6 Nutrition and Metabolism of Lipids Multiple choice questions Please choose one correct answer 1. Which of the following is NOT a polyunsaturated fatty acid of the N-3 series? a) b) c) d) e) α-linolenic acid γ-linolenic acid Eicosapentaenoic acid Docosahexaenoic acid Docosapentaenoic acid 2. Linoleic acid is a predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the body. What percentage of fatty acids does this represent in adipose tissue? a) b) c) d) e) 5–12% 12–15% 25–30% 30–35% 42–48% 3. The average daily intake of fat in a Western diet ranges between which of the following: a) b) c) d) e) 25–50g 50–75g 50–100g 100–125g 125–150g 4. Which of the following is a rate limiting enzyme for the production of bile acids in the liver? a) b) c) d) e) acyl-CoA-cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) α-glycerol-3-phosphatase 7-α-hydroxylase Lipoprotein lipase HMG-CoA reductase 5. It has been suggested that atherosclerosis is a postprandial phenomenon. Which of the following provides the best explanation to support this statement? a) b) c) d) e) The relationship between dietary saturated and blood cholesterol. The presence of an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype in CHD patients. The common finding of enhanced postprandial lipaemia in CHD patients. The efficient clearance of chylomicron remnant lipoproteins in CHD patients. Because acute myocardial infarctions occur mainly in the postprandial phase. 6. Which of the following statements is False? a) b) c) d) e) β-oxidation of fatty acids involves the repeated dehydrogenation, at sequential two carbon steps, and reduction of the associated flavoproteins. Peroxidation is the non-enzyme-catalysed reaction of molecular oxygen with organic compounds to form peroxides and related breakdown products. Eicosanoids are 18-carbon oxygen-substituted cyclised metabolites of membrane phospholipid fatty acids. Short chain fatty acids (1-6 carbons) are mostly derived from carbohydrate fermentation in the large bowel. A dietary source of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is essential for normal growth and development. 7. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against cardiovascular disease by which of the following processes? a) b) c) d) e) Preventing coronary thrombosis Producing favourable effects on blood lipids By preventing cardiac arrhythmia Via anti-inflammatory mechanisms All of the above 8. Which of the following best describes the apoprotein E4 genotype? a) b) c) d) e) An example of a rare genetic polymorphism associated with a reduced risk of CHD. An example of a common genetic polymorphism associated with low serum cholesterol. An example of a gene, the expression of which is increased in response to saturated fat. An example of a common genetic polymorphism that influences dietary responsiveness. None of the above. The Nutrition Society Textbook Series, Introduction to Human Nutrition, Second Edition © 2009, 2002 by The Nutrition Society. Answers 1. B. 2. B. 3. C. 4. C. 5. C. 6. C. 7. E. 8. D.