Influence of octahedral polymerization on 23Na and 27Al MAS NMR

American Mineralogist, Volume 77, pages 718-724, 1992
Influence of octahedral polymerization on 23Naand 27AlMAS NMR in
alkali fluoroaluminates
PBrnnJ. DrnxnN,J. BnN H. JN.csBN,
Ronr-orD. Scnurr,rNc
Institute of Earth Sciences,Department of Geochemistry,University of Utrecht, Budapestlaan4,
P.O. Box 80.021.3508 TA Utrecht. The Netherlands
Solid state 23Naand rAl MAS NMR spectraof NaF, a- and p-AlFr, cryolite (NarAlFu),
chiolite (NarAlrF,o),and elpasolite(KrNaAlFu) have been studied. Structuresand chemical
compositions have been checkedby X-ray diffraction, DTA-TGA, and wet chemical analyses(ICP-AES, AAS, ISE). The '?7AlNMR isotropic chemical shifts range from - 13.2 to
+1.4 ppm, indicating octahedral coordination by F, which is in agreementwith crystallographic data. Compared to A106 octahedra in aluminates, the AlF. octahedra in fluoroaluminates are at least 20 ppm more shielded. The 27Alresults show that Al chemical
shifts become more shielded as the degree of polymerization of the AlFu octahedra increases.S0 structureswith isolated AlFu octahedrafall into a region around 0 ppm with a
spread of only 2 ppm.Sheet structures with 52 and So octahedra have Al resonancesat
-l to -3 ppm, and Al in network structuresresonatesat -12.5 lo -13.2 ppm. This
trend is explained by a decreasein the number of nonbridging F atoms per octahedron
(NBF/O). Consequently,23NaNMR dependson the type of AlFu polymerization. Na that
is octahedrally coordinated stepwise becomes more shielded from 7.2 ppm for NaF, to
2.4 ppm for cryolite, to -6 ppm for chiolite. Eightfold-coordinated Na resonatesat more
negative chemical shifts than sixfold-coordinated Na, -9.3 ppm in cryolite and -21 ppm
in chiolite. The observation of the 2?Aland 'z3Nasignalsof two closely related structures,
cryolite and elpasolite, indicates that both 27Aland 'z3NaNMR are insensitive to cationic
substitution within the lattice, probably becauseof the ionic character of the Al-F and
Na-F bonds.
Magic anglespinning nuclearmagneticresonance(MAS
NMR) spectroscopyis an important technique in determining the coordination state and local symmetry of
structural units such as (Si,Al)Oo,AlOr, or AlOu polyhedra within crystalline and amorphous solids. In general,
increased shielding of a nucleus by its ligands and an
increasein coordination number results in a more negative chemical shift. In the caseof Al, chemical shifts for
fourfold, fivefold, and sixfold coordination fall into the
range 50-80,35-40, and -10 to + 15, respectively
(Miiller et al., l98l; Kirkpatrick, 1988; Akitt, 1989).
The degree of polymerization of SiOo tetrahedra in
crystalline as well as in amorphous solids can be delermined with one-dimensional "Si NMR experiments
(Smith et al., 1983; Magi et al., 1984; Stebbins, 1987;
Kirkpatrick, 1988). Increased polymerization causesan
increasedshielding of the Si nuclei. The chemical shifts
of Al in AlOo are considered to be insensitive to polymerization effects and shift to higher fields if the tetrahedra are connected to SiOo tetrahedra (Miiller et al.,
1986). Miiller and Bentrup (1989) studied various hydrous alkali fluoroaluminates and concluded that 27Al
NMR is hardly affectedby differencesin condensationof
I 8$02.00
AIF. octahedra. Sodium (and lithium) fluoroaluminates
were not considered,although the Na-Al-F systemis particularly suited for the study of Al4 condensation, as a
variety of structures exists in this system with a similar
cationic second sphere of Na atoms. Furthermore, 23Na
NMR chemical shifts can be compared to give additional
information on polymerization phenomena.
In this paper one-dimensional solid state 23Naand 27Al
magic anglespinning NMR spectroscopicresults on compounds in the system Na-Al-F are presented. The frrst
correlate with structural featureswithin these phases.In
this way it may be possible to discriminate among various Al-F structure types. For this purpose, a crystallographic review of all compounds consideredis presented
prior to any NMR data. Recently, Kohn et al. (1991)
reported the existenceof rstAland t6lAlcomplexesin melts
of jadeite + NaF and jadeite * cryolite (NarAlFu) compositions with '??Aland 27Al-'eFCP NMR at 22 and -5
ppm, respectively.They, among others (Manning, l98l;
Mysen and Virgo, 1985),suggestthat Al and F are present
in F-rich aluminosilicate melts as Na-Al-Fcomplexes. In
this study we use magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy to distinguish Al-O complexesfrom Al-F complexes
7I 8
directly by "Al chemical shifts. Whether or not Al and F
form clusters with Na that resemble crystalline sodium
fluoroaluminates, 23NaNMR can give useful information. Cationic efects on 2'Al chemical shifts are investigated by comparing '??AlNMR data of two almost isostructural compounds (cryolite, NarAlFu vs. elpasolite,
KrNaAlR) and combining these with previous work on
alkalifluoroaluminates (Miiller and Bentrup, I 9 89).
AlFu octahedron sharescorners with four octahedra; the
other octahedron with two octahedra.
In general,the structuresinvolved can be divided into
three types, depending on the polymerization of the octahedra. The a- and 0-AlF. phasesare three-dimensional
networks of AlFu units. NarAl.F,o is a sheetstructure, and
NarAlF. can be considered as a nesostnrcture since its
AlFu octahedra are entirely isolated.
In the system NaF-AlFr, NaF, AlFr, and NarAlrF,. exist as stablephasesin addition to the well-known mineral
cryolite (NarAlQ). NaF and NarAlrF,o occur in nature as
the minerals villiaumite and chiolite, respectively. The
crystal structures of these compounds have been determined and refined. Villiaumite (NaF) has the halite structure (Barth and Lunde, 1927), a simple cubic closest
packing of F with Na in the octahedral interstices.
AlF, has a stable a form; a 0 phasehas been obtained
by dehydration of a-AlFr'3H2O, a 7 phase by thermal
decomposition of NHoAlFo (Shinn et al., 1966). Le Bail
et al. (1988) reexaminedthe B phasepreparedfrom dehydrating a-AlF3.3HrO, assumingthat it was identical to
the "yphase.No structure determination has been carried
out for 7-AlFr. The stable a-AlF, crystallizesas a rhombohedral structure (Hoppe and Kissel, 1984). It can be
regardedas a VFr-type structure (Hepworth et al., 1957)
that is built up by a distorted closestpacking of F atoms,
with Al in octahedral sites. The highly regular AIF? octahedra share corners in a three-dimensional network.
The metastable0-AlF, phase consists of a three-dimensional network of very regular AlFl octahedrawith two
distinct Al sites.The structure can be regardedas a slightly modified hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) structure
(Magnelli, 1953), in which sheets of interconnected
AlFl- octahedra parallel to the a-b plane are stackedalong
the c axis. At 500 "C, B-AIF3 irreversibly transforms to
o-AlF3 Ge Bail et al., 1988).The crystal structure of cryolite (NarAlQ) is made up of isolated AIF;- octahedra
linked by sixfold-coordinated Na, forming a regular octahedron, and eightfold-coordinatedNa, creatinga highly
distorted cubic antiprism (Hawthorne and Ferguson,
1975). The AlFi octahedra are very regular. The structure has a pseudocubic,monoclinic symmetry, attaining
true cubic symmetry in the 0 cryolite phase, above the
reversibletransformation temperatureof 561 'C (Majumdar and Roy, 1965).
Elpasolite (KrNaAlFu) has the cryolite structure with
the two eight-coordinatedNa atoms replacedby K. It has
cubic symmetry, with undistorted AlFu octahedra(Sabelli,1987).
Chiolite (NarAlrF,o) is a tetragonal phase,whose structure was refined by Jacoboniet al. (1981). Two types of
octahedraform independent [Al.F'o]l' layers perpendiclayer
octahedra having
ular to the c axis.
2/m or 4/m symmetry alternate with each fourth octahedron replaced by a Na atom. Two Na atoms are coordinated by eight F, the other eight Na atoms by six F. One
NarAlF. and NarAl.F,o are available as the minerals
cryolite and chiolite, respectively, both from the Ivigtut
deposit, Greenland (Boggild, 1953). The synthetic equivalents and elpasolite(I(rNaAlF6) were preparedusing the
methods described by Cowley and Scott (19a8). The
compound B-AIF, was preparedby decomposingNH.AIF"
at 315 'C under a N, flow, a method describedby Shinn
et al. (1966) and by dehydrating a-AlF,'3HrO (Christoph, U.S. Patent 3 178483).NaF was availableas analytical gradereagentfrom Merck (Merck no.6449); a-AIF,
was provided by the Billiton Ore Company. All compounds were checked for impurities by X-ray diffraction
with a Philips PW 1050/25 diffractometer using CuKa
Chemical analysesof all the fluorides were carried out
by dissolvingthem in a 40 molo/oLirCOi-60 molo/oKrCO,
flux at 550 "C. The flux was then dissolved in H'O and
analyzedfor K and Al by ICP-AES (ARL 34000), for Na
by atomic absorption spectroscopy(Perkin Elmer 460),
and for F by means of a F selective electrode (Orion,
fluoride electrode model 9409 and reference electrode
model 9001). Analltical errors are 5olofor F and Na, and
l0o/ofor K and Al.
DTA-TGA measurementswere conducted under a N,
atmosphere with a Du Pont Instruments 1090 thermal
analyzerat a heating rate of l0'C/min. The temperatures
are correct within 5 "C.
NMR spectroscopy
The one-dimensionalsolid stateNMR spectrawere obtained using Bruker CXP-300, AM-500, and AM-600
solid-statehigh-resolution spectrometers,operatedat 7. l,
11.7, and l4.l T, respectively. To ensure relative saturation of the 27Aland 23Naresonances,the spectra were
measuredwith short pulse excitations, using typical pulse
lengths of l-2 ps, relaxation delays of 0.25-0.5 s, and
spectral widths of 40-100 kHz. Per measurement, 10012000 free induction decayswere collected.The 27Aland
23Nachemical shifts were measuredrelative to an external standardof aqueousAlCl, and NaCl solution, respectively. Spinning rateswere typically l2k}Iz, unlessstated
The 23Naand 2'Al isotropic chemical shifts (a'"") and
quadrupole coupling constants (QCC) were determined
by calculating the quadrupolar induced shift at diferent
magneticfields (7.1, 11.7, and,l4.l T), assumingthat 4
: 0 and that the lines are symmetric. Contributions of
1. Datafor,?Al NMR
aCC (MHz)
Width (Hz)
'QB: calculatedsecond-orderquadrupole
broadeningfor 4 : g and 0.75, respectively.
the quadrupole broadening to the line width can be calculated (Engelhardtand Michel, 1987).In some casesthe
calculated broadening exceeded the experimental line
width, which is an indication that the asymmetry parameter must be closer to l. The asymmetry parameter has
no influence on Di""in the calculations, as a changein 4
from 0 to I is compensatedby a changein QCC of approximately l5o/0.Peak positions and Di""are correct within I ppm. Taking the error in peak position into account,
the error in the QCC increasesto I MHz. In the caseof
chiolite, 6,""and the QCC were extractedfrom the spectra
by using the frequenciesfor the singularities(Miiller, 1982
Engelhardt and Michel, 1987) at two (r3Na) and three
magnetic fields (,?Al). A computer program called Powder, basedon Aspect 3000 (Miiller and Bentrup, 1989),
was used to check the calculations on the 23Naand 27Al
plays no thermochemical effect in the temperature range
25-750 'C. The a-AlF, DTA spectrum has a small endothermic peak at 450 "C and a larger one at 750 "C.
TGA results for a-AlF, show a l0o/oweight loss over the
temperature region 450-780 "C. The onset of this volatilization correspondsto the first endothermic peak in the
DTA. At this temperature the a phase transforms to a
high temperature phase(Robie et al., 1978). The peak at
750'C has not been reported in the literature. The B-AIF3
phase displays an exothermic reaction at 720 "C. The
reaction representsthe structural transformation to a-AlFr.
This result is in good agreementwith the temperature of
720 "C claimed by Shinn et al. (1966).However, Le Bail
et al. (1988) reported a transformation temperature of
500 "C for their B-AIF3.DTA on the B-AIF3 obtained by
dehydration of a-AlFr.3HrO does not display a transformation at 500 "C. It further justifies rejecting ^y-AlF, as a
Both natural and synthetic cryolite display an endoRnsur-rs
thermic peak at 562 "C. The peak representsthe reversX-ray diffraction
ible transformation of monoclinic a cryolite to cubic B
The diffraction patterns of NaF, a-AlFr, natural cryo- cryolite. The temperature is in excellent agreementwith
lite, synthetic and natural chiolite, and synthetic elpaso- the temperature of 561 .C reported by Majumdar and
lite did not contain reflections of impurities. The XRD
Roy (1965). Additionally, the synthetic cryolite loses a
pattern of cryolite showedthat it contained approximate- few percent HrO at 125 "C. Elpasolite displays only one
ly 5 wto/ochiolite. This impurity was not detected in the small DTA-peak at ll3 .C, most probably causedby a
23Naand 'z7AlNMR spectra. The XRD patterns of the HrO loss of approximately I wto/ofrom the sample. The
p-AlF, phaseswere identical, so the NMR study was lim- DTA curve of natural chiolite shows a melting temperaited to the p-AlF, phase obtained by dehydration of ture of 700 'C, 75 'C lower than that reported by Mesa-AlF.'3H,O.
robian et al. (1972). Their experiments were conducted
under nonatmospheric pressuresup to 400 bars, howevDTA-TGA
er, so an absolutecomparison is not entirely justified. The
All phaseswere studied by thermal analysesto obtain synthetic chiolite displays one small peak at 175 oC, readditional chemical and structural information. NaF dis- sulting from the loss of a few percent HrO.
TABLE2. Data for 23NaNMR
Note: 1 = this study; 2 : J.F. Stebbins and X. Xue, written communication.
- CN: Na coordination
-* QB: calculated
second-orderquadrupole broadening tor q : g and 0.75, respectively.
1 1 . 7T
Fig. 1. The 'z3Na
MAS NMR spectrumof chiolite(Na,Al.F,o).
SSB: spinningsideband.
The F content of a-AlF, is low, probably becauseof
less than 5 wtoloimpurity corundum, which is the X-ray
detection limit. Additional F was lost during analysis,
becauseofthe high vapor pressureofAlF3. It is not to be
expectedthat the impurity in any way influencesthe ,7Al
NMR results.All samplesacquired by precipitation from
an aqueoussolution, i.e., synthetic cryolite, chiolite, and
elpasolite,have a weight percent sum smaller than 1000/0.
This is due to uptake of some HrO as evidencedby DTATGA. The stoichiometric compositions corrected for
possible HrO lossesare within analytical accuracy.
Fig.2. The 'z3Na
MAS NMR spectrumof cryolite(NarAlF.).
SSB: spinningsideband.
identical. In some casesmore than one set of values is
presentedin Tables I and 2, indicating more than one
crystallographicsite. In the 23Naand 2'Al spectraof chiolite, the central transitionshave complex line shapes.They
are reconstructed by using the frequency equations for
the singularities at two or three magnetic fields (Engelhardt and Michel, 1987), the field dependent second-order quadrupole shift, and the computer simulation program Powder (Miiller and Bentrup, 1989). The 23Na
spectrum of chiolite (Fig. l) has a line shapethat is char27Aland r3Na NMR
acteristic of a crystallographic site with an asymmetry
The'zTAl and 23NaNMR data for a- and B-AlFr, NaF, parameterof 0 (Kentgenset al., 1983).The high intensity
NarAlF., KrNaAlFu, and NarAlrF,o are listed in Tables I
of the right singularity points to an additional site, with
and 2, respectively. The symbol S, is used by analogy a small intensity overlapping the other site. The data in
with Mtller et al. (1986), with Q (of Quaternary)replaced Table 2 are from J. F. Stebbinsand X. Xue (written comby S (of Senary).The superscript n indicates the number munication), who obtained spectra at 9.4 T. The lower
of bridging F atoms per octahedron.lf n: zero, the struc- magnetic field allows a more accurate estimation of the
ture consists of isolated AlF. octahedra. If n : 6, the NMR data. We used these data to simulate our spectra
octahedra are condensed into a three-dimensional net- and obtained very good results. In the case of cryolite
work. The intermediate types of octahedra, with n : 2 (Fig. 2), our variable field data are combined with the
and n:4, alternatein chiolite and form a sheetstructure. computer simulation data of Stebbins and Xue in order
The 'z?Alisotropic chemical shifts in these fluoroalumi- to compare the two approaches.The data correspondwell
nates range from -13.2 to *1.4, indicating octahedral within estimated errors. The lack of structure in the 4-ppm
coordination of Al by F in all Al-bearing phases(Miiller
peak, even in the 9.4-T spectra, is responsible for the
et al., 1981; Kirkpatrick, 1988; Akitt, 1989).This is in
spreadof a. The starting point for the analysisof the 'z?Al
agreement with crystallographic data and with earlier spectra of chiolite (Fig. 3) was the assumption that the
studies on alkalifluoroaluminates (alkali : NHo, K, Rb, outermost signalscorrespondto a site with 4 : 0, whereas
Cs) by Grimmer et al. (1982) and Miiller and Bentrup the signal in the middle correspondsto a site with a : 1.
(1989). Results from synthetic and natural samples are Calculating QCC and D,* at the three magnetic fields re-
the line width are ruled out, the broadening due to the
couplingof Al and F and of Na and F becomes600-1000
and 100-600 Hz, respectively.
Fig. 3. Some2'Al MAS NMR spectraof chiolite(NarAlrF,o)
at differentmagneticfields.Spinningspeeds
are(A) 13.9,(B) 9,
and (C) I I kHz, respectively.
SSB: spinningsideband.
sulted in three sets of data that are mutually consistent.
This data set was then refined in a computer simulation.
The shoulder at the low-field side of the spectrum is the
result ofa background signal from the probe, for which
we did not make a correction. Line widths (full width at
half height) are 1000-1500 Hz for 2'Al and 400-700 Hz
for 23Na.If the second-order quadrupole broadening is
subtracted from these values and other contributions to
The'z?Al spectrum of a-AlF, displays one peak at -16
ppm at ll .7 T , which shifts to - 15 ppm at 14.1 T, correspondingto D,*of - 13.2 ppm. The - 16 ppm has previously been reported by Kimura and Satoh (1989) and
Satoh and Kimura (1990), who did not consider quadrupole-induced shifts. Their value of - 16 ppm may indicate that the minor impurity in our a-AlF, has no influence on the NMR results. The compound B-AIF, has
an isotropic chemical shift of - 12.5 ppm, with only one
peak at both fields of I1.7 and l4.l T. The structureof
B-AIF3 has two Al sites, which are almost identical. The
differencesbetween these two sites are too small to be
detectedas two separateNMR resonances.
NarAlrF,ohas 27Alchemicalshifts of -l + 2 ppm and
-3 ! 2 ppm. This is in agreementwith the two different
octahedral Al sites in chiolite known from structure determinations. Crystallographic data show that the 34 site
is occupied by 330/oof the Al and should have the lowest
intensity in the 'z?Alspectra.The Al site with a chemical
shift : -3 ppm, with QCC : 6.5 + 0.5 MHz, and with
a : I can be identified as the 54 site. The 32 site must
then be representedby the - I ppm signal, with QCC :
8.2 + 0.5 MHz and zr: 0. The isolatedAlFu octahedra
in cryolite (NarAlFu)have an'z?Alisotropic chemical shift
of 1.4 ppm. Previously,Miiller and Bentrup (1989) reported 2?Alchemical shifts of -0.6 and -0.1 ppm in
similar compounds, (NHo)3AlF6and KrAlFu, respectively. The cubic elpasolite (KrNaAlF6) structure is closely
related to the (pseudocubic) monoclinic cryolite structure. Two of the three Na atoms are replacedby K atoms.
Like cryolite, the 211'lNMR isotropic chemical shift is
+ I ppm. The spreadin peak positions of thesefour hexafluoroaluminates is only 2 ppm. This observation leads
us to the conclusion that second-sphereinfluencesofNa,
K, or NH. on the shielding of Al by F are of very little
importance in alkalifluoroaluminates.
The cation effectsare even smaller than the 6.4-ppm
range for interconnected AlOo tetrahedra in potassium,
lithium, and sodium aluminates (Miiller et al., 1986).The
Al nucleusis more effectively shieldedfrom its surroundings and lesssensitiveto second-spheresubstitutions, becauseof the more ionic characterof the Al-F bond.
Figure 4 is a graphical presentation of the isotropic
chemical shifts of Al in alkalifluoroaluminates. The'z7Al
chemical shifts decreasefrom I ppm in S0 to - 1 in S'z,
to - 3 in So,and to - 13 to - I 5 in 56structures.It follows
that 'z?Alchemical shifts decreaseas the degreeof polymerization increases,analogousto 2eSiresults in aluminosilicates (Engelhardt and Michel, 1987). The number
of nonbridging F atoms per octahedron (NBF/O, equal
to 6 - n) decreasesfrom six in S0to four in 52,to two in
So, and to zero in 56 structures. Nonbridging F atoms
Na F
o- AlF6
52 54
N o c h e m i c o ls h i f t ( p p m )
of the "Na chemicalshift
Fig. 5. Graphicalrepresentation
Na in fluoroaluminates.
of sixfold-andeightfold-coordinated
: cryoliteor elpasolite(ourdata);S'?andSa: chiolite(datafrom
J.F.Stebbinsand X. Xue, writtencommunication).
25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 solid solution. The continuous change in the Na/(Na +
K) ratio causesthe efective Na coordination number to
increase,causinga continuous decreasein chemical shift.
Fig. 4. Graphicalrepresentation
of the ,7Al chemicalshifts As for Al, the graphical representationof the 23Nachemof AlX. octahedrain oxoaluminates
and fluoroaluminates.
ical shifts (Fie. 5) evidently showsthat the chemical shifts
cryoliteor elpasolite;
S'zandSo: chiolite;56: a- andB-AlFr.
of sixfold- and eightfold-coordinated Na are determined
by the number of AlFu octahedra per Na atom in the
control the residual chargeon the Al nucleusand thereby structure. In NaF, with a chemical shift of 7.2 ppm, no
its shielding. The observed trend in the 'z?Alchemical AlFu octahedra are present. The chemical shift of 'z3Na
shift can be explained by a decreasein NBF/O with po- decreasesto 2.4 ppm in cryolite (0.3 AlF6 octahedron on
I Na) and -6 ppm in chiolite (0.6 AlF6 octahedron on I
In the caseof eightfold-coordinatedNa, the trend is
from -9.3 ppm in cryolite ro -21ppm in chiolite.
The'?3NaNMR data can add important information to
The fact that both 2'Al and '3Na chemical shifts corelucidating polymerization effects of AIF. octahedra in relate with the degreoof polymerization of the AlFu ocalkali fluoroaluminates. It is possible to assign specific tahedra points to a complex interaction of Al-F polyresonancesof Na to crystallographic sites. In the caseof merization and Na-F bonds. More study is needed to
NaF, the 7.2-ppm peak obviously results from a very elucidate the physical background ofthese empirical deregular octahedral coordination of Na by six F atoms. pendencies.
According to the crystallographicdata, the cryolite structTAlFuwith ttAlOu
ture contains twice as much eightfold- as sixfold-coordi- Comparisonof
resonancewith the lowest
nated Na. As a result, the
chemical shift data of octahedrally cointensity should be assignedto sixfold-coordinated Na ordinated Al in compounds other than silicatesare avail(Fig. 2). Therefore, the 2.4-ppm peak representssixfold- able only for the AlrO, polyrnorph corundum (16.0 ppm;
coordinated Na and the peak at -9.3 ppm represents Skibsted et a1., 1991) and yttrium aluminum garnet (0.8
eightfold-coordinated Na. This is in accordancewith the ppm; Massiot et al., 1990). Peak positions in oxoalumigeneralobservation that more shielded nuclei with more nates other than Na have been reported by Miiller et al.
ligands resonateat higher fields (Engelhardt and Michel, (1981)and rangefrom 5 ppm for BaO'64'110,lo 22 ppm
1987). Moreover, sixfold-coordinated Na in NaF reso- for spinel, MgAlrOo. When Al-O compounds are comnates at 7 .2 ppm, which is reasonablyclose to the value pared with Al-F compounds,2?Alisotropic chemicalshifts
of 2.4 ppm of cryolite. Compared with cryolite, two eight- of oxoaluminates are at least 20 ppm less shielded than
fold-coordinated Na sitesare occupiedby K in elpasolite. 2'Al chemical shifts of fluoroaluminates. The three-diThe remaining octahedrally coordinated Na resonatesat mensional network structuresAlrO, and AlF, have chem2.1 ppm, very close to the value of 2.4 ppm of cryolite, ical shifts of 16 and -13 ppm, respectively.This differwhich is another reason for assigningthe 2.4-ppm peak ence must be explained by the more ionic character of
to the sixfold-coordinated site. In chiolite, the sixfold- the Al-F bond compared with the Al-O bond. This is
coordinated Na has a chemical shift of -6 ppm. Again, reflected by the mean bond lengths of 16lAl-0and t6tAl-F.
the eightfold-coordinated Na atoms are more shielded The interatomic distancesf61 tet41-6 are approximately
and have a peak position of -21 ppm. Clearly, 23NaNMR
0.07 A longerthan for t6rAl-F(Shannonand Prewitt, 1969).
is sensitive to the coordination number,
'z?AlNMR are. Previously, Phillips et al. (1988) observed
1. Isotropic 27Al chemical shifts systematically dea much more continuous changein chemical shift with a
change in the Na/(Na + K) ratio in an alkali feldspar creasewith the increasein the degreeof polymerization
ofAlFu octahedrain sodium fluoroaluminates.This trend
can be explained by consideringthe number of nonbridging F atoms per octahedron (NBF/O).
2. Na coordinated by eight F atoms has more negative
isotropic chemical shifts than Na coordinated by six F
3. Isotropic 23Nachemical shifts of sixfold- and eightfold-coordinated Na become more shielded as the AlF.
polymerization increases.
4. Al nuclei in AlF. octahedra are at least 20 ppm more
shielded than Al nuclei octahedrally coordinated by O.
5. Secondcoordination sphereeffectsofalkali cationic
substitution on 23Naand 2'Al NMR are of verv small
We $atefully acknowledgethe assistancewe receivedfrom G. Nachtegaal and A. Kentgens in obtaining the NMR spectra at the HF-NMR
facility at Nijmegen. We thank Jonathan F. Stebbins and Xianyu Xue
from Stanford University for providing the Na data and for their critical
review ofthis paper. A. van der Eerdenis thanked for technical assistance
in our HPT laboratory. V. Govers and T . Zalm are thanked for the provision of the XRD and DTA-TGA analyses,respectively.A. Kentgens,
T. Kloprogge, J. van Beek, P. Buining, and G. Lieftink are thanked for
their inspiring discussionsand helpful comments during the courseofthis
study. This paper is a contribution ofthe Debije Institute.
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