalizations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Make mouth/muscle movements and coordinate breathing necessary for speech
Make individual sounds
Make approximations of words
Imitate correct pronunciation of sounds, words
Use a word to represent a real object or person
Use sounds/words in order to get attention and/or response
D. Receptive Language Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Make eye contact
Follow directions/instructions
Respond to questions
Develop sequencing skills
Develop classifying skills
Increase attending skills
E. Expressive Language Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Make eye contact
Initiate questions
Express needs
State personal data
Use social amenities
Use appropriate syntax
Use a telephone appropriately
F. Syntax/Grammar
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Use plurals
Use past tense verb forms
Use pronouns
Use conjunctions
Demonstrate sentence construction
Demonstrate verbal expression
Demonstrate written expression
42
Communication Skills Cont.
G. Pragmatics/Social Speech
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Express needs and wants
Respond to simple yes/no questions
Call at least one person by name
Ask for food at table
Vocalize toilet needs
Respond to questions involving choices
Say “Thank you” and “Please”
Deliver simple messages
Respond to and make verbal greetings
Say “Excuse me” to interrupt someone
Participate in a conversation in a turn-taking manner
Answer a telephone and notify the person requested
Deliver a two part message
Answer a telephone and relay message to person requested
H. Semantics
1.
2.
3.
4.
Demonstrate understanding of verbal directions
Point to pictures as requested
Name pictures as requested
Label a picture as directed
I. Articulation: progresses from isolated sounds to the
initial sounds of word(s), to the middle part of word(s),
to the end of word(s).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Articulate initial part of a word
Articulate middle part of a word
Articulate end part of a word
Articulate initial part of a phrase
Articulate middle part of a phrase
Articulate end part of a phrase
Recite a sentence using sounds, blends, and phrases
43
References
Baker, B., & Brightman, A. (1994). Steps to independence: A skills training guide for parents and teachers of children with
special needs. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.
Barton, J., Lanza, J., & Wilson, C. (1983). SCOR: Sequential communication objectives for remediation. Moline, IL:
LinguiSystems.
Brigance, A. (1978). Inventory of early development. Woburn, MA: Curriculum Associates.
Brigance, A. (1985). Readiness: strategies and practices. North Billerica, MA: Curriculum Associates.
Brown County Children’s Disabilities Education Board. (1994). Math checklist. Green Bay, WI: Author.
Frost, L., & Bondy, A. (1994). Picture exchange communication system (PECS). Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational
Consultants, Incorporated.
Goldman, R., & Lynch, M. (1986). High hat: From sounds to symbols. Circle Pines, MN: America Guidance Service
Klein, M. (1990). Pre-writing skills (Rev.ed). Tucson, AZ: Communication Skill Builders, Incorporated.
Kuder, S. (1997). Teaching students with language and communication disabilities. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Kumin, L. (1994). Communication skills in children with down syndrome. Rockville, MD: Woodbine House.
McGinnis, E., & Goldstein, A. (1984). Skill streaming: A guide for teaching pro-social skills. Champaign, IL: Research Press
Company.
Newborg, J., Stock, J., & Wnek, L. (1984). Batelle developmental inventory. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing Company.
44
Oelwein, P. (1995). Teaching reading to children with down syndrome: A guide for parents and teachers. Bethesda, MD:
Woodbine House.
Thompson, B. (1994). Basic life functions instructional program model. Madison, WI: State of Wisconsin Department of
Public Instruction.
Touch Math. (1991). Colorado Springs, CO: Innovative Learning Concepts, Incorporated.
45
Resource and Materials
Companies/Publishers
1. AIMS Multimedia
Chatsworth, CA 91311
www.AIMS-Multimedia.com
2. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
2725 Sand Hill Road
Menlo Park, CA 94025
650-854-0300
www.awl.com
3. Allyn & Bacon
160 Gould Street, Suite 3
Needham Heights, MA 02494
781-455-1250
vig.abacon.com
4. American Guidance Service
4201 Woodland Road
Circle Pines, MN 55014-1796
800-328-2560
[email protected]
www.agsnet.com
5. Attainment Company Inc.
P.O. Box 930160
Verona, WI 53593-0160
800-327-4269
www.AttainmentCompany.com
46
6. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company
P.O. Box 10624
Baltimore, MD 21285
800-638-3775
www.brookespublishing.com
7. Brown County Children with Disabilities Education Board
755 Scheuring Road
DePere, WI 54115
920-336-5754
[email protected]
8. Center for Applied Research in Education
U.S. Highway N West #9
Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632
201-592-2481
9. Center for Innovation in Education
1510A Dell Avenue
Campbell, CA 95008
800-395-6088, ext. 290
[email protected]
www.center.edu
10. Center for Science in Public Interest
1875 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20009
202-332-9110
[email protected]
www.cspinet.org
47
11. Claris Corporation/Apple Corporation
Cupertino, CA 95014
www.apple.com
12. Communication Skills Builders/Therapy Skill Builders
3830 East Bellevue
P.O. Box 42050
Tucson, AZ 85733
520-323-7500
[email protected]
www.psychcorp.com/catg
13. Continental Press
520 East Bainbridge Street
Elizabethtown, PA 17022
800-233-0759
14. CEC Publications
Council for Exceptional Children
888-CEC-SPED
www.cec.sped.org/ab-menu.htm
15. Creative Communicating
P.O. Box 3358
Park City, UT 84060
801-645-7737
16. Creative Teaching Press, Incorporated
10701 Holder Street
Cypress, CA 90630
714-827-9514
[email protected]
48
17. Creative Wonders
San Matco, CA 94403
18. Curriculum Associates
153 Rangeway Road
North Billerico, MA 01862-2021
800-225-0248
[email protected]
www.curriculumassociates.com
19. DK Interactive Learning
95 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10016
800-DKM-M575
www.dk.com
20. DLT’s Printable Crafts for Kids
www.dltk-kids.com
21. Davidson and Associates Inc.
P.O. Box 2961
Torrance, CA 90509
22. Don Johnston, Incorporated
Volo, IL 60073
800-999-4660
www.donjohnston.com
23. EBSCO Curriculum Materials
P.O. Box 1943
Birmingham, AL 35201
800-653-2726
www.epnet.com/indez.html
49
24. Edmark Corporation
P.O. Box 97021
Redmond, WA 98073-9721
800-362-2890
www.edmark.com
25. Educators Publishing Service, Incorporated
31 Smith Place
Cambridge, MA 02138
800-225-5750
www.epsbooks.com
26. Exley Giftbooks
232 Madison Avenue, Suite 1206
New York, NY 10016
212-545-8434
800-423-9593
www.toydirectory.com/exleygiftbooks/index.htm
27. Franklin Electronic Publishers, Incorporated
1 Franklin Plaza
Burlington, NJ 08016
800-266-5626
www.franklin.com
28. Gallaudet University Press
800 Florida Avenue, N.E.
Washington, DC 20002
202-651-5488
www.gupress.gallaudet.edu
50
29. GAMCO Educational Software
St. Louis, MO 63105
www.gamco.com
30. Good Apple Incorporated
P.O. Box 299
Carthage, IL 62321-0299
31. Innovative Learning Concepts, Incorporated
6760 Corporate Drive
Colorado Springs, CO 80919-199
888-868-2462
www.touchmath.com
32. IntelliTools, Incorporated
1720 Corporate Circle
Petaluma, CA 94954
[email protected]
www.intellitools.com
33. Interactive Learning
New York, NY 10016
34. Laureate Learning Systems, Incorporated
110 East Spring Street
Winooski, VT 05404
802-655-4755 (customer service)
800-562-6801 (technical support)
www.LLSys.com
51
35. Learning Company
6493 Kaiser Drive
Fremont, CA 94555
617-761-3000
www.learningco.com
36. LinguiSystems, Incorporated
3100 4th Avenue
Moline, IL 61244-9700
[email protected]
www.linguisystems.com
37. Living Books
San Francisco, CA 94111
www.livingbooks.com
38. McGraw-Hill
11 West 19th Street
New York, NY 10011
212-337-5006
[email protected]
39. Mayer-Johnson Company
P.O. Box 1579
Solana Beach, CA 92075-1579
800-588-4548
[email protected]
40. Neuhaus Education Center
4433 Bissonnet Street
Bellaire, TX 77401-3233
713-664-4676
www.e-cats.com
52
41. NEW Dimensions
61 Mattatuck Heights
Waterbury, CT 06705
800-227-9120
42. Newbridge Communications Incorporated
Education Plaza
P.O. Box 938
Hicksville, NY 11802
43.
News-4-You
P.O. Box 550
Huron, OH 44839
800-697-4575
[email protected]
www.news-4-you.com
44. Orange Cherry New Media
Pound Ridge, NY 10576
800-672-6002
45. Pro-Ed
8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard
Austin, TX 78757
800-897-3202
www.proedinc.com
46. Pyramid Educational Consultants (PECS)
226 West Park Place, Suite 1
Newark, DE 19711
888-732-7462
www.pecs.com
53
47. Reading Connections
926 Willard Drive, Suite 148
Green Bay, WI 54304
920-494-1736
48. Research Press Company
2612 North Mattis Avenue
Champaign, IL 61820
217-352-3273
www.researchpress.com
49. Riverside Publishing Company
8420 Bryn Mawr Avenue
Chicago, IL 60631
800-767-8378
www.riverpub.com
50. SKF Books
20641 46th Avenue
Langley, B.C.
Canada V3A 3H8
51. Scholastic. Incorporated
Early Childhood Division
730 Broadway
New York, NY 10003
www.scholastic.com
54
52. Slater Software Incorporated
3351 Badger Lane
Guffey, CO 80820
719-479-2255
www.slatersoftware.com
53. Soft Touch Software
4182 Pinewood Lake Drive
Bakersfield, CA 93309
805-396-8676
54. Sportime International
Atlanta, GA 30340
[email protected]
www.sportime.com/pe-talk
55. State of Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
P.O. Box 7841
Madison, WI 53707-7841
608-266-3390
www.dpi.state.wi.us
56. Teaching and Learning Company
1204 Buchanan Street
P.O. Box 10
Carthage, IL 62321
800-852-1234
www.teachinglearning.com
55
57. Therapy Skill Builders, Incorporated
3830 East Bellevue
P.O. Box 42050
Tucson, AZ 85733
520-323-7500
[email protected]
www.psychcorp.com/catg
58. Wisconsin Assistive Technology Initiative
357 North Main Street
Amherst, WI 54406
800-991-5576
www.wati.org
59. Woodbine House
6510 Bells Mill Road
Bethesda, MD 20817
800-843-7323
www.woodbinehouse.com
Pre-Requisite Concepts
1.
Alphabet Express [Computer Software] (2000)
School Zone Publishing Company
Grand Haven, MI 49417
2. Baker, Bruce L. & Brightman, A. (1994). Steps to independence: A skill training guide for parents and teachers of children
with special needs. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.
3. Brigance, A. (1978). Inventory of early development. Woburn, MA: Curriculum Associates.
4. Brigance, A. (1985). Readiness: Strategies and practices. North Billerica, MA: Curriculum Associates.
56
5. Brodin-Lennon, D., & Rinehart, C. (1999). Song to communicate. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
6. Clark, J. (1999). New-4-you. Huron, OH: News-4-you.
7. Coulee Region Infant Development Center
8. Frost, L. & Bondy, A. (1994). Picture exchange communication system (PECS). Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational
Consultants, Incorporated.
9.
Gilroy, P. (1989). Discovery in motion. Tucson, AZ: Communication Skill Builders.
10. Jordano, K. & Callella, T. (1998). Phonemic awareness songs & rhymes. Cypress, CA: Creative Teaching Press,
Incorporated.
11. Jumpstart Preschool [Computer Software] (1999)
Knowledge Adventure, Incorporated
Torrance, CA 90504
12. Kid Pix [Computer Software] (1991)
Broderbund Software
Novoto, CA 94948
13. Klein, M. (1990). Pre-writing skills: Skill starters for motor development (rev.ed.). Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.
14. Kleinsinger, S. (1991). Learning through play: SCIENCE, a practical guide for teaching young children. New York, NY:
Scholastic, Incorporated.
15. Mayer-Johnson. (1991). The picture communication symbols. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
16. Mayer-Johnson. (1994). Boardmaker [Computer Software]. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
17. Newborg, J., Stock, J., & Wnek, L. (1984). Battelle Developmental Inventory. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing Company.
57
18. Oelwein, P. (1995). Teaching reading to children with down syndrome: A guide for parents and teachers. Bethesda, MD:
Woodbine House.
19. Reader Rabbit Thinking Adventures [Computer Software] (1999)
The Learning Compangy
www.learningco.com
20. Schneider, J. & Cecil, J. (1989). Progressive Individualized Exercises (PIE). Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.
21. Schneider, J. & Passanisi, J. (1993). Exercises for Agility, Balance, Coordination, and Strength. Tucson, AZ: Therapy
Skill Builders.
22. Thompson, B. (1994). Basic life functions instructional program model. Madison, WI: State of Wisconsin Department of
Public Instruction.
23. Waite-Stupiansky, S. & Stupiansky, N. (1992). Learning through play: Math, a practical guide for teaching young
children. New York, NY: Scholastic, Incorporated.
24. Witt, B., & Klein, M. (1990). PREPARE: An interdisciplinary approach to perceptual-motor readiness. Tucson, AZ:
Communication Skill Builders.
Mathematics
1.
Best Math Program ever [Computer Software] (1997)
Simon and Schuster Interactive
New York, NY
2.
Bloomer, A., & Carlson, P. (1993). Activity math. Menlo-Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
3.
Brown County Children’s Disabilities Education Board. (1994). Math checklist. DePere, WI: Syble Hopp School.
4.
Early math big books. (1998). New York, NY: Newbridge Educational Publishing.
58
5. Edmark. (1987). Time telling. Redmond, WA: Edmark Corportation.
6. Edmark. (1997). Touch money. Redmond, WA Edmark Corporation.
7. First Money (version 2.0.1) [Computer Software]
Attainment Company, Incorporated
800-327-4269
8. Garland, C. (1990). Math their way. Saratoga, CA: Center for Innovation in Educaiton.
9. Goodwin, M., & Pollen, G. (1974). Creative food experiences for children. Washington, DC: Center for Science in Public
Interest.
10. Hooge, S., & Goodwon, J. (1987). The problem solver 2. Sunnyvale, CA: Creative Publication.
11. I Love Money [Computer Software]
DK Interactive Learning
New York, NY 10016
www.dk.com
12. Johnson, A. (1997). Math exercises for nonreaders. Solana, CA: Mayer-Johnson Co.
13. Johnson, V. (1994). Hands-on-math.-math. Cypress, CA: Creative Teaching Press.
14. Jordan, N., & Montani, T. (1996). Mathematics difficulties in young children: Cognitive and developmental perspectives.
Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilites, 10A, 101-134.
15. Lieberthan, E. (1979). The complete book of fingermath. New York, Ny: McGraw-Hill.
16. Math Blaster [Computer Software] (1993)
Davidson and Associates, Incorporated
Torrance, CA 90509
59
17. Math Rabbit [Computer Software] (1991)
The Learning Company
Fremont, CA 94555
18. Mayer-Johnson. (1991). The picture communication symbols. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
19. Mayer-Johnson. (1994). Boardmaker [Computer Software]. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
20. Measurement [Computer Software] (1998)
GAMCO Educational Software
St. Louis, MO 63105
www.gamco.com
21. Millie’s Math House [Computer Software] (1992)
Edmark Corporation
Redmond, WA 98073
22. Number Maze [Computer Software] (1991)
Great Wave Software Company
23. Outnumbered [Computer Software] (1991)
The Learning Company
Fremont, CA 94555
24. Proff, J. (1985). Take time. Tigard, OR: C.C. Publications Incorporated.
25. Tompson, B. (1994). Basic life functions instructional program model. Madison, WI: State of Wisconsin Department of
Public Instruction.
26. Touch math. (1991). Colorado Springs, CO: Innovative Learning Concept, Incorporated.
60
Reading
1.
Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic awareness in young children. Baltimore, MD: Paul
H. Brookes Publishing Company.
2.
Bowers, M. (1999). Synthesizing phonics. Green Bay, WI: Reading Connections.
3.
Brodin-Lennon, D., & Rinehart, C. (1999). Song to communicate. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
4.
Clark, J. (1999). News-4-you. Huron OH: News-4-You.
5.
Capriola, A., & Swensen, R. (1996). A bright beginning. Elizabethtown, PA: Continental Press, Incorporated.
6.
D’Amelio, D., Possler, K., Sumski, J., & Ulrich, S. (1994). Reading for Comprehension. Elizabethtown, PA: The
Continental Press, Incorporated.
7. Doran, S. (1997). Independent reading and writing activities. North Billerica, MA: Curriculum Associates.
8. Edmark reading program. (1992). Redmond, WA: Edmark Corporation.
9. Frost, L. & Bondy, A. (1994). Picture exchange communication system (PECS). Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational
Consultants Incorporated.
10. Goldman, R. & Lynch, M. (1986). High hat: From sounds to symbols. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
11. Henry, M., & Redding, N. (1996). Patterns for success in reading and spelling: A multisensory approach to teaching
phonics and word analysis. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
12. Kelly, J., & Friend, T. (2000). Hands-on Reading. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
61
13. Kid Phonics [Computer Software] (1994)
Davidson and Associates, Incorporated
Torrance, CA 90509
14. King-DeBaun, P. (1994). Storytime Holiday Fun! Park City, UT: Creative Communicating.
15. Living Books
San Franciso, CA 94111
www.livingbooks.com
16. Mayer-Johnson. (1994). Boardmaker [Computer Software]. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
17. McAlpine, S., & Joers, J. (1996). Reading for content: Social studies. Elizabethtown, PA: Continental Press.
18. Oelwein, P. (1995). Teaching reading to children with down syndrome: A guide for parents and teachers. Bethesda, MD:
Woodbine House.
19. Reading Blaster [Company Software] (1997)
Davidson and Associates, Incorporated
Torrance, CA 90504
www.education.com
20. Sesame Street Letters [Computer Software] (1995)
Creative Wonders
San Mateo, CA 94403
21. Simon Sounds It Out [Computer Software] (1996)
Don Johnston, Incorporated
Wauconda, IL 60073
62
22. Slingerland, B., & Aho, M. (1994-1996). A Multi-sensory approach to language arts for specific language disability
children (Rev.ed., Vol. 1-3). Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
23. Thompson, B. (1994). Basic life functions instructional program model. Madison, WI: State of Wisconsin Department
of Public Instruction.
24. Weimann, E., & Freidman, R. (1990). Alpha time. Elmsford, NY: New Dimensions Education, Incorporated.
Writing
1.
Becht L. (1985). The sensible pencil: A handwriting program. Birmingham, AL: EBSCO Curriculum Materials.
2.
Claris Works for Kids [Computer Software] (1997)
Claris Corporation/Apple Corporation
Cupertino, CA 95014
3.
CoWriter [Computer Software]
Don Johnston, Incorporated
800-999-4660
www.donjohnston.com
4.
Discover [Computer Software] (1996)
Don Johnston, Incorporated
800-999-4660
www.donjohnston.com
5. Gillinghanm, A. & Stillman, B. (1997). The Gillingham manual: Remedial training for children with specific disability in
reading, spelling, and penmanship (8th ed.). Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
6. King, D. (1986). Keyboarding skills. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
7. King, D. (1987). Cursive writing skills. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service.
63
8. WriteOutLoud [Computer Software] (1995)
Don Johnston, Incorporated
800-999-4660
www.donjohnston.com
Science
1.Amazing Animals [Computer Software] (1997)
DK Interactive Learning
New York, NY 10016
2.Daitz, M. (1993). Crafty ideas from science. New York, NY: Exley Giftbooks.
3.Eagan, R. (1994). Kid Concoctions. Carthage, IL: Teaching and Learning Company.
4.Ecosystems: Nature in Balance [Computer Software] (1997)
AIMS Multimedia
Chatsworth, CA 91311
5.Goodwin, M. & Pollen, G. (1974). Creative food experiences for children. Washington, DC: Center for Science in Public
Interest.
6.Kleinsinger, S. (1991). Learning through play: SCIENCE, a practical guide for teaching young children. New York, NY:
Scholastic, Incorporated.
7.Learning About Animals [Computer Software] (1997)
Orange Cherry New Media
Pound Ridge, NY
8.Magic School Bus [Computer Software] (1995)
Microsoft Company
9.Mayer-Johnson. (1991). The picture communication symbols. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
64
10.
Mayer-Johnson. (1994). Boardmaker [Computer Software]. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
11. Nature 2.0 [Computer Software] (1997)
Interactive Learning
New York, NY 10016
12. Thompson, B. (1994). Basic life functions instructional program model. Madison, WI: State of Wisconsin Department of
Public Instruction.
13. White, N. (1993). Macmillan Early Science Activities. Hicksville, NY:
Newbridge Communications, Incorporated.
Social Skills
1. Boardmaker [Computer Software] (1994)
Mayer-Johnson Company
Solana Beach, CA 92075
2. Breighner, K., & Rohe, D. (1991). I am amazing: A program promoting health, safety, and self esteem. Circle Pines, MN:
American Guidance Service.
3. Brolin, D. (1992). Competency units for personal-social skills. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
4. Dinkmeyer, D. (1970). Developing understanding of self and others. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
5. Frost, L. & Bondy, A. (1994). Picture exchange communication system (PECS). Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational Consultants,
Incorporated.
6. Johnson, A. (1996). More social skills stories: Very personal picture stories for readers and nonreaders k-12. Solana
Johnson Company.
Beach, CA: Mayer-
7. Johnson, A., & Susnik, J. (1997). Social skills stories: Functional picture stories for readers and nonreaders k-12. Solana
Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
65
8. McGinnis, E. & Goldstein, A. (1984). Skill streaming: A guide for teaching pro-social skills. Champaign, IL: Research
Press Company.
9. Mannix, D. (1995). Life skills activities for secondary students with special needs. West Nyack, NY: The Center for
Applied Research in Education.
10. Mayer-Johnson. (1991). The picture communication symbols. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
11. Pincus, D. (1990). Feeling good about yourself. Carthage, IL: Good Apple, Incorporated.
12. Thompson, B. (1994). Basic life functions instructional program model. Madison, WI: State of Wisconsin Department of
Public Instruction.
Communication
1. Barton, J., Lanza, J, & Wilson, C. (1983). SCOR: Sequential Communication Objectives for remediation. Moline, IL:
LinguiSystems.
2. Bornstein, H., Saulnier, K., & Hamilton, L. (1983). The comprehensive signed English dictionary. Washington, DC:
Gallaudet Universtiy Press.
3. Brodin-Lennon, D., & Rinehart, C. (1999). Song to communicate. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
4. Clark, J. (1999). News-4-you. Huron OH: News-4-You.
5. First Verbs [Computer Software] (1997)
Laureate Learning Systems, Incorporated
Winooski, VT 05404
6. First Words [Computer Software] (1997)
Laureate Learning Systems, Incorporated
Winooski, VT 05404
66
7. Freeman, S., & Dake, L. (1997). Teach me language. Langley, British Columbia, Canada: SIC Books.
8. Frost, L. & Bondy, A. (1994). Picture exchange communication system (PECS). Newark, DE: Pyramid Educational
Consultants, Incorporated.
9.
Johnson, A. (1996). More social skills stories: very personal picture stories for readers and nonreaders k-12. Solana
Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
10. Johnson, A., & Susnik, J. (1997). Social skills stories: functional picture stories for readers and nonreaders k-12. Solana
Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
11. Kuder, S. (1997). Teaching students with language and communication disabilities. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
12. Kumin, L. (1994). Communication skills in children with down syndrome. Rockville, MD: Woodbine House.
13. Mayer-Johnson. (1991). The picture communication symbols. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
14. Mayer-Johnson. (1994) Boardmaker [Computer Software]. Solana Beach, CA: Mayer-Johnson Company.
15. Picture It [Computer Software] (1999)
Slater Software, Incorporated
Guffy, CO 80820
16. Speaking Dynamically [Computer Software] (1995)
Mayer-Johnson Company
Solana Beach, CA 92075
17. Teach Me to Talk [Computer Software]
Soft Touch Software
Bakersfield, CA 93309
18. Thompson, B. (1994). Basic life functions instructional program model. Madison, WI: State of Wisconsin Department of
Public Instruction.
67
19. Wisconsin Assistive Technology Initiative. (1998). Assessing students’ needs for assistive technology: A resource manual
for school district teams. Amherst, WI: Author.
20. Witt, B. (1992). TOTAL: Teacher organized training for acquisition of language
(rev.ed.). Tucson, AZ: Communication Skill Builders.
68
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