Teacher's Book - NB (nota bene, лат.)

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Teacher'sBook
VirginiaEvans- JennyDooley
A
Express
Publishing
Publishedby ExpressPublishing
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N e w b u r yB
, e r k s h i r eR G 1 96 H W
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O
VirginiaEvans - Jenny Dooley, 2000
Firstedition1996
New edition2000
All rightsreserved.No part of this publicationmay be reproduced,stored
in a retrievalsystem,or transmittedin any form, or by any means,electronic,
mechanical,photocopyingor otherwisewithoutthe priorwrittenpermissionof
the Publishers.
Tests,certaintablesand Revisionof WritingTechniques(p. 102)
may be reproducedwithoutpermissionfor classroomuse only.
Note: Thereare threetests in two versicns.Eachtest is providedwith a marking
scheme based on a total of 20 marks.
lsBN 1-84216-873-8
Contents
U n i t1
P a r t1. . . . . .
Parl,2
P a r t3
P a r t4
E x a mF o c u s
.....'...5
....'6
. . . . .I. .
..'..10
. . . . . - ' .1- '2-
Unit2
P a r t1 . . . . . .
Part 2
P a r t3
P a r t4
ExamFocus
........'.23
..'-.-'.-..25
'..26
P a r t1 . . . . . .
P a r L2
P a r t3
Part4
E x a mF o c u s
'.'.'....'.32
. . ' . . .3. '4
....35
..'36
........38
U n i t3
Unit4 Part1.....
Part2
P a r t3
Part4
E x a mF o c u s
-'-'--'49
...50
...........51
.'..53
. . . . . . .5.5'
U n i t5
P a r t1 . . . . . .
Part 2
P a r t3
Part4
E x a mF o c u s
'-..'--67
..'69
......'....71
..'73
'.'..-..-..75
U n i t6
P a r t1 . . . . . .
P a r t2
P a r t3
Parl4
ExamFocus
.'.'82
'.'........83
'....85
.-'87
......88
l J n i t7
P a r t 1. . . . . .
P a r I2
P a r t3
Part4
E x a mF o c u s
......93
. . . . ' . "9' 4
'....."".96
...97
....'...98
Revisionof WritingTechnigues
RevisionSection(pp.
Iests and Keys
Test1
Test2
Test3
102
Unit 1: Part 1
Unit 1
Unitl-Part1
Warm-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 6)
.
(Suggested answer)
I think the articleis about pets and people, and the
reasonpeople keep pets.
.
Warm-up Listening Activity
1.
2.
3.
4.
old
prisoners
doctor
rabbits
5.
6.
7.
8.
9. withdrawn
10. backaches
soldiers
cat
dog
fi s h
Reading Task: Part 1 (p. 6-7)
1. C 2.G
3.D
4.1
5.8
6.A
7.H
VocabularyExercises:Part 1 (p. 8-9)
1 . withdrawn - very quiet and shy
mentally disturbed - sufferingfrom an illnessof the
mi n d or t he br ain
radical - different,innovative
persisted - continuedto exist
recruited - broughttogetherto help
comforted - made (them)feel better
traumatised - psychologicallyor emotionally
damaged
battle-scarred - injured in battle
conclusive - showingthat somethingis certainlytrue
dentaltreatment- medicalattentiongivento the teeth
cuddling - embracingto show affection
approachable - easy to talk to
fulfil - to satisfy
dispel - to get rid of or remove
tension - feelingof stress
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
reverence
trend
compassion
vital
stimulate
3. a) 1. upset
2. disturb/bother
b) 1 . h u r t
2. wounded
1.
2.
3.
4.
to become
to treat
mental l y
therapy
5. 1. up
2. out/off
(Suggestedanswer)
I don't havea dog or cat becausemy flat is very small.
I'vegot a canarythough. I thinkthat peoplekeep pets
for company.
.
(Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise fhese fexfrelated expressionsand collocations. f checks in the
nexf /esson.,)
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
rekindled
grounds
current
perceived
spearhead
3.
4.
3.
4.
trouble/bother
bother
injured
damaged
6. frog =
goat :
sheeP :
l i on :
dog =
cow =
5.
6.
7.
8.
disease
9. to stroke
10. survival
to lower
to undergo 11. to reduce
to fulfil
12. to dispel
3, up
4. aside
tadPole
kid
lamb
cub
puppy
calf
5. in
6. about
=
hen
=
duck
=
cat
:
horse
kangaroo =
=
pi g
chi ck
duckl i ng
kitten
foal
joey
pi gl et
7. (T should explain the words in the list before Ss do
Exercise 7 giving more examples if necessary. eg.
herbivores; A goat is a herbivore.A sheepis a herbivore
too. Whatdo they eaf? Grass. Theseanimalsare called
herbivores.)
herbivores: animalseating plants
carnivores: animalseatingmeat
omnivores: animalseating both plantsand meat
mammals: animalsthat give birth to live babies and
feed their young on milk from the breast
reptiles:cold-bloodedanimalsthat haveskincovered
with scalesand that lay eggs
herbivores: goldfish,cow, squirrel,goat, sheep
insects: fly, wasp, beetle
mammals: lion,tiger, panther,wolf, bear, monkey,
whale,cow, jaguar,fox, puma, squirrel,goat, sheep
cats: lion,tiger, panther,jaguar, puma
reptifes: crocodile,snake, lizard,tortoise
fi sh: sal mon,gol dfi sh
birds: hawk, sparrow,pigeon,eagle
carnivores: crocodile,lion,tiger,panther,wolf,snake,
hawk,frog, lizard,jaguar,fox, eagle, puma
omnivores: monkey, sparrow,tortoise,wasp, goldfish, bear,whale,fly, pigeon,beetle
amphibians: frog
8 . 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
w oul dn' thurt a fl y
as stubbornas a mule
the black sheep of the family
eats iike a horse
stir up a hornet'snest
9. (Suggested answer)
It's nice to have a dog as a pet. lt's a friendlyanimal,
which not only shows obedienceto its owner but it is
alsofaithful.A monkey,on the otherhand,is expensive
to keep and is a rathermessy animal.lt needs lots of
Part 2
space.lt's very intelligent,though,and can be taught
simpletasks.A dog can be taughtsimpletasksas well.
Dogs often become very protectiveof their owners.A
dog needswalkingeverymorningand eveningwhich
might be inconvenientfor someonewho works,especiallythe morningwalk.I'd prefera dog becausedogs
are man's best friends.
1 0 . 1"
2.
3.
4.
5.
. . .f illedhis h o u s ew i th i h i sh o u s efi l l e dw i th ...
... take care of my cat ...
. . . by c hanc eth a t ...
... trend towards (people)taking ...
. . .t o h i s s u r p r i s e. . .
Unit1-Part2
Warm-upActivities:Part2 (p. 10)
.
(Suggestedanswer): The firstpictureis of a weather
forecasterand the second picture is of a satellite
orbitingthe earth.The satelliteis probablybeing used
to make weatherpredictions.
.
(Suggestedanswer): forecast,sun, dry, raining,satel l i te,report,predi cti on,cl ouds,hai l ,hot, col d,wind,
ozone,sleet,thunder,lightning,temperature, etc
.
(Suggestedanswer): farmers,peoplegoing on holiday, peoplehavingan outdoorparty/barbecue,sportsmen. gardeners, emerqency sewices, peop\e who
cycle to work, athletes,captains, pilots etc. These
people have to be well informed of the weather
becausetheirjob or their activitiesare directly
affected by it.
Follow-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 9)
.
(Suggested answers)
.
heal traumatisedpeople, lower blood pressure,reduce anxiety,lower heart rate, help relaxation,reduce
minor illnesses,dispeltension
.
(T goes through the table wrth Ss and discusses fhe
notes, fhen Ss work in closed pairs. f goes round the
c/ass and checks, then has some pairs report to the
class.,)
.
SA:
SB:
SA:
SB:
Well, I think there are a lot more advantages
than disadvantagesto havinga pet. Firstand
foremostthey teach people to care for other
creatures.In addition,they give childrena
sense of responsiblity.
Yes, but I should point out that it can be very
expensiveto keep a pet, and they can take up
a lot of your time.
I admit you're right,but I stillthink it's worth it.
You know that people with pets sufferfrom
fewer healthproblemsthan peoplewithout
pets?
Yes. But pets can also be unhygienic.lt really
dependson whetheryoulikeanimalsor not,but
I wouldn'tchooseto keep pets.They can also
get jealousof your children,and even attack
them.
etc
(Thefirsttwo cassetfesof Mission:FCE2 are available
containingallreading texfs.T should encourage Ss fo
listento the tape at home as a follow-up activity to
each part. T should demonsfrafefo Ss how to use the
fapes ie listento tape following the lines,then read the
brt aloud paying attentionto fluency and pronunciation. Tshould checkSs'abilitytoreadaloudinthe nert
/esson. lt is ertremely importantthatthis activityshould
not be skipped and T should emphasisethe need for
correctpronunciationandforthe Ss fobeco mefluent.)
GrammarCheck:Part1 (p.s)
2. to
3. to
4. ,/
5. t o
6. ,/
7. t o
8. to
e./
10../
1 1 ../
12.to
1 3 .to
1 4 .t o
1 5 ./
.
Warm-up Listening Activity
1.F
2.T
3.F
4.F
5.T
6.T
7.T
8.F
ReadingTask:Part2 (p. 10-11)
8.
9.
10.
11.
C (Ln 2-4)
B (Ln 10)
B (Ln14-16)
A (Ln 22-23)
12.
13.
14.
15.
D (Ln 27-2e)
C (Ln 32)
B ( L n3 8 )
D (Ln 47-49)
VocabularyExercises:Part2 (p. 12-13)
1. satellite pictures - photographstaken from a device
in space
data - information,esp numerical/factual
gathering - collectingtogether
images - pictures
allocated - given to sb (as their share)
alter - to change
be adapted - to be changedto suit certainconditions
complication - sth which makes a situationmore
difficult
live - not pre-recorded
nerve-racking- worrying
aspect - feature
occurrence - incident
obsession - very strong interest/preoccupation
mortifying - making one feel ashamedand embarrassed
hayfever - an allergyto pollen
intensity - degree or strengthof sth
2. 1. forecasters
2 . broadcast
3 . viewer
4. report
5 . script
6 . bulletins
7 . screened
B . dai l y
Unit 1: Part2
3. (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise these textrelated expressionsand collocations. f checks in the
next lesson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
thetime
hayfever
liv e
to tune into/toread
to read/totune into
highly
ta l k i n g
to collect
ultra-violet
Pros: helps people, works with other professionals
and the public,
etc
Cons: long hours, stress, night shifts, exposed to
diseases,has to deal with difficultpatients, etc.
. . . t ak e it f or gr a n te d...
. . . at a los sf or w o rd s ...
... (in exactly)the same way ...
. . .l e n d m e a h a n d . . .
. . . had k ept his w o rd ...
. . . is obs es s edw i th ...
) l y o n ...
. . . c an ( r eally re
. . .t o c ope wit h th e k i d s ...
6. 1. e
2.j
3.d
4.c
5.i
6.h
7.t
8.a
(T elicitsfrom Ss pros and cons of the four professions
and writes them on the board. Then Ss /ooking at the
nofes compare and contrasffhe professions.)
NURSE
5. political
6. enthusiastic
7. willing
4. 1. stressful
2. excitement
3. broadcasting
4. lnvestigative
5. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
6.
7.
8.
9.
An industrial
however,needsuniversityqualifications.
maintenanceworker does a high-riskjob. Moreover,
he may have to do eithernight shiftsor split shifts.
An executiveneedsto havemanagementskillsas well
as good socialskills. etc
JOURNALIST
Pros: meets many people,creative,travelsa lot, stays
up-to-dateon news events,
etc
Cons: works long hours, stress, has to meet strict
deadlines,may risk life in war zones,
etc
TEACHER
9.b
10. g
(Suggested answers)
A surgeon needsto have a steadyhand and medical
knowledgein order to operatesafelyon people.
A jockey needs to be fit and to have staminabecause
riding racehorsescan be physicallydemanding.He
needsto love horsesbecausehe'll spend most of his
time with them.
A teacher needs patienceand an abilityto explain
th i ngs in or dert o b e a b l e to ma k e h i s p u p i l su n d erstand what they are being taught.
A chauffeur needs to have a clean drivingrecordto
provethat he is a good driver,and patiencebecause
he will spend a lot of time drivingor waitingin the car
for his boss.
A chef needs to be able to cook well for obvious
reasons,and to have sharp taste-budsin order to
check that the food tastesthe way it should.
An architect needstechnicalexpertiseto ensurethat
hisdrawingsareaccurate,and aflairfordesignin order
to be able t o des ig no ri g i n a b
l uildings.
A diplomat needsto be ableto speakotherlanguages
and to be tactfuland eloquentin orderto creategood
relationswith other countries.
An accountant needs to be good with numbers because his job involvesdoing a lot of sums.
A clown needs to be comical and to love children
becausehe will have to entertainthem.
7. (Suggested answers)
job istiringwhereas
An industrial
maintenanceworker's
an executive'sis more demanding.An executivenot
only has a high salarybut he also has perkssuch as
a company car. An industrialmaintenanceworker
does not need universityqualifications.
An executive,
Pros: decent salary,regularschedule,works with
(young)people,
etc
Cons: has to deal with disciplineproblemsin classroom, awkward shifts,gets bored teaching the same
materialyear after year,
etc
ACTOR
Pros: famous, creative,travels a lot to shoot films,
glamorouslifestyle,invitedto greatparties,can make
a lot of money,
etc
Cons: no personallife,attendsmany auditions,
performsthe same play again and again,
etc
8. 1. duty
2. work
9. 1. dictator
2. inflation
3. j ob
5. task/j ob
4. shift 6. labour
3. singer
4. vet
7. drudger y
5. costs
Follow-upActivities:Part2 (p. 13)
(T writes the notes on the board eliciting them /rom Ss,
then helshe invitesSs to talk about a weather forecaster'sjob.)
Qualifications: highly-qualifiedmeteorologist
Daily routine: early morningarrivalat the TV studio,
collect latest data from NMO, translateterminology
and maps, plan final broadcast,story board
Time of broadcast: after the news
Reason the job is stressful: livebroadcast,anything
could go wrong, may make inaccurateforecast
Problems: not much time available.materialto be
adaptedto the time available
(Suggestedanswer) ... be a highlyqualifiedmeteorologist,which means havinga universitydegreeand
The daily routineis very
a post-graduatequalification.
intense;you haveto be at the studioearly,and collect
Unit 1: Part3
the latestdatafrom the NMO.You then, haveto put all
this informationinto easily-understood
form for the
finalbroadcast.Thereis not much time availableto do
all this, and as the broadcastgoes out live it can be
ratherstressful:if a mistakeis made, it will be seen by
the whole country!
.
(Sswork in closed pairs.T checksround the c/assthen,
asks some pairs to report to the c/ass.)
(Suggested answers)
SA:
SB:
SA :
I'd like to become a teacher.
Really?Why is that?
W ell,lf ind i t i n te re s ti nto
g b e w i thc h i l d re nand
educatethem.
But studentsare usuallynoisy.I'd preferto
becomea clown.
I don't believeit. Why?
SB:
SA:
SB:
I think it's greatto make peoplelaugh.There's
so much stressand depressionin our lives
that having some fun does matter a lot. etc
GrammarCheck:Part2 (p. 13)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
. . .t w o o f w h o m a r e . . .
...threeof w hi chw ere from ...
. . .w h i c hI b o u g h ti s . . .
... w hose houseshave been burgl ed...
... w ho i s D utch,l i ves...
. . .t h e m a n w h o . . .
. . . i n w h i c hh e f i r s tm e t . . .
... (w hi ch)I w as born i n/i nw hi ch I w as born ...
... w ho I pl aytenni sw i th ...
...that I coul dn' tafford...
Unitl-Part3
Warm-upActivities:Part3 (p. 14)
'
(T draws the following spidergram on the board and elicits relevant vocabularyfrom Ss.)
shorts
pull o v e r
T-shirt
cardigan
fi gure-huggi ng
si l k dress
eveningdress
Jumper
b l u ejeans
leathermini-skirt
corduroytrousers
eveninggown
denim jacket
(evening)suit
dinnerjacket
tailoredsuit
cocktaildress
(Suggestedanswer):Chanel,Givenchy,
V a l e n ti no,Gucci ,R i cci ,Gaul ti er,A rmani ,etc
Warm-upListeningActivity
1. F 2.r
3.F
4.F
5.T
6.F
7.T
B . T 9 . F 1 0 .F
ReadingTask:Part3 (p. 14-15)
16.A
17.E
18.G
19.8
20.F
21.H
VocabularyExercises:Part3 (p. 16-17)
1 . pumps - women's slip-onshoes with a low heel and
no strap
envy - jealousy
plundering - (fig)using as a source
inspiration - new ideas
clinging - close-fitting
royal protocol - traditionalrulesby which the nobility
are expectedto act
commoner - a personnot of noble blood
skip - to move quicklyand lightly
godsend - good turn of fortune
dowdy - not fashionable,usuallydull
follower - admirer
cast in stone - establishedforever
2. (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise fhese fexfrelated collocations and expressions.f checks in the
nexf /esson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
curvaceous
to make
rol l ed-up
to burst onto
5.
6.
7.
8.
flat
say
i n chi c
life-long
9. to become
10. el f-l i ke
Unit 1: Part3
3. FORMAL
CASUAL
tuxedo
waistcoat
tailoredsuit
eveninggown
b us ines ss uit
boxy jacket
cocktaildress
d i n nerjac k et
silk dress
b l u ej e a n s
denim jacket
shorts
T-shirt
leathermini-skirt
corduroytrousers
cardigan
loafers
jumper
10. 1.
2.
3.
4.
.
e.
f.
g.
h.
checked
paisley
floral
tartan
6. 1.
2.
3.
4.
styles
f or m al
tie
belt
5,
6.
7.
8.
floraldress
L gloves
chic
1 0 . s u n g l a sses
casual
w o o l l e nj u m p e rs
7. (Suggested answer)
The first picture is of two girls. They are dressed in
casual summer clothes. They look as though they
might be students.One of the girlsin the firstpictureis
wearinga stripedtop, shortsand loafers,and is
carryinga rucksack.The other girl is wearinga frilly
blouse,jeans and boots.
The secondpictureis of a coupleshopping.They look
quitechic and formal.The man is wearinga blazer,and
the woman is wearinga tailoredsuitwitha whitecollar.
She is carryinga bag, and it looks as if they'vebeen
sh opping.
8 . 1 . of f
2. over
3 . r ound
4. down with
5 . w i th
6 , i n fo r
7. back on
8 . fo r
9 . 1. collection
2. fashionshows
3 . m odels
4. catwalks
5. styles
6 . tre n d s
7. fabrics
B. haute
c o u tu re
(T elicifsansuzersfrom Ss and writesthem on the board
in table form. Then Ss, looking at the nofes, talk about
Audrey Hepburn.)
(Suggested answer)
Audrey Hepburn had a naturalfashion sense,and it
can be saidthat she was the lastword in chic.She had
an elf-likeface and a slim figure. She first became
famouswhen she starredinRomanHolidayin the early
1950' s.H ercl othesforthe fi l mw eredesi gnedby E dit h
Head and includedcotton skirts,plain blouses,frilly
skirts and flat shoes. After this, Hepburn starred in
three more films,with clothesdesignedby the world
famous Hubert de Givenchy.Her style was always
simpleyet elegant.She went on to do a lot of work for
charity,and died in 1993,aged 63. Her fashionsense
w i l l remai nti mel ess.
i . a rg y l e
j. wavy
k. abstract
l. plain
5 . a. clingingdress,eveningsuit, bow-tie,sleeveless
f igur e- huggin d
g re s s ,h i g h -h e e l e d
shoes
b. bare shoulderedfrillydress,eveningsuit, bow-tie
c. embroideredjacket, handbag,bow-tie,evening
s uit
d. tailoredsuit,flatshoes,checkedjacket,paisleytie,
braces,stripedshirt
puton
suit
dress
fit
Her appearance:eltlike face, slim figure (sizeB)
Her clothes: simple but elegant,balletpumps, polonecks,full skirts,cotton shirts,plain blouses
Major films: Sabrina, Funny Face, Roman Hotiday,
Breakfastat Tiffany's
People who influenced her: Givenchy,Head
When she died: in 1993-herstyleliveson, her fashion
sense will remaintimeless/influential
Youwouldwearatuxedo/evening
gown/cocktail
dress/
siIk d ress/waistcoat/d
inner jacketfo r a fo rmaloccasio n
such as a wedding or a dinner party.
You would wear a tailored suit/businesssuit/boxy
jacketfor a businessmeetingor a smart lunch.
You would wear blue jeans/adenim jacket/shortsia
T-shirt/aleathermini-skirt/corduroy
trousers/acardijumper for everydayoccasionssuch as
gan/loafers/a
g o ing s hopping,m e e ti n gfri e n d se tc .
star-patterned
polka-dot
striped
pin- s t r iped
5.
6.
7.
B.
Follow-upActivities:Part3 (p. 17)
(Suggested answers)
4. a.
b.
c.
d.
go w i th/match
try on
wear
match/gowith
.
(Suggested answer)
My ideal wardrobewould be a mixtureof smart and
casualclothes.I think it is importantto have a suit for
weddingsand specialoccasions,but most of the time
I preferto wearcasualclothessuchasjeansand baggy
sweatshirts.For semi-smartoccasions,it would be
good to have ablazer or a sports jacket.
GrammarCheck:Part3 (p. 1Z)
1. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
. . . h a v ea s m u c h m o n e ya s . . .
... you practise,the betteryou ...
... rathergo for ...
... as many shi rtsas ...
. . . i s n o t s o q u i c ka s . . .
... tw i ceas l ong as ... /
... tw i cethe ti me (that)...
... preferto play tennis rather...
... run any fasterthan ...
. . . ( m u c h )m o r et h a n | . . .
... i s betterthan that ...
Unit 1: Part4
Unitl-Part4
Activities:Parta (p. 18)
Warm-up
.
(Suggestedanswer)
(T drawsthe followingspidergramon the board and asksSs fo thinkof wordsrelatedto the theme"vehicles.")
steeringwheel
estate car
wheels
sportscar
salooncar
dashboard
aerial
(limo)
limousine
exhaustpipe
windscreen
wrpers
bus
V E H IC LE S
van
accelerator
jeep
gear lever
minicar
bumper
rear lights
Fiat
Audi
Renault
(Suggestedanswer): The firstone is a jeep, the second one is a salooncar and the third one is a minibus.These
kindsof vehiclescan be drivenby most people.Thejeep mightbe suitablefor somebodywho livesin the countryside.
The salooncar is for someonewho has got a big family.The minibusmight be suitablefor someonewho's got a big
fa m ily .
Adjectives: off-road,robust, spacious,comfortable,practical,fast, reliable,expensive,trendy etc.
(Suggestedanswer): speed,economicalon petrol,easyto park, lots of luggagespace,nice colour,leatherseats.
For me, speed is more importantbecauseI'm alwaysin a hurry.
Leatherseatsare not so importantbecauseI don't want a luxuriouscar, but a reliableone.
Warm-up Listening Activity
1.d
2.a
3.e
4.b
5.c
ReadingTask:Part4 (p. 18-19)
22. A
23,24.B, E (inanyorder)
tc.
u
26D
2 7 , 2 8C
. , E (inanyorder)
29A
30.B
31,32.A, C
(inanyorder)
33.D
34.A
35. E
VocabularyExercises:Part4 (p. 20)
1 styling - appearance;design
suspension system - the systemof springsetc by
,vhicha vehicleis supportedon its wheels
ensures - makes sure or guarantees
rear - back
storage - the space availablefor storingsomething
airbag - cushionthat automaticallyinflateswith air in
a crash to protect the driver
crash tests - controlledcar crashes carried out to
:etect flaws and assistin the design of safercars
i nt er ior- t he inne rp a rt;i n s i d e
fabr ic - c lot h
manufacturer- firmthat makesgoods on a largescale
-s ng m ac hiner y
continental - (of Europe)not includingBritain
padded - filledwith a soft materialto increasecomfort
support - forceof holdingsth in a comfortableposition
motoring - relatingto cars or driving
marketed - advertisedfor sale
power-steering - a featureof a car that enablesthe
driverto change its directionmuch more easily
inconvenience- trouble,difficultyor discomfort
multi-purpose - ableto be used in many differentways
versatility - having many uses
positioned - placed or arrangedin a particularway or
spot
compartment - divided section of a larger area
2. a) a.
b.
c.
d.
b) a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
steeringwheel
seat
clutch
brake
rear windscreen
windscreenwiper
boot
bumper
numberpl ate
exhaustpipe
e. accelerator
f. gear-stick
g. dashboard
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
rear lights
door handl e
tyre
indicator
wing mirror
headrest
Exam Focus: Unit 1
3. (Ss go through the two lists while T explains any
unknown wards. After Ss haye done the exercise,they
check their answerswith the T, then T asks Ss to tatk
about the featuresof each typeof car.Ss can usemore
adjectives describing the featuresof each car if they
wish.)
(Suggested answers)
sports car: two-seater,expensive,fast
family car: safe,comfortable,stylish
jeep: trendy,manoeuvrable,reliable
m ini c ar : ec onom i c a le, n v i ro n me n ta l fri
ly endly,
manoeuvrable,sporty,easy to park
van: storagespace,comfortable
estate car: storage space, comfortable
limousine: expensive,prestigious,luxurious,stylish
electric car: environmentally
friendly,safe, reliable,
easy to drive
ExamFocus- Useof English:Unit 1 (p.21)
(Part2 is a modified open clozeconslsting of 1S blanks
to be filled in with one word each. Emphasisis ptaced
on g rammar and vocab uIary. Ss read fhe brt onc e to g et
the gist of the brt, then re-read and fill in the missrng
words. Ss read the text once more fo see if the text
makes sense and check for spelling mistakes).
Part 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
be
had
how
have
amongifor
6. or
7. onl y
8. i s
9. as
10. either
11 .
12.
13.
14.
15.
than
up
look
w ho
being
Part 4
4. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
t op of t he r an g e
m odel
off-road
easy to drive
seats
back support
7. style
B. vehicle
9. fog lights
10. top speed
1 ' 1 . fu e l p e rfo rma n ce
12. right-handdrive
Follow-upActivities:Part4 (p. 20)
(As Ss list the features of each car T writes them on the
board. Then f asks Ss fo talk about each car.)
(Part 4 is atext containing errors.Some linesare correct
whereas otherscontainan ertra and unnecessa4/word
which must be identified. Ss should read through the
Ert b get an understanding of its general meaning.
Then Ss read the text again carefuily tine by line to
identify the unnecessa4/ word (e.g. article, participle,
c onj unction, p repo sition, ten se, etc). Ss tic k any co rrect
lines and wilte the unnecessary words in the corresponding space. Ss read the text once more to see if
their answersare correct.)
V850: air bag, leatherseats
P: lightengine,eco n o mi c a lp, a d d e ds e a ts ,q u i et engine
F.P . Range:t op sp e e d 1 7 0 k mp h , fo g l i g h ts ,fo ldi ng
roof, power-steering
Space Gear:seatsup to seven,littlewind noise,more
interiorspace
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(Ssworkin closedpairswhileT checksroundtheclass.
Then f asks some pair to report to the c/ass.)
(This exercisewill alwaysbe assignedas HW. T checks
the answersand in the nexf /esson helshe checks the
exerciseusually with closed books.
e.g. T: C/oseyour books.An outlook ........tife.
57; an outlook on life
T: to fi \\........
sfh
52; to fillwith sth
(Suggested answer)
lf I were you, I'd buy from the F.P. Range.I strongly
recommendit, becauseof the high speedand special
folding roof etc.
(Suggested answers)
For a family of six with a dog I'd recommendthe
Space Gear. lt seats seven adults and has plenty of
room for a dog on the floor. For a businessman I'd
recommendan F.P.car. lt is a fast car that can easily
be driven in the city. There'snot much space, but a
businessmanwould only havea smallbriefcase.For a
middle-agedman I'd suggesttheV850.lt is classically
styled in leatherand is safe. For my own family I'd
suggesta 4-wheeldrive.The seatsmake a bed, which
would be useful becausewe often go away for weeke n ds .A ls o,it ' s eco n o mi c ato
l ru n .
too
been
,/
have
,/
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
the
,/
it
one
,/
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
,/
have
there
be
,/
Prepositions
1. on
2. with
3. w i th
4. for
5. to
6. forlabout
7. of
f.in
Lon
10. w i th/by
11. between
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
by
of
at
on
to
of
to/for
from
in
of
at
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
in
on
with
on
of
about
oflabout/up
of
on
11
ExamFocus:Unit 1
ExamFocus- Listening:Unit 1 (p.22)
(Part 1 focuseson understandingmain points,location,
roles, function, attitude, feelings, opinions, intentions
etc. ltconsrsfsof eight shortunrelated extractsof about
30 seconds each, followed by three option multiple
choice quesfions. While listeningfor the lrirsttime, Ss
look out for key words related to one of the three
choices, paying attentionto what is heard because
fhese key words may be included in the incorrect
choice. While listeningto the extractsagain, Ss check
their answers.)
Pa rt 1
1. B
2.c
3.8
4.A
5.A
6.C
7. c
8.8
Part 1
You'll hear people talking in eight different sifuations.
For questions 1 to B, choose fhe besf answer, A, B
or C.
1. Listento this man talking on the telephone. Who is he
phoning?
A a food factory manager
B a technical supplier
C an engineer
Man: Look, it just doesn'twork. lt's been installedfor
three weeks now ...
(PAUSE)... but that fault'sbeen checked ... (PAUSE)
... then why is it cuttingthe pastrytoo short?...
(P A US E ). . .t hey d o k n o w h o w to u s e i t ...
(P A US E .). . I don' t s e e w h y i t s h o u l dc o s ta n y m o re ...
(P A US E.). .well,t h a t' sh i sj o b ,h e ' sy o u rma n ,n o t mi ne.
Look, you charged us well over the odds for that
machine. lt's up to you to see it works - make us
a n ot her ,c hangey o u r ma n , I d o n ' t k n o w ,j u s t
get it right,or l'll referthe matterto my solicitor.
2. Youoverhearthesetvvowomen chatting.Whydidn'f Sue
buy a blouse?
A The shop uzasc/osed.
B She couldn't find one.
C Shedidn't need one.
Woman 1: For heaven's sake! I'm not taking Sue
shoppingagain!W e ' v eb e e ntra i l i n gu p a n d d o w n the
High Streetall afternoonlookingfor a yellow blouse.
Woman2:Thatdoesn'tsoundsuch a difficultmission.
Woman 1; I told heraboutthe shop - you know- but she
said it had closeddown,Well,anyway,she didn'teven
want to try. I've seen blousestill l've got spots before
my eyes!ThenMadamremembersshe'sgot one in her
wardrobeand she suddenlydesperatelyneedssome
new make-up- to go withthe yellowblouse,of course.
3. Listen to this couple ordering a meal. What does fhe
man order?
A risso/es and rice
B fish and chips
C lasagne and salad
12
Man: Yes - we'll have lasagne.That right,dear?
Woman: Yes, please,dear.
Man: A nd - er - fi sh and chi P s.
Waitress;lt'll be ten or fifteenminutesfor the fish - it's
not cooked,you see.
Man: Oh - betternotthen,eh dear?You'rea bit pushed,
aren't you?
Woman: Mmm - rather.
Man: So - make that a rissolesand rice.
Woman: Check for onions,love,remember.
Man: Yes - are there any onions in the rissoles?
Waitress;Yes. There are.
Man: Well,we'd betterstick with what we startedwith
then - and ri sk bei nga bi t l ate.
4. Youhear this radio news report about escaped prisoners. Whatis said about fhe missrngprisoner?
A He is violent.
B He is ill.
C He is armed.
Neursreader;Threeprisonersescapedfrom Dartmoor
yesterday- the second escapethis month.Two were
recoveredby police in the villageof Brown Tor, ten
milesaway.One of them is stillat large.The men had
smuggleda gun intothe prisonand used this to force
guards to open doors. The two recoveredprisoners
were spotted in Brown Tor when one of the men
sufferedan epilepticfit. Policesay that the third man
is aggressiveand shouldnot be approached.Thereis
to be an enquiry next week into this latest spate of
escapesfrom prisons.
5. You are in a hotel reception area when you hear this
conversation.Whatdoes the couple decide to book?
A a tvvin-beddedroom on the first floor
B a double room on the ground floor
C a twin-bedded room on the ground floor
Receptionist; Did you just want one room for yourselves?
Man: Yes - facingthe sea if possible.
Receptionist; Right. Room 4 - that's a twin-bedded
room on the firstfloor.
Woman: Sounds perfect. Next week - Thursday to
Saturday?
Receptionist; Oh - just a minute - | think that one's
booked for Saturday.But we've got a double room
on the groundfl oor - i t' s a bi t smal lthough...
Woman: Mmm - double - it's a bit hot at the momenttwo beds are better.
Receptionist:Or we'vegot a twin-beddedroomon the
ground floor - but it doesn'tface the sea.
Man: No - I'lltellyou what.Let'shavetheroomwe want
- and we'll come Wednesdayto Friday.
Receptionist;Right- l'll book number4 for you.
ExamFocus:Unit 1
6. Listento these tvvo teachersarranging their language
c/asses.How many c/asseswiil Laurateachonlnuisday?
A one c/ass
B fwo c/asses
C three c/asses
Exam Focus - Speaking: Unit 1 (p. 23)
Part 1
(Part 1 /asfs about four minutes and has to do with
socialising and giving personalinformation.ss shoutd
be able to talk about themselvesfor about tvvo minutes
each.)
Anne: Laura,can you coverfor me on Thursday?I've
got a healthcheck. lt's two classes.
Laura: What are they?
Anne: There'sIntermediate- from six till eight.
Laura: Mmm - I've got Advanced - four_thirtyto six.
Anne: Could you? ls it too much?
Laura: No - that's O.K. I did have Beginnersthen but
Judy's taking them for a video sessionwith hers.
Anne: There'sanotherone - Advanced_eight till ten.
Laura: Yes - O.K. l'll stay for that.
Anne: Thanks.
Patt 2
(Part 2 /asfs about four minutesand focuses on ex_
changing personarand factuar information based on
given visual prompts. Ss are given two colour photo_
graphs each andthey havetotalkaboutthem in relation
to themselves without being interrupted or hetped by
the T. They are a/so asked to comment briefty on each
other's pictures.)
7- You will hear a man talking to a poriceman after seeing
the house opposite him being burgled.
Whatdid the younger boy do?
A He handed things to the girl.
B He rode off on the otder boy,s bike.
C He climbed through the window.
Man: Then all threewent roundthe side of the house.
The older boy stood in the corner - at the kitchen
w indow.He open e di t a b i t - d o n ' t k n o w h o w .T h e gi rl
p i c k edt he s m alle rb o y u p a n d h e g o t o n to th e b i g
l a d ' ss houlder san d h e p u t h i m th ro u g h- s o h e c o ul d
g o and open t he d o o r.T h e n - | s a w th e m o u ts i d e...
Policeman.' How much later was this?
Man: Oh, only moments- two or three minutesat the
most. The girl was taking bags from the younger
boy. The older boy took the bags,put two on the back
and chuckedthe smallone in frontof him and rode off.
I was reallyshocked- I mean,the littleone can,t have
been more than nine.
8. Listento this busrnessmanand his secrefa arranging
ry
a meeting. Which day of the week will the meeting be?
A Tuesday
B Wednesday
C Thursday
Secretary:Oh, Mr. Gonzaleswantsto come and talk
to you nextweek about sendinga group.
Bo s s . ' O h,he' s ov e r h e re ,i s h e ?
Secretary:Till next Friday.When shall I tell him to
come?
Boss; Er - what about Tuesday?
Secretary: Yes - you could. After you get back from
Tu nbr idgeW ells .
Boss; Oh - l've got that, have l? | won't be on top form
after that.
Secretary:No - perhapsnot. There,sWednesday_
Boss,' I had wanted to play golf that day, but nbu"r,
mind.
Secretary:Well,how about Thursday?you're free all
day.Althoughit'd be betterto fit it in earrier- in casehe
wants to call back before he leaves.
Boss; Yes - you're right.We'll keep it the way it is, l'll
j u st m is s m y golf . ..
Pictures A and B (Suggestedanswers)
'
.
'
'
while PictureA is of a roadfiiledwith rotsof peopreon
bicycles,Picture B is of a bus and other trafficon a
road. Both picturesshow means of transport.
I prefer to travel by bus because it,s a faster way of
travellingthan by bicycle,and it's less tiring.
Bicyclesare more environmentaily
friendrybecause
they don't give off exhaustfumes like buses.
Peopleshould be encouragedto use pubrictransport
more insteadof going everywhereby car,or to walk if
they only haveto go a shortdistance.The government
should ban all vehiclesthat don't use unleadedfuel,
becausevehiclesthatuse leadedfuelarethe onesthat
cause the most pollution.
Pictures C and D (Suggestedanswers)
'
Picture c shows inhabitants of an African country
dressedin traditionalclothesworking in a field.
Picture D shows peopredressed in modern crothes
sittingand working at a desk in an office.In both
picturesthe people are working.
. Thesepeople'slifestylesare very
different.The people
in picture C probably spend all day doing physical
work and live in very basic houses withbut many
amenities,whilethe peoplein picture D probablyearn
quite a lot of money and live in comfortable,mbdern
houses.
. I think that both of the types of lifestyles
shown are
quitestressful.The only differenceis thatthe peoplein
each picture have to worry about differentthings.
The peoplein picture C probablyworry about having
enough food to eat, and the people in picture D
probably worry about meeting deadlinesand other
work-relatedproblems.
' I would liketo livethe lifestyleof the people
in picture
D becauseI think it wourdbe more comfortabre.
Arso,
the lifestyleof the people in picture C would seem
strangeand foreignso I would find it very difficultto get
used to.
13
ExamFocus:Unit 1
ExamFocus- Writing:Unit 1 (P.24)
(Note that pictures at the beginning of each writing
sectlon serve as a warm up activity for T to elicit the
relevant theory before proceeding to give in-depth
analysison the theory.)
Describing people, places, obiects' events
(tt is importantthatSsmemorise all paragraph plans' T
checksin thenertlesson. The sameappliestoallwriting
secfions af this book.)
(Suggested answer)
- Picture1 shows an eventtaking place.
- Annualeventswhich take place in my countryare:
Carnival,Easter,Christmasand the Annual Wine
Festival.
- Yes,lwould, becauseit lookslikea peacefulplace
with fresh air, tar away from the stress of the city'
Y ou c ould eith e rg o o n l o n g w a l k so r fi s h i n g.
or No, I wouldn ' t.I d o n ' t g e n e ra l l yl i k e q u i e t p laces.
I prefercrowded,livelyplaceswhich are full of
life since I am a sociablepersonand like meeting
people.
The
- T he peoplei n p i c tu re3 c o u l d b e p e n s i o n ers.
H e s e e msto b e i n h i s60' s.
m an ist allan d w e l l -b u i l t.
He hasgot a r o s yc o m p l e x i o na n d a l o n gb e ard'H e
and braces'
is wearingawhiteshirt,blackwaistcoat
T he wom an i s o f m e d i u mh e i g h ta n d a b i t p l ump.
S he s eem sto b e i n h e r 6 0 ' s . Sh e h a s g o t a pal e
complexion,greyish-whitehair, and is wearing
glasses. She is also wearing a white blouse, a
colourfulscarf and a red skirt.
1. 1. Kim Basingeris certainlyattractive.
2. Althoughl've nevermet her, I havereada lot about
her in newspapersand magazinesand have
an idea of what her personalityis like.
3. Kim rarelystaYshome to relax'
4. Kim is a PersonI greatlYadmire.
. Adjectives describing physical appearance: quite
tall,s lender ,blu e (e y e s ),s m a l l ,u p tu rn e d l, a rge,sensuous,photogenic,long, blond, wavy, attractive'
. Adlectivesdescribing character:demanding,quickt em per ed,k ind ,a n g ry ,j e a l o u s ,h a PP Y
AppearancelClothes
...attractive,slender, in her late thirties,blue eyes,
s m all upt ur nedn o s e , l a rg es e n s u o u smo u th ,photogenic face, long biond wavy hair,casualcomfortable
clothes
Character
. . . beinga big s ta r " h a s g o n e to h e r h e a d ,"i n si stence
on perfection,quick-tempered,kind, yells a little,
angry behaviour
Activities, Hobbies, Interests
...attendsHollywoodpartiesand charityevents
Conclusion
ty ,fa me , mo n e y ,h a p p yfa mi l yli fe
. . . br ainsbeau
,
14
2. Height - tall, medium height,short
B ui td - medi um bui l d, muscul ar,sl ender,w el l - built ,
fit
overweight,plump, round-shouldered,
Face - oval,attractive,round,freckled,lined,square
Eyes - almond-shaPed,hazel
Nose - straight,long, hooked,crooked
H ai r - l ong,strai ght,short,curl y,fai r,shoul der-l e ngt h,
wavy, balding
Clothes - formal,trendy,smart,shabby,fashionable,
styl i sh
ful l -l ength,
casual ,w el l -dressed,
3. 1.skinny
2. neat
3. recedi ng
4. scar
5.
6.
7.
8.
tanned
sPottY
sP i kY
mol e
9. freckles
10. slanting
4 . Picture A
1. overw ei ght 3. sl i m
4. bl ond
2. casual
5. comfortable/stylish
6. stylish/comfortable
Picture B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. 1.
2.
3.
4.
forti es
grey
blond
bun
5.
6.
7.
B.
smartly
di nnerj acket
bow-tie
eveni ngdress
fool i sh
observant
bossy
reserved
5.
6.
7.
8.
honest
lively
aggressive
fussy
6 . positive: outgoing,frank,cheerful,polite,easygoing,
i ntel l i gent
negati ve:dul i , bori ng,greedy,moody,rude,me an,
stubborn
(Suggestedanswers)
1. H e can be bori ng; he tel l sus the sameol d stor ies
everytime we meet him.
2. S usani s real l youtgoi ng;shel i kestal ki ngto people
and gets on with everyoneshe meets.
3. My sisteris frank; she alwaysgivesme her honest
opinion.
4. John tendsto be greedy; eventhough he won the
lottery,he keePsgambling.
5. Sarahcan be moody; one minuteshe'shappyand
the next she's stormingoff in a huff'
6. My nei ghbourtends to be mean; someti m eshe
leaveshis dog out in the rain.
7. Mrs white is alwayscheerful; she alwayssmiles
and nothingever seemsto get her down.
8. Your children are very polite; they always say
" pl ease"and " thankY ou."
9. James tends to be rude; he makes impoiite remarks and behavesinappropriately.
10. l ' m very easygoi ng,I' m easi l ypl easedand I get
along with most PeoPle.
11. He is veryintelligent;he hasa veryhigh lQ and can
solve complicatedmathematicalproblems in his
head.
12. Brian is stubborn; he always insists on having
things his own waY.
ExamFocus:Unit 1
(Thenrgivessfudentsthefotlowinglistofadiecfives
onboardandSs decidewhichdescribepositivelnegativequalities.)
Positive: curious,helpful,pleasant,sociable,witty,amusing,reliable,sensible,
optimistic
NeEative:selfish,vain, pessimistic,naive,unreliable,dishonest
7 ' a) Adiectives and phrases which describe personalitywith justification
given: good sense of humour: he told
jokes and smiled a lot; patient: neverscolded; persuasive:
it was his style to reasonwith people;a tower of
strength: providingsupportand encouragement;quiet wisdom; affectionate;
love of life
b) ' Paragraph 4 gives informationabout the person'severydayactivities.
' The writerexpresseshis feelings
about his grandfatherin the last paragraph.
' Pasttensesare used here because
the writeris writingabout someonewho is dead.
Spidergram
1. Introduction
name of the person- time and
place I met him
2. Appearance/Clothes
averageheight,solid build, not too wrinkled
face, ruddy complexion,glasses,beard and
moustache,white hair,straw hat, casually
dressed
Grandfather
Ruskin
5. Concl u s i o n
Commentsand feelingsabout the
person:miss chattingand laughing
with him, I will alwaysremember
his quiet wisdom,affectionatetouch
and love of life
3. Character
good sense of humour,told jokes,
smiled a lot, patient,persuasive,
tower of strength
4. Activities/Hobbies
fi s h i n g ,w orki ngi n hi s
garden,repairing small
items in his workshop
8. 2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
hearing
hear ing
touch
touch
s m ell
taste
taste
s ight
smell
11 .
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
smell
smell
taste
sight
sight
h e a ri n g
h e a ri n g
to u c h
taste
20. hearing
21. smell
22. touch
23. hearing
24. sight
25. smell
26. smell
(Note; To add interestto your writing, moving verbsl
phrases can be used to describe sfafic featuis.
e.g. The track winds up the hiilside.)
9. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
moving
static
m ov ing
static
m ov ing
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
static
static
static
static
moving
11. moving
12. static
13. static
14. static
15. static
10. Phrases which suggest the use of the five
senses:
Model 1: breathtakingscenery;fast-flowingriver
crashes; river'sroar echoing;toweringgreen pine
trees;majesticin their beauty;impressiveback_
ground; pine trees blanketthe ground
Model 2: cold tropicalfruit drink; white, soft sand;
blue-greencolour of the water;watchingthe sunset
Model 3: listento livelymusic;tastethe exoticfood:
streetlight glowing in the misty eveningair
Moving Verbs/phrases
. fast-flowingrivercrashes(Model 1)
. these tours proceedalong the River
Thames
passi ng...(Model3)
Static Verbs/Phrases
. the riveris surroundedon eitherside (Model
by
1)
. toweringgreen pine trees (Model l)
. thick rows of pine trees blanketthe ground
(Model1)
. the hotel is right on the beach (Model
2)
. situatedin the south-eastof ... (Model
3)
15
ExamFocus:Unit 1
Model 3 is the most formal of all three models. lt is
sentencesare complex,
writtenin an impersonalstyle;
paragraphsare well-developedwith a varietyof participles (eg.situated).No shortforms or non-colloquial
E nglis har e us ed .
Model 2 is the least formal of all three models' lt is
writtenin a very informalstylewith lots of idioms and
i diom at icex pr es s i o n s(e .g . i t' s n o th i n gs e ri o u s ,I' ve
beenso stressedout at work,etc).Shortformsare also
u s ed ( eg.T her e' sa l s o ).
Model 1 is probablytakenfrom the "travel" section of
a light-heartednewspaperor magazine.lt is writtenin
a lessformalstylethan the third model but it is not as
informalas the second model. The readeris directly
addressed,so that this piece of writing can have a
persuasiveeffect on the reader.
Model 2 is obviously part of a letter to a friend
because it is written in a very personal style. Use of
colloquialEnglishand shortforms is widespread'The
sentencesare simple, and there are a lot of chatty
details.
Model 3 is probablytaken from a promotional
brochure issued by the Departmentof Tourism.lt is
writtenin a strictlyimpersonalstyle,with a persuasive
tone. Complex sentencesand well-developedparal g l i s hm a k e i t a
gr aphs and us e o f n o n -c o l l o q u i aEn
be found in a
which
could
piece
writing,
of
formal
seriousnewspaper.
Paragraph Plans
.
Model 1
Introduction: name and locationof the place,reason
for choosingthe Place
paragraphs 2,3: particulardetailsof the place
Conclusion: recommendationsabout the place
.
Model 2
of place,reasonsfor
Introduction:greetings/location
choosingplace
paragraphs 2,3: descriptionof place,how to spend
free time
Conclusion: feelingsand finalthoughtsabout the
place
.
Model 3
Introduction: name and locationof place,reasonfor
choosingthe place
paragraphs 2,3: detailsof the place, how to spend
free time there
Conclusion: recommendationabout the place
(Note the finalparagraph in each model. Model 1 ends
with a recommendation, Model 2 ends with the writer's
final thoughtsabout Jamaica,and Model 3 ends with a
quotation as well as a recommendation).
16
paragraphshave more than
1 1 . 1. F (Well-developed
one sentence.)
2.7
3. F (Thestyle in Model 2 is informal.)
4. F (Thestyle in Model 1 is formal.lt is simply
less formalthan the style in Model 3.)
5.7
6.7
7. T
8.7
9. F (Thefirst paragraphin the second model
includedgreetings,locationof the placeand
reasonsfor choosingthe Place.)
10.F (Shortforms are not acceptablein Model 3
becauseit is a formal article.)
12. Sequence words in Model A: lmmediately,
Fi nal l y
Sequence words in Model B: First,Then,Then,
Finally,After,Next,FinallY
- lmperativeformis usedwhenwritinginstructions.
- Model B includessub-headingsbecauseit
describes d ifferentstages.
- Yes,they do.
l uxuri ous,gl ori ous
13. Opi ni on: entertai ni ng,
Size/Weight:huge, immense,minute
Age: modern,ancient
Shape: square,sPherical
Colour: yellow,colourful,violet
Origin: Austrian,JaPanese,Swiss
Material: leather,cotton,glass,crystal,brass
14. (Iasks Ss where they could find thispiece of writing.
Answer:ln a letterdescribing an item you have /osf',)
1. smal l ,S w i ss
2. round,w hi te
3. el egant,bl ack,R oman
15. 1. from
2. with
3. in
4. down
5. to
6. under
4. shi ny,yel low
5. smal l ,w hit e
6. smooth,crystal
7. in
B. At
9. with
(T explains how to form PassiveVoice- The obiect of
the active verb becomes the subiect in the new
se nten ce. The activeverb c hang es into a passive form
and the subjectof the active verb becomes the agent
which is either introduced with "by" or is omitted.)
1. Wine, made from grapes,was drunk by the participants.
2. Eggs are decoratedwith colourfulstickersby
children.
3. The baby is dressed in white clothes for the
chri steni ng.
4. Riceand flowersare thrown by the guestsas the
newlywedsmake their way down the aisleof the
church.
areofferedto the brideand groom
5. Congratulations
by the guests.
6. Presentsare put under the Christmastree.
ExamFocus:Unit 1
7. The militaryparade is watched by the crowd in
awe.
B. Specialdishesare cooked at Easter.
L The roastwas flavouredwith spices.
1 6 . S ight : c olour f uls, h i n i n g ,d a rk , b ri g h t
Hear ing: laughi n g ,b o o mi n g ,l o u d , c l a n g i n g
Taste: bitter,delicious,spicy, salty,sweet
Smell: fragrant,aromatic
17. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
rosy
glor ious
Excited
preparations
luxurious
6.
7.
8.
g.
10.
mo v i n g
professional
b e a mi n g
successful
happily
Paragraph plan:
Introduction: name,time, placeof event,reasonfor
celebrating(what,when, where,why)
paragraph 2: preparations
paragraph 3: descriptionof the actualevent
Final paragraph: feelingsand comments
18. Examplesof PassiveVoice:
... and is celebrated by Christiansall over the
world...
... shop windowsare decorated with Christmas
o rnam ent s. . ,
... Christmaslistsare written to SantaClaus by
c h i l d r e n. . .
...f inis hingt ouc h e sa re p u t o n C h ri s tm a sc a k e sa nd
p u d d i n g s. . .
... a Christmastree is decorated with ornaments...
... glit t er inglight sa re h u n g i n th e s tre e ts...
... wr eat hsar e pla c e d o n c i ty b u i l d i n g s...
...the tearingof wrappingpaperis heard as giftsare
exchanged, opened and admired ...
... s nowm enar e ma d e ...
... potatoesare served for dinner ...
(Suggested answer)
A personwho I respect,admireand love is my
grandfatherWilliam.My first memories of him are
associatedwith laughter,fun and endlessstoriesthat
would alwayscaptivatemy brotherand me.
H e' s qui te tal l and hi s bui l d i s muscul arfro m
havingworked hardall his life.He's nearingseventy_
ei ghtnow but he' ssti l lgottheenergyof ayoung ma n.
Grandfather'srugged face and thick white hair give
him the airof a notoriouspirate.His mostoutstanding
featureis surelyhis eyes.Theyare piercing,grey,full
of lifeand seem to look right throughyou.
Having migrated to Australiafrom lreland, he
struggled for many years to make a new life for
himselfand hisfamily.Thismade himtough,decisive
and assertive.He's got a fiery lrish temper; when
somethingis botheringhim he gets very angry.He's
al soful lof fun - w henhe' si n a good mood he' l leven
pl ay hi s vi ol i nfor us.
Now he's a pensioner,of course, but he,s
al w aysi nvol vedi n thi ngs.you' l lusual l yfi nd
hi mi n th e
gardenor with a tool in his hand repairingsomething
aroundthe house.
He'sa realinspiration
to me. ,,Keepworkingand
fightinguntilyou accomplishyour goals",that,swhat
he taught me. I real l y admi re hi m. H e came t o
Australiawith nothingand now I'm the Directorof ttre
company he set up.
2 . Paragraph plan (describing an object)
Paragraph plan:
Introduction:name,time, placeof event,reasonfor
celebrating(what,when, where,why)
Paragraph 2: preparations
Paragraph 3: descriptionof the actualevent
C onc lus ion:f eeli n g s
19. 1. person
2. object
3 . ins t r uc t ions
Paragraph 3: personalitycharacteristics
(tough; decisive; tough - struggled for many
years; fiery lrish temper - gefs very angry when
something bothers him; full of fun-plays viotin
when in a good mood)
Paragraph 4: activities,hobbies,interests
(gardening ; re pairing thi ngs)
Conclusion: cornrnents,feelingsabout the
person
(inspiration to me; I admire him; gives me good
advice)
4. ceremony
5. person
6. place
7. festival
1. Paragraph Plan (describing a person)
Introduction: name,time you met/sawhim/her
(Grandfather William; first memories - chitd)
Paragraph 2: physicalappearance
(quite tall; muscular build; rugged face; thick
white hair; piercing grey eyes)
Introduction: reasonfor writing,time and place item
was lost
(lost sunglassesand case; 26 August;Sunny Days
Resort)
Paragraph 2: descriptionof object
(glasses; beautiful, lightvveight,brown, plastic
frames; oval-shaped, g oId en-c oIouredplastic /enses
case.' old, black, leather, initials(BJM) on it)
Conclusion: time and placeto be contacted,closing
remarks
[(0731) 950310;9am - Spm daity; t took foruard to
hearing from you.l
17
ExamFocus:Unit 1
(Suggested answer)
(Suggested answer)
Dear Sir,
I am writingto you to report the loss of my sunglassesand case.I lostthemwhilestayingatthe Sunny
Days Resort last month. Unfortunately,when I was
packingup to leaveat the end of my stay,I neglected
to includetheseitems,which I be!ievemust havefa!len
l wt a s i n room
under t hebed.Y o u rre c o rd s w i l l s h o w th a
3 14 unt il26 A ugu s t.
They are Ray-Ban sunglasseswith a beautiful,
brown.lightweight,plasticframe.The lensesare ovalshaped,hav ea d e e p , g o l d e nc o l o u ra n d a re p l asti c'
The glasseswere in an old black leathercase,which
has rrryiniiials(BJM)on it.
I would appreciateit if you could ccntact me on
(0731)950310 betweenthe hoursof 9 am - 5 pm daily,
should you find the glassesand case.
ln the church I belongto in my country,babiesare
baptisedat aboutthreemonthsold.The baptismtakes
place in church during the normal Sunday worship
service"The purposeof baptismis to presentthe child
to God and to God's people.The waterrepresentsthe
washingaway of sin.
Beforethe baptism,preparationsmust be made'A
long white gown is bought for the baby. The parents
meet with the minister to arrange the time of the
baptism.Once this is done, friendsand relativesare
informedof the date of the coming event.
At church, people wear their "Sunday hrest."The
baby'swhitegown fallsalmostto the flooras he or she
asks the
is held by one of the parents.The minister"
parentsthe baby's name,and then sprinkieswatenon
the baby'sforehead,saying" [nameof child],I baptise
you in the name of tfre Father,the Son, and the Holy
Spirit."Afterthe service,a receptionis sometimesheid
for friends and family. Ham and cheese buns are
usuallyserved,withteato drink.Everyonewantsto see
the new baby.
is a beautifulceremonyir: my church;it
A baFrtism
!s solennnarrddignified"The way the parentspresent
enjoy
theirchildto God is moving.The otheril"'iembers
seeinga new additionto the "flock."
YoursfaithtullY.
Be n j a m i nJ . Mc G i l l i c u d d Y
3. CImelette(Giving instructions)
S er ' r es4, I ngr ed i e n ts1: l a rg eo n i o n ,6 e g g s , p epper,
2 tbsp oli',reoil, salt, PePPer
1 " F ir s t ,c hop t h e o n i o n i n to s m a l lp i e c e s .T h e n heat
tl'reoliveoil in a fryingpan and fry the onion over a
moderateheat,stirringconstantlyfor about 6 minutes.
w h i s ka l l th e e g g s to g e th e ri n a bow l ,
2. M eanwhile,
of saltandpepper,according
oneteaspoon
adding
to taste.
3. Next,increasetheheatin thefryingpan and add the
eggs. Fry the mixturefor a furthertwo minutes'
4. Wait untilthebottomstaftsto becomebrown,then
turn it over using a sPatula.
5. Finally,fry the omelettefor another3 minutesand
the omelettewill be readyto serve.
4. Faragraph plan (describing a eeremony)
lntroduction: : name-when-where-why
(baptism;when baby is about three monthsotd; in
church; to presentthe child to God and God's
people.)
Paragraph 2: preparations
(longgown is boughtfor baby; meetingwlthminister
takes place to arrange the baptism time; relatives
are informedof thetimethe baptismistotakeplace.)
Paragraph 3: clothes/foodiactivities
("Sundaybesf",'baby in long white gown; a small
reception with tea and buns)
Conclusion: feelings/thoughts/final comments
(qui et and d ig nified ceremony; p are ntsp resent their
child: becomesa member of the church; nice time
for the community)
18
5. Paragraph Plan (describing a person)
Introduction:name of person,time you met/sawhim/
her
(Billy;homeless;met six monthsago)
Paragraph 2: physicalaPPearanee
(six feet tall; very skinny; about sixty-fiveyears old;
difi grey beard; blue eyes;handsameman; clothes
are filthy and ragged)
and justifiParagraph 3: personalitycharacteristics
cation
(friendly-talksabouthislife;goodsenseof humourjokesabout himself; anirnated- gestures a lot;
intelligent - knowledge of music)
Paragraph 4: activities,interests,hobbies
(rnusic,talksabout singers)
about the person
Gonclusion: Comments/feelings
(tearnednat to iudge people by the way they look)
(Suggested answer)
The most unusual person I have ever met is a
homelessperson who sleeps under the porch of an
abandonedhousenearmy school.I met him aboutsix
monthsago. His name is Billy,but everyonecallshim
" Ol d B i l l y" .I met hi m w hi l ew al ki ngto schoolone day.
Old Billyis more than six feet tall and very skinny.
yearsold. He nevershaves,sc he
He is aboutsixty-five
has a dirty grey beard that reacheshalfuay down his
chest. Surprisingly,his blue eyes twinkle and it is
obvious that he was once a handsome rnan. His
clothes are filthy and ragged, as he never changes
them.
ExamFocus:Unit 1
I've spoken to Old Billyseveraltimes. He is really
a very friendlychap, and he enjoystalkingabout his
life.He has a good senseof humour,and likesto make
j o k es about him se l fw h e n te l l i n gs to ri e s .Ol d B i l l yi s
veryanimated.He gesturesa lotwith his handsand his
whole body, and neverfailsto make me laugh.
Old Billy is intelligent.He certainlyhas a lot of
knowledgeabout music,and lovesto discuss
classicalmusic.He speaksabout pavarottiandcallas
as if they were personalfriends.
From knowing Old Billy,I've learnednot to judge
peopleby the way they look.Old Billylookslikea stray
d o g, but hiswit and k i n d n e s ss h i n eth ro u g hh i s u n ti dy
appearance.
6
Paragraph Plan (describing a place)
Introduction:name ancilocationof place,reasonsfor
choosingthe place
(Mt. Bulla; Austraiia;popular winter r*sort)
Paragraphs 2-3: detailsof place-sigl-;ts,
spending
free time
(winding road; pine trees: {r+s,:a,r; snow;
trad itionaily-hu ilt h oteIs; re staurant; cafeteria; d isc o ;
skiing;sfti shorrys;relaxby fireptace)
eonclusion: cornments,feelingsabout the place
(ski-tover'sparaorse; fabulous resort;heautifu!area:
fun skiing with friends)
(Suggestedanswer)
I\4ountBulla is'one of the most popular winter
resortsin Australia.lt is abouta six or seven-hourdrive
from ihe city. The resort itself is on the side of the
mountainabout one thousandmetresup.
The drive up is breathtaking.As yorj go up the
windingroad,the pinetreessurroundyou and you can
smell how freshand clearthe air is. Snow has usually
fallenand the groundis coveredin awhite biankei.The
actual resort is made up of three traditionally-built
hotels.Eachone hasa luxuriousrestaurantand a cosy
cafeteria.The largestof the three has a disco.
Just abovethe hotelsis the ski-liftwhichtakesyou
to the top of the slopes.Thereare also skiinginstiuc_
torswho teachbeginners.euite oftenthereare special
shows put on by professionalskiers,which are fascinatingto watch.
After skiing all day you can relax in front of the
fireplacein your room or in the hotel,shuge and
ccmfortableloungearea.
You must like skiing to enjoy your stay as Mount
Bulla is a ski-lover'sparadise.you will always enjoy
yourself when you go there because the resort is
fabulous,the areais beautifulandskiingthereis great.
7. Paragraph Plan
Introduction: name,time, place,reasonfor
celebrating
(Rio Carnival;August; before Lent)
Paragraph 2: preparations
(musiciansand bands practise;outfitsdesigned
and sewn; sfa//sconstructed; floatsbuitt and
decorated)
Paragraph 3: descriptionof the actualevent
(parade; colourful floats,bright cosfumes;
crau,rdedsfreefs; samba music)
Conclusion: feelings,comments,thoughts
(joytui; spectacular; danc ing)
(Suggestedanswer)
The Rio Carnivalis a famous festivalr.vhichtakes
place every year before Lent.
Preparationsstart months before.The many peo_
ple in'rolved,
the majorityof whom arevolunteers,
work
endless hours organisingand preparingthe event.
Musiciansand bands practise,outfits are designed
and sewn, stalls are constructed,and floats for the
paradeare built and decorated.
The carnival lasts about a week. Thousands of
people come to see the colourfulfloats and bright
costumes.Allthestreetssurroundingthe paraderoute
are crowdedwith peoplewho havecome to enjoythe
samba music. Bands are scattered all around the
carnivalarea.lmpressivefireworksdisplaysarestaged
in the evenings,fillingthe spectatorswith awe.
The RioCarnivalis reallyexciting.The atmosphere
is joyful.Localinhabitantsand touristsalikeenjoythis
spectacularoccasion.Everyonehas a greattime
da.ncingin Rio'sstreets.
19
Unit 2: Paft 1
Unit 2
Unit2-Part1
Warm-upActivities:Part 1 (P.32)
.
( S ugges t edansw e rs ):T h i sp l a c ei s i n l ta l y .l t' sV eni ce
and it's famousfor its gondolasand its carnival.
.
4. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
.
5. a) 1.discern
2. gazed
3. c a n a l
4. p a i n ti n g
5. arsenic 7. dull
6. painted
ReadingTask:Part1 (P.32-33)
1. B 2.C
4.A
3.H
5.E
6.G
VocabularyExercises:Part 1 (p. 34-35)
1. revellers- peopleenjoyingthemselvesin a noisyway
flit - to move quicklyfrom one placeto another
theme park - an entertainmentpark with rides,etc.
jetties - wooden platformsbuilt out into a river,canal
etc for boats to moor at
em er ge - t o app e a r,b e c o m ev i s i b l e
waterfront - area beside water
r ubbis h dum p - a p l a c ew h e reru b b i s hh a s b een
disposedof
regrettably - sadly
hum dr um - dul l ,u n e x c i ti n go r o rd i n a ry
remnants - small parts or pieces remaining
queue - line of peoplewaitingfor sth/todo sth
outlying - situatedaway from the centreof sth
t r anquilit y- c a l m,u n d i s tu rb e dc o n d i ti o n
stark contrast - completeand obviousdifference
overwhelming - too much to cope with
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
blaze
gat her
f loc k ed
m oor
5.
6.
7.
B.
lagoon
g l o ri o u s
munched
hapless
9. chilly
1 0 . tu c k e daw ay
3. (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise these textretated collocations and expressions.f checks in the
nexf /esson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
20
remnants
s hopping
to create
c ar niv al
ghostly
oil
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
works
mu l ti -fa c e te d
opera
th i c k
aglimPse
slimy
13.
14.
15.
16.
shadowY
to l l i ng
snatches
s e v erel Y
3, peered
4. peeping
5. stare
peer - to look closelyas if you can't see well
peep - to l ook qui ckl yand sl Y l Y
discern - to see with difficultY
stare - to look rudely
gaze - to look at sth/sb for a long time
Warm-up Listening ActivitY
1 . alley s
2 . boat
overw hel mi ng
entertainment
attractions
sampling
multi-faceted
(Note that exercise4 can be used as a model lor Ss
when they will be asked to write a descriptive compositionin "Follow-up Activities"secfion.)
(Suggested answers)
Veniceis built on water.
Thereare gondolas.
There'sa carnivalheld there everyyear.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
thrilling
impressive
humdrum
houses
breathtaking
b) 1. crunch
2. chew
6. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
eastern
absol utel y 6.
exhausti ng 7.
8.
si ghts
3. lap
4. l i ck
traditional
sel ecti on
adventurous
reputati on
5. munch
6. suck
9. entertainment
10. bored
11. sui tabl e
12. necessi t ies
(As an extension T can ask Ss to find pictures of tvvo
placesand compare and contrastthem.)
7. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
. . . m a d e u p f o r t h e d e l a Y. . .
. . . m a d e u p a s t o r Y. . .
. . .t o b e m a d ef o r . . .
. . .t o m a k eo u t t h e s h i P. . .
... made awaY/offwith ...
Follow-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 35)
.
(Suggestedquestions): When is carnivalseasonin
Venice?Who painted"Paradise?"How do people in
Venicego to work? How is glass made?What is the
R i o di S an Luca?
.
(Suggestedanswer)
I visitedVenicelast Februaryat carnivaltime' lt
was reallycrowded.Duringthe dayyou can seepeople
travellingto work by boat and shoppingfrom floating
shops,V eni cei s ful lof canal s,one of w hi ch,the Riodi
San Luca, is now drained.Lots of rubbishand even
old coins have been found there.I visitedmany
churchesbecauseI loveart,and I evensaw "Paradise",
that huge paintingby Tintoretto.In Muranowe saw a
glass-blowingdemonstration,but the lagoon smelt
avufulso we didn'tswim.On a day-tripto Buranoltook
photos of the paintedhouses.lt was reallypeaceful.
B acki n V eni ce,therearen' tmanycl ubsor d iscos,
but we walkedroundthe city.lt'sa fascinatingplaceto
vi si t.
Unit2: Part2
GrammarCheck:part 1 (p. 35)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
. . . b e i n gs p o k e nt o l i k et h a t . . .
. . . was m ade t o c o n fe s s(to ) ...
. . . was hav ingmy h a i r d o n e ...
. . . ar e s or t edby ...
... are reportedto have arrested...
. . . will hav et o b e ty p e d ...
. . . was n' tallow e dto u s e ...
. . . ar e beings el e c te d...
. . . is s aid t o have l e ft ...
. . . was t he c r im ed i s c o v e re d...
Unit2 - Parl2
part2 (p.36)
Warm-up
Activities:
.
(Sugges t edans we r):T h e p e o p l ei n a l l th re ep i c tu res
look extremelyhappy. No matterwhat age they are
th e y s eem t o be en j o y i n gth e i rl i v e s .
.
(Su gges t edans we r):g o o d h e a l th ,a c l o s efa m i l y,
a satisfyingjob, lots of friends,hobbies,a nice house,
travel,wealth.
.
Warm-up Listening Activity
1. mystery
2. study
3. disease
4. different
5. happy
6. disturbinq
7. busy
8. inactivity
ReadingTask:Part2 (p.30-37)
7.
B.
e
10.
B (Ln B-9)
A (Ln 16-17)
C (Ln 26-28)
B ( Ln 29- 30)
1 1 . C ( L n3 6 )
12. D (Ln38-39)
13. C (Ln 41-43)
VocabularyExercises:Part2 (p 38-39)
1. depression - feelingof misery
hostile - unfriendly
abusive - aggressivetowardsothers
affluent - wealthy
significantly - enoughto be easilynoticeable
moods - statesof mind (happy,sad etc)
brains - organsin head usedfor thought,memoryand
fe e l ing
passive - not active
comprises - consistsof
h i g h - ener gy- s t im u l a ti n g
process - systemby which sth works
doubt - uncertainty
aspects - features
praise - statedadmiration
reward- sthgivento sb as praisefor sththey havedone
ch a l lenging- dif f ic u l b
t ut possible
well-being - state of being contentand happy
goals - targets
2. 1. disposition
2. perception
3. rage
4. counterpart
5. absorbi ng
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
sti mul ate
tri gger
provoked
naive
consi stentl y
3. (Ss should be encouraged to memorise fhese fexfrelated collocations and expressions. f checks in the
nexf /esson).
1.
2.
3.
4.
the roots
to paint
to keep
proneto
5.
6.
7.
B.
to see
to make
rew ard
the key
9.
10.
11.
12.
public
di sturbi ng
untouched
pushedup
4. (/f Ss have difficulty, T can help them by eliciting or
explaining the meaning of each adjective in the list.)
positive: delig hted,overjoyed,content(ed),
jolly,glad,
merry,carefree,pleased,joyful,cheerful,happy,good_
tempered.
(Note: content = happy; not wanting more;
contented : safisfied;showing or feeling content)
negative : anxious,dissatisfied,miserable,mournful.
fed up, sorroMul,depressed,heartbroken,blue,
discontent(ed),bored, moody, in low spirits,badtempered.
(Suggestedoccasions when those fee!ings are
experienced)
- anxious
Before an exam/test/interview
End of a relationship- heartbroken,moody, badtempered
Nothingto do - fed up, bored
Failingan exam/test- depressed,low,miserable,blue,
i n l ow spi ri ts
Not gettinga pay rise - dissatisfied,discontent(ed)
Aftersomeone'sdeath - mournful,sorrowful
The bifth of a baby -delighted,overjoyed
Aftera good meal - content(ed)
Socialisingwith friends- jolly, merry
Passingan exam/test- happy, pleased,glad
On holiday- carefree,joyful,cheedul,good-tempered
(As an ertension T can ask Ss to ratethe adjectiyesof
Ex. 5 from the weakest one to the strongesfone. e.g.
merry,jolly, pleased,glad, cheer-ful,happy,content(ed),
delighted, overjoyed...)
5. 1. self-controlled 4. self-confident
2. self-esteem
5. self-centred
3. sel fi sh
6. 1 . D
2.8
3.D
7 . 1 , o n c l o u dn i n e
2. no hardfeel i ngs
3. i n hi gh spi ri ts
4.8
5.A
6.C
4. mi xedfeel i ngs
5. C heerup
21
Unit2: Part2
8 . 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
. . . los t his / he rte mp e rw i th ...
. . . bur s tout la u g h i n g i b u rsi tn to l a u g h te r...
. . . bur s t int ot e a rs ...
. . . am look ingfo rw a rdto ...
. . . am ( r eally)fe d u p w i th ...
. . . in a v er y go o d m o o d ...
. . . had enoug ho f th a t m u s i c ...
. . . t o r ais ehis v o i c e ...
9. (Suggested answers)
a. furious - when I see someonetreatedunfairly
simplybecauseof theirnationalityor skincolour.In
this case I'd proteststrongly.
b. angry - when I see people dropping litter.ln this
case I'd start complainingstrongly.
c. in low spirits - when I'm far awayfrom the people
I love. In this case I'd call them.
d. overjoyed - when I have my first baby. ln this
c as e,l' d s ing a l l d a y l o n g .
e. bored - when I have nothingto do. In this case I'd
lis t ent o s om e mu s i c .
t. stressed - when there'snot enoughtime to get my
work done. In this case,I'd try to relaxand then go
on with my work.
10. (Before Ss do Ex. 10 T elicits various reasons for sb
being depressed or happy and writes them on the
board.)
(Notes for the Teacher)
other reasons for sb being depressed: received
bad news,lonely,her pet dog was hit by a car,herflat
was burgled,she had a car accidentand hurtsb, she
might be lost,she might have been evictedfrom her
flat etc.
other reasons for sb being happy: heard a joke,
school may have just ended for the year, has been
accepted into university,just won the lottery,found a
greatflat,got excellentexam results,has been given
a nice presentetc.
(Suggested answer)
In the firstpicturethere'sa woman on her own. lt looks
as if she is havingproblems.She may be crying.In the
second picturethere are two women. They look extremelyhappy in contrastto the girl in the first picture
who looks depressed.The woman in the first picture
may be facingfinancialproblemsand be feelingdesperate.She could also have broken off with her fiancd
and that is making her feel awful.The women in the
second pictureare probably on holiday so they are
they could have
havinga reailynicetime.Alternatively,
won a competitionand are now celebrating. etc.
22
Follow-upActivities:Part2 (P.39)
(Suggestedanswer)
A time when I was very happywas when I managedto
pass my universityentranceexams.lt was a mixtureof
happinessand reliefas a lot of tensionbuildsup while
waitingfor the results.The nearerthe day of the results
came, the more anxietyI felt, untilthe envelopecontainingthe resultsarrived.Afteropeningthe envelope
the feelings of happiness,joy and relief I felt were
indescribableafterworkingso hardfor so manymonths.
(T writes the notes on the board eliciting them from Ss
then helshe asks Ss to give a one-minute talk on
"happiness.')
Features: healthier/morefriendly,less self-centred/
hostile/abusive
Research:2 basic hapinesscentresin brain:
a) dopaminechemical- passivehappiness
chemicals- high-energystate of
b) adrenaline-type
happiness
llbw people perceive happiness: happinessconfused with anxiety,rage, doubt, sadness
What to do to be happy: know how to deal with
disturbingevents,do sth for the pleasureof doing it,
keepyour brainbusy- activeand challenginglifestyle,
make a world that improveswell-beingand self-esteem, get more satisfactionfrom your goals/circumstances,
GrammarCheck:Part2 (p. 39)
2. ,/
3. them
4. it
5. he
B . he
6./
e. /
7. it
10. he
Unit2: Part3
Unit2-Part3
Vfarm-upActivities:Part3 (p. 40)
"
(T draws on the board the following spidergram and writes down so/ne worcis retatedto the topic (footbatq,
then T asks Ss to come up with words related to each aspecf of the sport.)
garne,Cup Final,extratime, penalty,cup, foul,
away match, draw, league,goal, match, nil,
friendlymatch, home match,World Cup
defend.dri bbl e,tackl e,toss (a coi n),ki ck,
blow (a whistle),attack,shot, kick off, score,
guard (the nets)
I
stands,stadium,park,benches,
changingrooms,field,pitch
goalkeeper,fans, team, footballplayer,
coach, referee,director,linesman,
manager
w h i s tl e ,n e t, b a l l ,goal posts, kit, footballboots,
yellow/redcards, l i n e sman' sfl ag,fl oodl i ghts
(Suggestedanswer)I don'tlikefootballbecauseI thinkit'sa ratherviolentsport.
(Suggested
answer)Hooligans
oftenrunontothepitchor throwthingsat theplayers.
Theyfightwiththefansof the
otherteams.on TV,l'veseenstadiumsseton fireand seatsrippedup.
Warm-upListeningActivity
1. F
2 . T 3 .F
4.T
5 .T
6 .T
7.F 8.7
ReadingTask:Part3 (p. 4A-4D
1 4 . F 1 5 .|
1 6 .B
1 7 . E 1 8 .c
1 9 .A 2 0 .D
VocabularyExercises:Part3 (p.zt2-43)
1 . transforrned- completelychanged
mass - large area or amount of sth
battlefields - areas where fighting occurs
trenches - ditches dug to protect soldiers during
wartime
no-man's-land- area betweenfightingsides in batile
were positioned - were placed
wandered - walked,usu withouta destinationin
mind
unorthodox - not expected,not normal
stoned - threw stones at sth/sb
riot - event when a crowd becomes violentand out of
control
display - show
cheating - breakingrules
drug barons - the heads of illegaldrug-dealing
businesses
2 . (Tshould explainany unkm(,wnvocabularybeforeSsdo
the exercise.After Ss l,.er.*ry'*..?e
the exercise, f asks
them lo c/ose their b*r.,tii; afid remember as much
equipment for each spc':?;s possib/e.)
archery: arrow, bow, i::rget
ice hockey: puck, sticiq.,
helmet,net
tennis: ball, racket,net
badminton: racket,shuttlecock,net
cycl i ng: bi cycl e,hel met
gol f: cl ub, bal l
sw i mmi ng:goggl es
baseball: bat, ball
rowing: oar, boat
boxing: gloves
3 . (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise fhese fexfrelated collocations and expressions.f checks in
the next /esson).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
to return
fel l
to establish
a matter
to shake
crossi ng
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
to commit
to make
to score
since
one report
to display
23
Unit2: Paft3
4. (T shouldexplainwhat each eventis if necessaryin the
Ss'mothertongue.)
track events: (eventswhich involverunning;events
that take place on the track) hurdles,relay,sprint,
long distance
field events: (eventsthat take place off the track)
shot-put,discus,javelin,high-jump,pole-vault
hurdles - race in which runnersmust leap over
obstacles
relay - race involvingteams of four runnersin which a
baton is passed
sprint - short race in which athletes run as fast as
possibleduring the entirerace
7. football: pitch
gol f: course
basketball: court
sw i mmi ng:pool
boxi ng: ri ng
car-racing: track/course
tennis: coutl
volleyball: court
skati ng:ri nk
athl eti cs:gymnasi um
Well,I likefootballa lot becauseit'sa competitivesport
whichinvolveshardtraining.ltofferslotsof excitement'
However,sometimesit causesviolence.Also,footbal l erscan hurtthemsel vesw hi l epl ayi ng.
- anyfootraceof 5'000m
or longer
longdistance
shot-put - eventin which a heavymetalball is thrown
withone handasfaras possiblefroma positionagainst
the nec k
discus - eventin whichaflat,roundobjectis thrownas
far as possible
javelin - eventin which a spear-likeobjectis thrownas
far as possible
high-jump- eventin whichathletesleapovera bar,the
height of which is progressivelyraised
pole-vault- eventin which a long pole is used to leap
o v er a high bar , th e h e i g h to f w h i c h i s p ro g re ssi vel y
raised
5. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
game
match
toss a coin
team
score
play er
k ic k
goalk eeP er
6. a) 1.
2.
b) 1 .
2.
c) 1.
2.
a) 1.
2.
3.
4.
b) 1.
2.
3.
4.
c) 1.
2.
gain
win
threshold
bor der
fans
congregation
9.
10.
11 .
12.
13.
14.
15.
3.
4.
3.
4.
3.
4.
24
staff = peoplewho work in a place
audience = peoplewho attenda performance
mob = uncontrolledcrowd of people
spectator - personwho watchesa sporting
event
-->
-)
-+
-+
-+
Pitch
umPire
court
track
Pool
Rugbyis playedon a pitchwhilewindsurfingis a water
sport. Rugby is a more dangerousspoft than windsurfi ng.The equi pmentneededi n orderto pl ayrugby
is fairlyinexpensivewhereasexpensiveequipmentis
needed for windsurfing.Rugby is both a violentand
dangeroussport. Moreover,one risksgettinginjured
w hi l e pl ayi ng.On the contrary,w i ndsurfi ngi s a r elatively safe sport. Of course one has to be a strong
sw i mmeror one coul d drow n.etc
(BeforeSscomparethe othersporfsT elicitsideasfrom
Ss and writesthem on the board,fhen Ss work inclosed
pairs.T checksround the c/ass,fhen asks some pairs
to report to the c/ass.)
beat
defeated
limit
b o u n d a rY
5. mob
staff
audience 6, spectators
gain : t o o b ta i n ,g e t
win : to be the victor in a game
beat = to defeat
defeat = to beat
threshold : eXdctspot where one entersa
place; (fig)point of beginningsth
border = divisionbetweencountries
lim it = e n d
boundary = d i v i d i n gl i n e
fan = sb who admiresa performer,team etc
very much
congregation = group of peoplewho attenda
terrain
referee
pitch
path
bath
9. (Suggestedanswer)
goalposts
lines
beat
win
manager
s u p p o rte rs
Final
church
3.
4.
5.
6.
8. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
techni calhi
, ghinjur y
B oxi ng:ri ng,vi ol ent,dangerous,
risk,too comPetitiveetc
Tennis: court, safe,ratherexpensiveequipment,
technical,safe etc
Waterpolo: watersport,team sport, competitive,
safe etc
Car racing: individualsport, expensiveequipment,
hi gh i nj uryri sk,demandi ngetc
10. 1.
2.
3.
4.
l ook after
l o o ki t u o
l ookthrough
l ook round
5,
6,
7.
B.
l ookedup to
look into
looks back on
l ookeddow n on
Follow-upActivities:Part3 (p. 43)
(Suggested answers)
.
All spectatorsshouldhavea membershipcard. lf fans
act badly,their card would be taken away.
Prison sentences might deter hooligans.Also, the
policeshould searchfans more carefully'
.
hunti ngetc
boxi ng,bul l -fi ghti ng,
Unit2: Part4
(T writes the headingson the board and complefes fhe
table eliciting answers from Ss. Ss, then, work on their
own. T invites some Ss fo report to the c/ass./
When/Where: FirstWorld War/Franco-Belgian
border
Armies involved: ScottishSeaforlhHighlanders,
9th GermanRoyalSaxon Infantry
How it began: shootingstopped,everyonesang
Giftsexchanged:cigarettes,
meattins,watches,rings,
photosshown
The game: football
After the game: back to war
I rememberthat day as clearlyas if it were yesterday.
It was late on Christmas Eve, and we'd stopped
shooting.Someof the Germansstartedsinging"Silent
Ni g ht "and we joine di n .T h e ns i l e n c efe l l ,u n ti l th en ext
morningwhen some of the German9th RoyalSaxon
lnfantrycame out of theirtrenchesand wanderedinto
no mans land. We showed each other pictures,and
offered each other cigarettesand things. Then we
playeda game of football.We knewwe would haveto
go back to war afterwards,but for that one day we were
friends.lt was a verymovingday,and I will neverforget
i t.
GrammarCheck:Part3 (p. 43)
2.the
3 . the
4 . the
5 . T he
6.
7.
B.
9.
./
the
,/
the
10.
11 .
12.
13.
the
the
th e
,/
1 4 .t h e
15. r'
1 . convinced- sure
prevention - act of stoppingsth from happening
burglar-proof - protectedfrom burglars
suspicious - thinkingthat sth is wrong
glamorises - makes sth seem exciting
rebellious - not behavingthe way one is told
decent - good
job-placement- of programmeschemethat helps
peopl efi nd j obs
inhabitants- residents
arm - to carry weapons
aware - alert
crime rate - number of crimes being committed
death penalty - punishmentby which sb is put to
death for crimescommitted
taxpayer - person who pays taxes
2 . (Ss shou/d memorise these text-relatedcollocafions
and expressions.T checks in the next lesson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
3 . 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Unit 2: Part 4
Warm-upActivities:Part4 (p.44)
(Suggestedanswers)
.
Thefirstpictureshowsan attemptedmurderor assault
scene.The secondone shows robberyor kidnapping
and the last one shows pickpocketing
.
C a u s es : unem plo y me n t,b o re d o m ,ri c h -p o o rd i v ide,
lack of security etc
Ways of Preventing Crime: betterlocks,don't keep
cash in the house,don't tell peopleyou'reaway,better
street-lighting,
don't walk alone in dangerousstreets,
tell sb where you are, carry an alarm
etc.
.
Wa r m - up Lis t enin gAc ti v i l y : 2 ,3 , 6 , 9
ReadingTask:Part4 (p. 44-451
21,22, 23.C, D, E (inanyorder)
24. C
25.E
26,27, 28.A, C, D (inanyorder)
29,30.B, C (inanyorder)
VocabularyExercises:Part4 (p. 46)
31. B
32. A
33. D
34. D
35. E
to cheat
the key
to lead
to commi t
to obey
to become
on duty
gi ven
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
pl ays
to ruin
to reduce
better
crime
a much
police
death
accused
magistrates
charged
pl eaded
bai l
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
detained
custody
tri al
evi dence
innocence
4" (T explainsthe words in bold if Ss have difficultydoing
Ex. 4)
1. brokei n
2. evaded
3. robbed
5. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
4. stol e
5. sl aughter
6. mugged
arson
drunkendri vi ng
terrorism
armed robbery
tax evasion
mugging
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
7. raped
8. smuggle
ki dnappi ng
murder
burgl ary
vandal i sm
assaul t
theft
6. (Suggestedanswers)
1. arson - communityservice/along prisonsentence
2. drunken dri vi ng - a ban on dri vi ngand a fi ne
3. terrorism - life imprisonment/along prison
sentence
4 . armed robbery - a long prison sentence
5 . tax evasion - a fine/ashort prisonsentence/community service
6 . mugging - a short prison sentence/community
service
7 . ki dnappi ng- a l ong pri sonsentence
8 . murder - l i fei mpri sonment
25
Exam Focus: Unit 2
9.
10.
1 1.
12.
burglary - a short/lonEprisonsentence
vandalism - communityservicela finelawarning
as s ault - a s h o rl /l o n gp ri s o ns e n te n c e
theft - a shotl prisonsentence
Follow-upActivities:Part4 (p. 46)
.
houses not secure -+ lock up, installalarm, label
up h o u s ea n d g a rd e n ,s ta rtn e i g h bourva luableslight
,
hood watch schemes
TV/films/musicglamorise crime -+ educate
ch ildr en,s et a go o d e x a mp l e
unemployment -+ job trainingschemes
criminals set free too early + longer sentences
.
(Suggested answer)
In my opinion a lot of crime is causedthroughlack of
security.My advice would be to lock up carefullyand
installan alarm.Always labelyour valuables.I would
alsolightup the gardenat night.TVand filmsglamorise
crime.lf I were you, I'd educatemy childrento tellright
from wrong and lwould always set a good example.
A lot of crimesare committedby unemployedyoungsters.The governmentreally should set up job training schemes. I firmly believe that neighbourhood
watch schemeshelp preventcrimes.Finally,it is said
that criminals are set free too early. In my view,
prisonersshould be taughtto be responsiblecitizens
beforethey are released.
ExamFocus- Useof English:Unit2 (p.47)
(Part 1 is a modified cloze Ert containing 15 gaps
followed by 15 four-option multiple choice quesfions.
Ss read through the brt b get an understandingof its
general meaning. Then Ss read the Ert a second time
trying to find the answer. Keep in mind that some
choices are meant to be misleading. Ss should read a
third time to check if their choices make sense).
Part 1
1. B
2.8
3.C
4.A
5.A
6.C
7, C
8.A
9.C
1 0 .B
1 1 .D
12. D
1 3 .B
1 4 .A
1 5 .C
Prepositions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12"
26
of
between
by
wit h/ in/ by
with/to
on
wit h/ by
to
in
by
on
in
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
w i th ,o n
in
at
in
at
at
i n /o n
in
at
of
on
w i th
25. for
26. on
27. on
28. of
29. to
30. of
31. in
32. of
33. on
34. onioff
35. of
ExamFocus- Listening:Unit2 (p. 48)
(Part 2 is a ntanologue or brt involving interacting
speakers. /t /asfs about 3 minutes. Ss /isten the first
time and fill in any gaps tney can. Ss /isten again
filling in the restand checking their answerslo see if
they make sense.)
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15,
16.
17.
18.
l yi ng/tel l i ng
a lie
in
being asked/invited/allowed
- home/mainservices
householdfacilities/services
sel lthi ngs
a chain
provethei r i denti ty
phone their companyichecktheir reason
the tel ephone
passwordsystem
thei r cl othi ng
Part 2
You will hear a talk given by a policeman to a group of
parents.For questions 9 to 18, fill in the mrssrng
information.
Speaker:All of us have had enough of burlr r'.'. Now
your
I am heretoday to tell you how you can heip
"rs,
neighbourhood
andyourselvesinthecampaignagainst
burglary.Burglarscarry out their crimes behind your
back,whileyou'reout, in the nightand directlyin front
of you. Now todaywe're concernedwiththis lastg roup
- those who pretendto have a reasonto call at your
house,but are reallyafteryour money or goods.
We call them bogus callers.Now these types get
you to co-operatewith them simply by gettingyou to
invitethem in. And to get you to do that they have to
convinceyou that they havea legitimatereasonto be
allowedintoyour home.Whatthey say is nottrue- they
dependon you believinga storyand then lettingthem
in to carry out their so-called"job." Now we are all
connectedto variousauthoritiesand institutions- as
part of our daily lives. We can't possibly know in
advanceallthe reasonswhy someoneshouldneedto
communicateor co-operatewith us - and this is what
the bogus cal l erexpl oi ts.
The most common,and the most crediblereason,
is the servicecall. Every householdknows that gas,
water and telephonefacilitiesneed attentionand that
people from the respectivecompanieswill read meters, check the safetyand workings of the serviceand
so on.
Anotheridealopportunityto convinceyou to open
up your door is to offerthat temptingobject that you've
always wanted, at a bargain price. Best of all, somethingthatneedstobe demonstrated- inside,of course.
Puta chainon yourfrontdoor - keep it on - carryout
all communicationswith it secured until you have
decidedto open the door fully.
Nobody must be allowedin underthe guiseof any
officialservice until you are satisfiedthat their call is
genuine.Theyshouldhavesome meansof authorised
- from whoeverthey represent.Before
identification
ExamFocus;Unit2
anythingelse,get them to show you this. lf they can't
- don't let them in. Stilldon't untilyou'resatisfiedas to
th eir pur pos e,lf i t' s a g e n u i n ec a l l e r,h e o r s h e w on' t
m indwait ingwhil ey o u c a l l th ec o m p a n y .l f n o t,th ena
telephone call might have saved you from a rather
nasty surprise.
Nowthesedaysit is evenpossiblefor boguscallers
to haveacohortattheend of thatline,whoanswersand
fals elyas s ur esy o u th a t th e c a l l e ri s g e n u i n e .T hi s i s
ratheran extremecase, but it's as well to be awareof
the latesttricks.Some companiesknow this, so they
have introduced a password system. You know a
particularword - for example"Homeserve"
or "Linkup"
- and their servicepersonor representative
does too.
You ask them to say it - and if it corresponds- you let
them in. Ask any companywhose servicesyou use if
they have this system.
You can also check by lookingat what the calleris
wearing.Some officialcallerswillweara uniform- with
the company'slogo on it. lf someonecomes dressed
in a way you don't think seems right,then trust your
o w n judgem enta n d d o n ' t l e t th e m i n .
Remember- it's your home. lf you are suspicious,
call the police.Don't become a victim.
ExamFocus- Speaking:Unit2 (p. 49)
part 3
(ln Part 3 Ss are examined in pairs. Theyare given
visual prompts which generate a discussion and thev
tatk with one another. Ss look carefully at the visual
prompts concentrating on relevant details. The conversationshould not be dominated by one student Ss
have to talk only aboutthe tasktheinteruiewerhasgiven
them. This part /asfs about 3 minutes.)
(Suggested answers)
SA; I would chooseto go to Jamaicaif I could because
it looks like a tropicalparadise.
SB,'I would rathergo to Rome becauseI'd liketo visit
the Colosseumand see the SistineChapel.
SA; l'd prefertospend my days lyingon the beachand
sw im m ingin t he se a , a n d g e n e ra l l yb e i n g l a z y .
SB; I disagree.I like to keep active when I go on
holiday, otherwiseI get bored very quickly. I enjoy
seeingthe sightsand visitingdifferentplaces.
SA; In JamaicaI would get a suntanand perhapslearn
to scuba-diveor sail if it wasn't too difficult.
SB; I would definitelygo on a guidedtour of Rome if I
went there, and I would also go to look at all the
designershops there.
SA; I wouldn't need to take many things to Jamaica
with me, just a few pairs of shortsand t-shirts.
SB; Don'tforgetthat you'd needa swimmingcostume
as well! | would take clothesthat are quite smafi to
Rome becauseeveryonethere is so well-dressed.
SA;Youwouldalsoneedto takea cameraso you could
take lots of pictures,wouldn'tyou?
SB . ' Y es ,t hat ' sr ig h t,a n d s o w o u l d y o u !
Part 4
(ln Part4 Sstalkwith one anotherabout mattersrelated
to the theme of Part3. Ss should listento their partner's
answers and respond accordingly. It is important to
remember that when one partner is speaking, helshe
should not be interruptedbythe other.Part4lasfsabouf
4 minutes.)
(Suggestedanswers)
SA; My idealholidaydestinationwould be somewhere
hot and sunny, like the Seychellesor Thailand.
SB; Mine would be somewherewith a lot of thingsto
see and do, l i keGreece.
SA.'Yes,Greecewould be excitingto visit,but l'd prefer
to go somewheremore exotic.
SA; I wouldn'tneed to take much with me exceptlight
clothesand a bathingcostume.
SB; You'd also need a hat and lots of suntanlotionso
as not to get burnt in the hot sun.
SA,'Yes,you're right.You wouldn'tneedto take many
things with you either,would you?
SB.'No, just comfortableclothesto wear, really.
SA; I usuallygo on holidayin my own country,to the
villagewhere my grandparentslive.
SB; So do l. I usuallystay at my aunt and uncle's
housei n .......and spendthe w hol esummerthere.
SA; ln my grandparents'village
thereare lotsof things
to do and see, like lookingafterthe animalsor exploring the countryside.
SB.'Yes,it's the same in my village.There are lots of
new places to see every time I go there.
SA,'lsn't there a beach for you to go swimming?
SB,'Yes,there is. We spend most of our time there,
actually.
Writing:Unit2 (p. 50)
Writing Narratives
The first extract is taken from a newspaperarticle.lt
is about a fire at a hoteland the rescueof the guests.
It must have been written by a journalist.I've read
piecesof writinglike this before.They were about
fires,accidents,earthquakes,
floods,etc. This kind of
writingappearsin newspapersand is normallywritten
in a formal style.
The second extract is takenfrom a person'snarration.
It must have been writtenby one of the soldierswho
rescuedthe guests.They both talk about the same
event. The first extractis written in a formal style,the
second in an informalone.
27
ExamFocus:Unit2
corri dorsoutsi de,and a stronganti septi csmel l fi l led
the ai r.A nxi ousrel ati vescoul dbe heardcompl ai ning
aboutw ai ti ngfor so l ong ...
1. (Suggestedanswer)
Model A
Paragraph Plan
In t r oduc t ion:s um m a ryo f th e e v e n t(ti m e ,p l a c e ,p eop l e inv olv ed)
(major floods; inhabitantsevacuated from their
houses,'yesterday;town of Dinnead)
Paragraphs2-4: Developmentof the events(description of the event,people involved)
(rain starled to fall; on Monday, River Dinn burst
its banks; turned into a raging torrent)
Paragraph 3:
(families airlifted by Emergency Services;
homes damaged)
Pa r agr aph4:
(emergency housing being provided for victims)
Conclusion: CommentsiReferenceto future
d e v elopm ent s
(Commentsby mayor; the construction of a dam
under discussion )
Mo del B
Pa r agr aphplan
In t r oduc t ion: s et th e s c e n e- w h o , w h e re .w h e n
(Sundayafternoon; rainy; rising water level
of river)
Paragraph 2: beforethe main event
(river becoming wild; heard a crashing sound)
Paragraphs 3-4: the main event,detaileddescription
(water surrounding house; helicopter coming;
rescued and taken to shelter)
, elings
Conc lus ion:m oo d s ,c o mme n ts fe
(frighteningexperience; relieved to be rescued;
devastatedto see the destruction)
1.
2.
3.
4.
M o d e lB
M o d e lA
M o d e lB
M odelA
5.
6.
7.
B.
M o d e lB
M o d e lA
M o d e l sA, B
M o d e lB
2. Traffic jam
1. honking
2. F ur ious
Library
1. rustling
Peaceful beach
1. Crashing
2. s par k ling
9 . M o d e lB
1 0 . M o d e lA
3 . s c re e c h i n g
4. Suffocating
2 . w h i s p e ri n g 3 . D u s ty
3 . So a ri n g
4. blinding
3. (Ssshou/ddiscussEx.3in c/ass,thenare assigneditas
writtenHlW. Tis advised to gettvvogoodSs to read their
short paragraphs aloud in the next lesson.)
(Suggested answers)
H os pit alem er ge n c yro o m: T h e b ri g h t l i g h ts i l lumi nated the scene as hard-working doctors tried to
reas s ur ener v ousp a ti e n ts .R u s h i n gn u rs e sfi l l e dthe
28
Office: The officewas full of activity.Ringing phones
were answeredby cheerful secretaries.The sounds
of clicking keyboards and shuffling paper filledthe
air.Busy employeessat in frontof blinking computer
screens ...
Constructionsite:Throughthe dust-filledair, sweaty
w orkers coul d be seen movi ng betw eenrumbl ing
bul l dozers.Thesoundof poundi ngdri l l scoul dbar ely
be heardabovethe deafeni ngnoi se...
P arade:The marchi ng band passedsl ow l ythrou gh
the cheeringcrowd to the steadybeatof the pounding
drums. The sky above the parade was filled with
fl oati ng bal l oons...
Castle: Because of its isolated setting the castle
receivedfew visitorsdespite its stunning medieval
architecture.Many believethat it was haunted
because of the atmospherecreated by the musty
smel l i n the dark passagew aysand gl oomycand lelit rooms...
Forest:The peacefulsurroundingswerewonderfully
relaxingand the fresh air carriedthe scent of fragrant
pine trees.As I sat underthe towering trees, only the
chi rpi ng bi rds brokethe si l ence.
4, C , B , E , A , D
P aragraphP l an
l ntroducti on:set the scene
(sunny morning; harbour; fishing trip)
Mai n body:
paragraph 2 - eventsleadingup to the main event
(passengersfishing; finally rod bends violently)
paragraphs 3, 4 - the main event
(battle with the fish; fish escapes,)
C oncl usi on:descri bemood, reacti onsand feel i n gs
(Disappointed;but happy and excited)
5. (T should emphasisefo Ss that a good beginningand
ending ls essentialfor an interestingstory. The first
p aragraph shouId in c Iud e a d ramatic, unusuaI situation
or Direct Speech. Final paragraphs should leave the
reader with a lasting impression.Before doing Ex.S,
T should give Ss examplesof beginnings and endings
which include fhese points.T can use suggested
beginnings and endings to illustratefhese points.
T, either reads aloud the samples or makes photocopied transparencies.Then Ss do Ex.S.)
ExamFocus:Unit2
(Sugges t edbegi n n i n g sa n d e n d i n g s )
Dr am at ic :B eginn i n g
A num bf eelin gg ri p p e dM i ra n d aa s s h e u n w i l li ngl y
boardedthe plane.Sheslowlytook herseatand stared
bleaklyout of the window.As the planetook offand the
city below recededintothe distance,the tearsstarted
to flow and it seemedas if they would neverstop.
Unus uals it uat io n :B e g i n n i n g
The sailors were just startingto raise the ramp.
"Stop!"I cried,breathlessafterrunningacrossthe pier.
The man in charge waited impatientlywhile I scrambled up the wooden ramp, my ticket and suitcasein
h a nd. lt was n' t un ti l th e s h i p h a d s a i l e d o u t o f the
harbourthat I realisedthat the vesselwas bound for
Siber ia,not M iam iBe a c h !
2. D - story (personal,informalstyle,short forms,
col l oqui alE ngl i sh,i ncl udesw ri ter' sfeel i n gs,
use of DirectSpeech)
3. B - factualreport (impersonalstyle,use of PassiveVoice,reportingverbsin reportedspeech,
only facts,complexsentencestructure,high
l evelof vocabul ary,non-col l oqui al
E ngl i sh)
4. A - story (informal,personalstyle,writer's
feel i ngsi ncl uded,col l oqui alE ngl i sh,cha t t y
description,useof DirectSpeech,shortforms)
7. (Note that Ex. 7 is to be used as a structuralexercise.
Ss shou/d not use this text as a model composition.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
First
Then
B y t h et i m e
Themoment
Meanwhile
6.
7.
8.
9.
As
until
As soonas
Finally
D ir ec t S peec h: B e g i n n i n g
Barbarasnappedher suitcaseshut and took a last
l o o kr oundherbed ro o m.S h ep i c k e du p th e b u l k yc ase
and struggleddownstairswithit. Hermotherand father
w er ein t he k it c he ns, i tti n ga t th e ta b l ei n s to n ys i l e nce.
" T hat ' sit t hen , l ' m re a d y ,"s h e s a i d .
" Don' tt hinky o u ' reg e tti n ga l i fta n y w h e re ,"s ai d
D ad, t ight - lipped".T h i sw a s y o u r d e c i s i o na n d f rom
n o w on y ou ar e on y o u r o w n ."
Leavethe reader with a lasting impression: Ending
Barbarasettledherselfon the veranda,with
a long cool
d ri nk in her hand.T h e s u n w a s s e tti n go v e r th e bay,
and she was calmed by the sound of the waves lapp i ng on t he s hor e ." l t w a s a l l w o rth i t," s h e th o u ght,
sm ilingquiet lyt o h e rs e l f.
Beginnings
1. good; becauseit catchesthe reader'sattentionby
des c r ibingan u n u s u a ls i tu a ti o nD
. i re c tSp e e chi s
us ed.
2. bad; becauseit lacksdrama and style.Sentences
ar e s hor tand it s o u n d sp o o r a s th e b e g i n n i n g
of a story.
3 . good; bec ausei t i s b o th d ra m a ti ca n d u n u s u al .
Feelingsand sensesare well used to make the
readerinterestedin what will happen next.
Endings
1. bad; becauseit does not flow.Sentencesare short
and lac k or igin a l i ty .
2. good; becauseit containsdescriptionof feelings,it
flows well, roundingthe story off.
3. good; becausethe endingleavesthe readerwith a
las t ingim pr ess i o n .
8. D , E , C , A , B
(Suggested paragraph)
Fred was sunbathingon the beach when he saw a
woman wavingat him.At first he thoughtshe was just
being friendly.Then he saw that she was in trouble.
lmmediately he dived in to save her. By the time he
reachedher,she w as begi nni ngto drow n.Fi nal l y ,he
managedto pull her back to the shore and save her.
9 . (Suggested story)
The fire broke out in a basementflatjust belowme
at 3 am. I liveon the groundfloorof the apartmentblock
i n centralLondon.I coul d smel l smoke from som ewhere when I woke up at around quarterpast three.
I ran to the door and saw the whole hallway in
flames.I panickedand ran back into the living room
w here I escapedby j umpi ngout of the w i ndow ,
It took a long time beforethe fire brigadearrived.
The policesaidthatthiswas due to the factthatthe flats
di dn' t haveany smoke al arms.
The bui l di ng seemed to go up i n fl ames ve r y
qui ckl y,W i thi nafew mi nutesi t hadspreadtothe upper
floors, lt was horrible.I could hear people who were
trappedin theirflatsscreaming.One familyon the fifth
floorwereall killed.lt'stragic.Anotherfiftypeoplehave
been sent to hospital.
lwas told that it mighthavestartedwhen an elderly
man i n a basementfl atfel l asl eepw hi l esmoki ng.
Allthiscouldhavebeenaverted.Thefourmernbers
of the Jones family might have been alive today if
smoke al armshad been i nstal l ed.
It' sj ust been l i ke hel l .I' m so rel i evedto be safe.I
hope that I neverhaveto experienceanythinglikethis
agai n.
6 . 1 . C - s t or y ( pers o n a li,n fo rm asl ty l e ;i t i n c l u d e sthe
writer'sfeelings,chatty descriptions,colloq u i a lE n g l i s h )
29
ExamFocus:Unit2
10. {SarggestedparagraPhs)
4l
I loved everythingabout our new house, everything exceptfor the huge old tree at the bottomof
the garden.From the day we arrivedI felt that it
was c hallen g i n gme , d a ri n gm e to c l i mb i t. So I
acceptedthe challenge..
. . . M y m ot he rw a s a n g ryw i th m e fo r c l i m b i n gthe
tree, but she didn't say anything.My father.
t hough,unde rs to o de x a c tl y w h yI' d d o n e i t.A s he
laid m e on t h e b e d h e s a i d ," l ' m p ro u d o f y o u,
son, but nexttime you fallout of a tree,makesure
i t ' sa s m a l lo n e ! "
Having been left a magnificenttwenty metre
b)
yachtby our uncie,we wereonlytoo keento learn
how to sailit.We thereforedecidedto takeadvantage of CaptainPike'sofferto turn us into
ex per ienc eds a i l o rs...
"."Aftera few minutesof panic,we put everything
we had learntto good use. We managedto
turn tlre yacht ai"oundand head back to pott" li
rnightonly have been ihree days, but we'rt
alreadybecornehardeneCsailors.
paragraphs)
t tr. {$r"agEested
a)
A n old do u b l e -d e c k e rb trs c a m e ro u n d the
but I got
corner.The driverwas havingdifficulties,
on the bus anyway. Suddenly the bus tr.rrned
wildly to the left, straighttowards a low bridge.
Everyoneheldtheirbreathas the soundof tearing
metalrangthroughthe air.The bottomhalfof the
bus c r as hedi n to a w a l l b e y o n dth e b ri d g e ;t he
top half lay on the roac!behind us.
T hen I hea rds i re n s ." Ev e ry o n es ta yc a l m ,hel p
is on t he way ,"th e d ri v e rc a l l e d .A m b u l a n ces
arrivedto helpthe injuredand policecarscameto
take control of the situaticn.Stunned motorists
got out of t h e i r c a rs a n d o n -l o o k e rsg a s p e d i n
dis belief .
b)
! alsonoticedhe was clutchinga blackbag f rom
whic h I c or il ds e e s o m e b a n k n o te ss ti c k i n gout.
He was r eall yj u mp y a n d k e p tg l a n c i n go u t of the
r earwindow .H e s u d d e n l ys n a B p e dh i s b a g open
and pulledou t a c o u p i eo f n o i e s .T h e m a n l e aned
forward and thrust one of them at me. lt uvasa
hundr edc io l l abr i l l !" Ge tm e to th e s ta ti o ni n e i ght
m inut esandth e re ' sa n o th e rh u n d re di n i tfo rY oU",
he s aid. I t h o u g h t h e mu s t h a v e b e e n a bank
robber so, scared to oeatl't.I drove him to the
station"We made it in seven minutes.
1 2 " 1 . F (A story can be writtentn tfre first or third
person.)
2. T
3. T
4. T
5 . F (lt is importantto keep the reader'sinterest,
otherwisehe/shewill not continuereading
your story.)
30
6.7
7. F (A factualreportincludesonly facts.)
8.7
9.7
10. T
11. T
12, T
13. F (Eventsshould be put in chronologicaiorder
in news reports.)
14. T
15, T
16. F (The lengthof each paragraphmay vary,
accordingto what you want to express.)
17. T
'13. 1. factualreport
2. story
3. factualreport
4. story
(Suggestedanswer)
i . P a r a g r a p hP l a n
Introduetion:summaryof the event (time,place,
peo[rleinvoived)
(armed bank rcbbers entered Bowland Bank;
made off with large sums of money; 3.00pm;
Chestefton)
Paragraphs2-3: developmentof the event(s)
(descriptionof the main event(s),people
i nvoi ved)
(bank about fo c/ose; four masked bandits
burst in; demanciedall cash; armed with
semi-automaticpisto/s; took money and got
away in a car parked outside)
(police arrived, but were too late; no description of the car; police interuiewedwitnesses
and bystanders)
to future
Conclusion: comments/reference
developments
(optimistic investigators;comments by police
spokesman;police already making progress)
(Suggested answer)
Robbers Snatch t2 million
Armed bank robbersenteredthe BowlandBank
in Chestertonyesterdayat 3.00pm.The bank was
filled with customersat the time, but there was no
securityguard on duty. The robbersleftwith
t2 million.
The bank was just about to close when four
masked banditsenteredthe bank, demandingall
the cashin the cashiers'drawersand in the vault.The
men were armed with semi-automaticpistols and
orderedcustomersto lie on the floor.Theyfilledtheir
sacks wiih money, then made a clean getaway,
speeding off in a car which was parked outside.
Policequicklyarrivedbutthe banditshad alreadygot
away.
No descriptionof the getawayvehiclehas been
given but police have been interviewingwitnesses
and bystanderswho wereoutsidethe bankatthetime
of the robbery.
ExamFocus:Unit2
Foftunately,no one was injured in the incident.
Investigatorsare optiraisticand report that they are
alreaciymaking progresson the case. Pclicespokesman Arnold O'Donahuestatedat a news conference
this morning:"\{e've got some firm leadsin this case,
and we expect to make arrests soon." The daring
daylighttheft has shocked the citizensof this quiet
com m unit y .
2. (Suggestedanswer)
told me the interviewswere completedand someone
had just been hired! | started to feel hopelessness
settingin. At that point,the PersonnelManager'sdoor
opened and two men came out. lwas astonishedto
seethattheManagerturnedoutto be a long- lostfriend
frorn my schooldays.
quicklyturnedto joy as we warmly
Disappointment
embraced.
3. {Suggested answer)
Faragraph Plan
Paragraph Plan
Introduction:set the scene - who, where,when
(some time in the past; needed job after 2 months
of unemplayment)
Faragraph 2: beforethe main event;irrcidents
leadingup to main event
(scoured new€papers,'no good jobs tound for Z
weeks; ane day, goorl job ad seen in paper; littl*
time ieft to get to intertiew)
Paragraph 3: the main event;give niore details
(quicklygot reaCytogo: drove quicklyio city centre,"
arrived at building)
eonclusion: conseqLrences,
feelirigs
(arrived ioo late, y<tbfilieri, then, saw tt''taif'ersonnet
Manager vrasr:ld sffio{)i churri;jovfui enbrate)
lntroduetion:summaryof event- time, place,people
involved
(yesterday afternoon; M25 motoway; family and
severaipeople invalved)
Paragraphs 2, 3, 4
Developmentof Event: describeevent,people
in':olved,detailedfacts
(2.15 prri; worst storm; reduced visibility;Ford
Fiesfaaveftakeslorry;windblows iorryover;crushes
car; second car collides with lorry; emergency
seryicesarrive;driver of second car and lorry driver
are takento hospital;four pas-senge
rs in f irstcar
die)
eonclusion: cornrr"tents.
refei'enceto future
developrnents
$olice remind motorists to drive more carefully;
Chief of Police comments that the tragedy cauld
have been prevented)
(Suggested answer)
By the Time I Got There, it Was Too Late
I had been an unemployedsalesmanfor over two
months.lt was tough havingmy wife supportme and
p a yt hebills .lwasd e s p e ra te liyn n e e do f a j o b . l tw a sn' t
myfaultthatthecompanyI'd beenworkingatfortwelve
years had gone bankrupt.
Everydayfor the last couple of weeks I would buy
a few newspapers,spreadthem open on the kitchen
table and scour them. Unfortunately
for me, the jobs
availablewere either underpaidor the travellinginvolvedwasn't worth it. So one day I bought the
usualpapersand, havingmade myselfa cup of coffee,
and tryingto be optimistic,I startedto readthroughthe
"helpwanted"adverts.lt must havebeenmy luckyCay,
becauseno soonerhad I begun than my eye fell on a
most interestingpost. I quicklylookedat the calendar
on the kitchenwall,glancedat nry watch and realised
I had just under e.nhour to get to the interviews.
I ranto the bathroorn,sha,ted,dressed,and ranout
the front door, only to rernemberI'd forgottento take
my curriculumvitae.Havinggot it, I got in my car anci
sped towardsthe citv centre.I could be therein fifteen
minutes."Wherewere al! these driversgoing to?" I
wondered.I'd begunto breakout in a sweat,realising
that I might be missingout cn this opportunity.Thirtyfive minutes later,after having parked,at last, I was
ru s hingup t he s t ai rsto th e th i rdfl o o r o f th e b u i l d i ng.
By the time I got there,it was too late.The secretary
(Suggested answer)
C ar C rash K i l l s Four
A seri ous mul ti pl e-vehi clcol
e l i si onon the M2S
yesterdayclaimedthe livesof a familyof four. Several
otherswere injui'edin the crash.
Theaccidentoccurredat 2"15pm as torrentialrains
fell.Visibilityhad beenreducedto fifteenfeetduringthe
area's worst storm in twenty years.
A Ford Fiestawas overtakinga lorrywlren the wind
blewthe lorryover.A second car failedto stop in time
and collidedwith the lorry.
Emergency Serviceswere at the scene of the
accident within twenty minutes. The driver of the
second car had to be cut out of the wreckage.She
and the lorrydriverweretakento the nearesthospital.
It took firemen over two hours to remove the four
passengersin the car beneaththe overturnedlorry.All
four membersof the familywere killedin the crash.
Policeare remindingmotoriststo drivecarefullyin
bad weather conditrons."This was a tragedy which
could have been prevented,"commented Richard
Fiail,Chiefcf Police."We urge citizensto elrivewithin
the speedl i mi t,especi al l yi n bad w eathercondi ti ons. "
31
Unit3: Part1
4. (Suggestedanswer)
Pa r agr aphP lan
l n t r oduc t ion: s e t th e s c e n e - w h o , w h e re , when,
p o s s iblef eelings
(sleeping in my bed; thunderstorm)
Paragraph 2: Beforethe main event - describewhat
led up to the main event
(had a strangedream;a ghost visitedme; heard
an eeile voice)
Paragraph 3: the main event-describemain events,
more details
(the ghost's story)
C onc lus ion:end th e s to ry- fe e l i n g sc, o n s e q u e nces
(woke up; found wet patch on the floor)
(Suggested answer)
Strange Dream
I ' v enev erlik eds to rm s ;th ec ra s ho f th e th u n d erand
the suddenflashesof lightningmake me wantto crawl
under my bedsheetsand stay there until it all blows
over. That's exactlywhere I was last Saturdaynight
when the thunderstormhit. Afterfifteenminutesor
so, I beganto fal l asl eep.
At midnight,afteran especiallyloud clap of thunder, I began to dream. In my dream, I saw rain
streamingdownthe outsidesof my bedroomwindows.
Suddenly,my head leapt into my mouth as I saw a
ghostleaningovermel Wide-eyedwithterror,I heldmy
breath,too frightenedto move.Aftera few moments
I managedto croak out the words, "Whatdo you
w-w-want?"
The littleghost (althoughhe was the firstghost l'd
everseen,he seemedto be a rathersmallone) sat on
the end of my bed and began to speak. He told me
about how boring it was to be dead, how his casket
leakedeverytime it rained,and how the other ghosts
coul dpl ayqui tecruel j okeson hi m. I beganto l i ket he
littlefellow in spite of myself.
Afterwhat seemedlikean hour or so, Basil(forthat
was his name)politelysaid farewelland floatedout of
my window withouteven opening it first.
At that point, I woke up and looked around my
room,glad that the strangedreamwas over.But what
was that wet patch at the foot of my bed?
Unit 3
VocabularyExercises:Part 1 (p. 58-59)
Unit3-Part1
Warm-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 56)
(Suggestedanswer): They are rats.I don't likethem
becausethey are dirty,
(words relatedto rats) drains,sewers,rubbish,dirty,
rodents,etc.
(Suggested answer): They are rodents.They live in
sewers.They can grow very big. They develop
resistanceto poisons.
Warm-up ListeningActivity
1.
2.
3.
4.
t went y
c him panz ee
14
7,000
5.
6.
7.
8.
p l a s ti c
te l e p h o n e
6 million
1 Om i l l i o n
9 . th ree
'10.
fo u r
ReadingTask:Part1 (p. 56-57)
1. G
2.D
3.H
4.1
5.A
6.8
7.C
1 . sti rri ng : movi ngsl i ghtl Y
attempts = tries or efforts
cl ai mi ng : sayi ngsth i s true
mammal s = ani mal si n w hi ch femal egi ves bi rth t o
babi esand feedsthem on her mi l k
to adapt : to change so as to fit in with one's
surroundi ngs
sophisticated = complicated,advanced
sewer = undergroundpipe or tunnelfor carrying
waste water away
decades = periodsof ten years
antidote = sth that treatsor curesthe effectof a poison
cOnS umi ng= eati ng
equivalent = the same as or equalto
exceptional = unusual
to transmit = to pass on to sb or sth
substances = materialswith certaincharacteristics
to alter : to change
mi l d : w armerthan usual
estimated = supposed;guessed
bypasses = avoidSsth by going round it
mechanism = svstem
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
32
fuel
consistently
urban
insight
outsmart
6.
7.
8.
L
10.
neutral i se
offspring
di gest
breed
encountered
Unit3: Part 1
3. (Ssshou/dbe encouragedto memorisefhesefexfrelatedcollocationsor expressions.
f checksin the
next lesson).
1.
2.
3.
4.
s ur v iv al
to cause
to have
to pass
4. 1 . A
5.
6.
7.
8.
2.8
a means
round
explosion
nervous
3.A
9.
10.
11.
12.
to spread
fo o d
to give
members
4.8
5.C
(AfterSs have done Exercise4 T elicitslexplainsthe
meaning of each distractor.)
1 A. refuse = to s?V no (e.9. refuse an invitation)
B. deny = to sovsth is nottrue(e.g.an accusation)
C. turn down = to refusetoaccept(e.g.turn down
a proposal)
D. reject = to refuseto acceptsb or sth (e.g.reject
a suggestion)
2 A. producer : country,company or sb that
providesgoods
B. manufacturer = companythat uses
machinesto make sth
C. creator = sb who makes sth new
D. design€r : sb who plans how sth could be
made
3 A. territory : dfe? of the earth that belongs to a
particularcountry
B. region = part of a country
c. site = placewhere sth is, was, or will be
D. district = area of a country or town
4 A. r is e = ( int r a n s i ti v e v e rb )to
b e c o m eh i g h e r(e .g,
pricesare rising)
B. raise = (intransitive
verb) to move sth from a
lowerto a higher position
C. uplift = to raise (e.9.to feel uplifted)
D. arise = (of problems,difficulties)
to occur
5 A. adhere = to stick or hold fast
B. adopt = to start to use sth
C. adapt = to changesth to becomebettersuited
to sth
D. acquire = to get sth
5. 1. havea likingfor
2. Unlike
3. like
4. unlikely
5 . a l i k e*
(* alike is neverfollowedby a noun)
6. 1.
2.
3.
4.
looked like a drowned rat
smelt a rat
rat race
one man's meat is anotherman's poison
7. 1. definition
2. numerous
3. annoying
4. resistance
5, destructive
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
8 . 1 . types
2 . terms
3 . regarded
4. i n common
5. col oni es
6. w i ngs
7. species
8. tasks
Similarities - both are types of insects and live in
col oni es;thei r col oni es consi st of a ferti l e quee n,
infertilefemaleworkersand males;workersperforma
wide variety of tasks; males of both species die after
matingwith the queen.
Differences - bees are kept for honey;ants are known
for medicinalproperties;all bees havewings whereas
only queen and male ants have them.
9. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
... attemptsto savehi s l i fe ...
... to gi ve bi rth ...
... havea l i ki ngfor ...
,.. i s w orth a l ot of ...
... spreadthe message...
Follow-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 59)
(T elicitsnofes from Ss andwritesthem ontheboard. Ss
then talk about ratslooking at the table.)
rat's intelligence- most intelligentmammalafterman
and chimpanzee
how rats avoid being poisoned - warn each other
about a new poison,tastea littlebit of food in orderto
test it, rats found vitamin K to be an antidoteto
poison
size of a rat's family - one pair gives birth to ',|4
offspring - in a year one pair and its offspring can
produce 1,000descendants
their new diet - plasticrubbishfrom fastfood industry
why big business doesn't like rats - rats destroy
telephonecablesthus causingexpensivedamage
the current solution - new productthat bypassesa
rat's defencemechanismso the rat can't warn other
membersof colony of the poison.
GrammarCheck:Part 1 (p. 59)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
. . . m a y / m i g hht a v eg o n e . . .
. . . c a n ' ts t i l lb e . . .
... must have passed...
... need not have bought ...
... di dn' t need to get ...
... must not eat ...
. . .m a y s e e h e r . . .
... can' t have been ...
... may/mi ghthave been ...
. . .d o n ' t h a v et o w e a r . . .
existence
a b i l i ty
development
effective
s o l u ti o n
33
Unit3: Part2
Unit 3: Part 2
Warm-upActivities:Part2 (P.60)
(Suggestedanswer):Thetextmay be aboutchildren,
babies, etc.
.
(T elicifsfromSs variousqualitiesand writesthem on the
board, helping Ss if they can't think of any qualities.)
(Suggested answer)
imagi o bedienc e,r es p e c t,p o l i te n e s sh, a rd -w o rk i n g,
nationetc.
I t hink t hat obed i e n c es h o u l dc o m e fi rs tb e c a u sei t i s
importantfor children to obey their parents.Next I
would put politeness,because children should be
taught mannersfrom an earlyage. Then I would say
that the qualitiesof respectand being hard-working
are importantbecausethese help childrenwith their
careerswhen they grow up. I also think that imaginaiion is importantbecauseit will help a child at school
and in its privatelife.
.
Warm-up Listening ActivitY
1 .F
2.F
3.T
4.F
5 .T
6.7
ReadingTask:Part2 (P.60'61)
8.
9.
10.
1 1.
A (Ln a-6)
B (Ln10-12)
B ( L n1 7 - 1 8 )
C ( Ln 21- 24 )
1 2 . D ( L n2 1 )
13. C (Ln34-36)
14. D (Ln 43-44)
VocabularyExercises:Part2 (p' 62'63)
1. apparently - seeminglY
survey - actof questioningmanypeoplein orderto f ind
in behaviouror opinion
similarities/differences
universally - all over the world
regional - local
emerge - to come out
ranked - held a particularpositionon a scale
cultivating - encouragingsth to grow
youngsters - young PeoPle
etiquette'minded - placingimpoftanceon manners
capitalist- personwho supportsthe systemof running
a country based on makingthe most profitpossible
relatively - comParatirrelY
confronted - faced
industrious - hard-working
responses - answers
industrialized- (of countries)with a high levelof
industry
rearing - raising
2. f .
2,
3.
4.
5.
34
ins t il
bewilder in g l y
distort
relegate
ingr ained
6. indifference
7. priority
8. staid
9. contradictory
10. paramount
3. (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise these texfrelated collocationsand expressions.f cheeks in the
nexf /esson).
1.
2.
3"
4.
5.
to rai se
good
fl exi bl e
virtue
to rate
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
a sense
exception
to di stort
to cultivate
to gi ve
1 1 .t o t a k e
12. low
13. hi ghlY
4. I goes throug h the Iist and eIic itsIexpIains the meaning
of each item askingSs fo give examples using the
word(s) given).
Positive: obedience,a sense of responsibility,honesty, tolerance,a sense of imagination,respectfor
politeness,
ambition,optimism'
others,independence,
generosity,
conscientiousness
compassion,
loyalty,
Negative: conceitedness,vanity, aggressiveness,
selfishness,stubbornness,pessimism, impatience,
greed
5 . heart of stone - of sb who shows no compassion.
Negative
rotten apple - a bad influenceon others' Negative
as good as gold - very well-behaved.Positive
l ame duck - sb w ho i s w eakand unabl etodo anyt hing
by himself.Negative
to have one's heart in the right place - to mean well'
Positive
heart of gold - of sb with a very kind nature' Positive
pain in the neck - sb who is troublesomelanuisance.
Negative
wolf in sheep's clothing - sb with evil intentionswho
seems harmless.Negative
to have a level head - to be calm, sensible.Positive
wouldn't hurt a fly - of sb who is harmless.Positive
6. f .
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
impatient
polite
trouble-maker
selfish
industrious
stubborn
tolerant
8.
f.
10.
11"
12.
13.
snob
imaginative
responsi bl e
respectful
ambitious
conceited
7. (Suggested answers)
Doug is very pessimistic, he alwaysthinksthe worst
is going to haPPen.
Sam is very greedy and always wants more than his
fair share of everYthing.
Peter is sometimes aggressive when playing with
other children,and often gets into fights'
Jane is very obedient and alwaysdoes as she'stold.
Paulis very selfless; he thinks more of others'needs
than of his own.
Ann is faithful to her beliefs;she will never change
them.
Tom is ratherdishonest; don't trust him in business
affairs.
Unit3: Part3
8. f .
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
independenc e
s poilt
gr eedy
m anner ed
behav iour
effective
7.
8.
9.
10.
11 .
12.
p ri d e
conceited
tolerant
respectful
i m p o fta n c e
i m i ta ti o n
9. (Suggested answer)
Parentscan instil the quality of obedience in their
childrenby teachingthemto do whattheyaretoldf rom
an early age, and politenessby teachingthem good
manners.Parentscan teach their childrento respect
othersby settinga good examplethemselves.To
preventtheir childrenfrom becoming vain and conceitedthey should not praisethem too much on their
appearance,and should teach them to share their
belongings with others so that they don't become
self is h.
Follow-upActivities(p. G3)
(Suggested answers)
Neit hert he Danesn o rth e B ri i i s hv a i u ere l i g i o u sb el i ef.
l-{owever,
the Greeksvalue it highly.
The Britishand the Frenchvaluetoleranceetc.
GrammarCheck:Part2 (p. 03)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7"
8.
9.
10.
. . . has been pia y i n gv o l l e y b a lfo
l r ...
. . . s t i l lh a s n ' tg o t h i s . . .
. . . is it s inc es h e re s i g n e d...
. . .t im e I s aw M a rkw a s ...
. . . f ir s tt im e he' s b e e n ...
. . . c i i d n ' gt o o u t u n t i l. . .
. . . I w o u l d p l a yi n t h e . . .
. . . hav e been m a rri e dfo r ...
. . . uglies thous e l ' v e e v e r ...
. . . has been wo rk i n gh e refo r ...
Unit3-Part3
Warm-upActivities:Part3 (p. 64)
.
(Suggested answer): I don't know very much about
the lnternet,exceptthatit'sa communicationssystem.
.
(Suggestedanswer):software,communication,
computer,telephonecircuits,keyboard,screen,disk,
information,software.net. etc.
.
Warm-up Listening Activity
a. 1.
b . 3.
c. 5.
d. 7.
e. 8.
f. 10.
software
t elephone
governments
information
access
dr awbac k s
2. colleges
4. money
6. evil
9. newsgroups
ReadingTask:Part3 (p. 64-65)
1 s .G
1 6 .A
1 7 . E 1 8 .F 1 9 .B
20.H 21.1
VocabularyExercises(p. 66-67)
1. specialist - expert
develops - creates,improves
i ndi vi dual s- si ngl ehumans
charge - price asked for goods/services
net - the Internet;a system in which computer users
can communicatewith each other acrossthe world
jams - overloadsso much that sth stops working
prevent - to stop sth happening
emergencies - seriousevents,which usuallyinvolve
dangeroussituationsor accidents
create - to make sth come into existence
conference - an officialeventwherelargenumbersof
people meet to discusssth
assess - to decide on the valueof sth
gain - to obtain sth advantageous
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
operate
comprehensivepackages
i nstal l
software
screen
6. users
7. Internet
B. transmit
L overload
10" circuits
3 . (Tshould firstexplainthe words in the listthenSs do the
exercise.)
1. charge
2. fi ne
4. 1.
2.
3.
4.
3. funds
4. cost
ki ndergarten
nursery
stateschool
pri maryschool
5. bi l l
6. fee
5.
6.
7.
B.
7. payment
8. account
secondary
privateschool
graduate
post-graduate
Note:
kindergarten/nurseryschool - schoolforyoung children
state school - schoolwhere tuitionfees are paid by
the government
primary school - schoolthat a child attendsfrom the
age of 5 to the age of 11
secondary school - school that a child attends after
pri maryschoolusual l yfrom the age of 11112to 16/ 18
private school - schoolwheretuitionfees are paid by
the parents(alsopublic school) long-established
traditionalschools in Britainlike Eton, Rugby etc
5 . (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise fhese fexfrelated collocations and expressions.f checks in the
next lesson).
1.
2.
3.
4.
ci rcui ts
access
regul ated
to charge
5.
6.
7.
8.
scal e
9.
communi cati ons
10.
to create
11.
to cause
12.
to l ack
l oomi ng
to express
advantage
35
Unit3: Part4
(AfterSs have done Ex. 6 T elicitslexplainsthe
meaning of each word.)
1. v oc als - t he s i n g i n gi n a s o n g
mouse - hand-heldinstrumentused to operatea
computer
keyboard - set of keysusedto writeon a computer
disk drive - device used for reading information
storedon disks
2. network - system of computerswhich are linked
together
system - set of connecteditemsthat work together
disk- itemon whichcomputerinformationis stored
circuit - a closed system of wires through which
f lows
information/electricity
3. internet - htetnationalletwqk systemfor computer users
modem - devicewhich allowscomputersignalsto
traveldown a telephoneline
radio - devicewhich receivesand givesout radio
s ignals
telephone - device used to communicateusing a
networkof lines
4. software - computerProgrammes
disk - itemon whichcomputerinformationis stored
video - recordingof moving picturesand sound
that can be watched on TV
programme - instructionsfor making a computer
carry out an oPeration
thancan be held
5. overload- to put moreinformation
iam - to (causeto) stop functioning
clog - to block or fill with sth
destroy - to damage beYondrePair
7. 1 . B
2.C
3.A
Follow-upActivities:Part3 (p. 67)
5. destroy
3 . ra d i o
4. video
6 . 1. v oc als
2. disk
(Suggestedanswers)
l n the future,more and more j obs w i l l be done by
computersratherthan by people.Computerswill also
Carscan be driven
becomeeven more sophisticated.
automatically.Robots can be used to do household
choresetc.
.
(T eticits from Ss advantagesldisadvanfagesof the
lnternetandwritesthemonthe board.Ss fhenlookatthe
table on the board and talk about the lnternet in open
pairs.)
Advantages: standardfee, use in schools,enhance
chancesof employment,shareknowledgeand ideas.
Disadvantages:peoplespend hours on the net jamming telephone circuits,can be abused by corrupt
government,individualsoverload system, offensive
infcrmationavailable.
(Suggestedanswer)
.
GrammarCheck:Part3 (P.67)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
4.8
8 . (Suggested answer)
.
.
.
.
.
.
Although you can learna lotfrom computers,they
can be bad for your eyes.
Despitethe fact that you gainwork skills,computers can make you unsociable.
Not only can your work be done fasterand more
accurately,you can also learna lot.
Computersgive us accessto a lot of information,
and they make life easier.
on
Computersgiveus accessto a lotof information;
the other hand you can gain accessto harmful/
offensiveinformation.
You can do fast, accuratework on computers;in
addition, they can help you keep accounts.
9. '.|. outsmart
2. outweigh
36
3 . o u ts e l l
4. outlived
5. outgrown
SA.' I believe an advantageof the Internetis the
standardfee which encouragesyou to use the
net for as long as you like.
SB; On the other hand, this standardfee meansthat
some peopletake advantageof it and spend
hourson the net j ammi ngtel ephoneci rcui ts.
SA; I think, as MargaretThatcherdoes, that the
Internetmight be abused - not only by corrupt
governmentsbut also by evil individuals. etc
. . .d e s p i t eh a v i n gl i t t l e. . .
. . .d u e t o t h e b a d . . .
. . . i n a d d i t i o nt o o r g a n i s i n g. . .
...very acti veal thoughshe i s ...
. . .o n l y d i d s h e s e n d . . .
... w i th a vi ew to getti ng.,.
...w hereasTom prefers...
... both S arahand S al l Yare ...
... i n spi teof (hi s)havi ng...
Unit3-Part4
Warm-upActivities:Part4 (P.68)
.
(Suggestedanswers): I do lovefunfairs.The funfairs
in my countryare quitesmall,but some of the ridesare
modern.
.
(Suggested answers)
The Whoppie Whizzer probably goes round very
quickly.
Spooksville could be a ghost trainor hauntedhouse.
A l addi n' sMagi c Maze mi ghthavea magi cl ampor a
geni ew ho opensdoors.
The PirateShip mustbe a modelshipliketheold pirate
ones.
Unit3: Part4
Aquaspeed must be somethingto do with water and
fast movement.
Megawheel could be a big wheel with carriages.
I think the Dodgems are small cars.
R o c k ' n' Roll Ridea w a yc o u l d h a v e s o me m u s i c ,or
maybe it rocks and rollsyou.
.
4. 1 .
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
. . .c a m e a c r o s ss o m e o l d . . .
... i s hard to come by ...
... came dow n w i th a ...
... w ere to come off ...
... w i l l come out at the ...
... get her to come round ...
. . .c o m e r o u n dt o . . .
Warm-up Listening Activity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
15
14
haunted
actors
mir r or s
plastic
sails
8.
9.
10.
11 .
12.
13.
14.
deck
strength
w a te r
b i n o c u l a rs
h a l f-p ri c e
60
a rmc h a i r
ReadingTask:Part4 (p. 6g-69)
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
C
A
H
D
C
27.c
28,29.D, E (inanyorder)
30,31.F, G (inanyorder)
32,33.A, B (inanyorder)
34,35. E, G (inanyorder)
VocabularyExercises:Part4 (p. 70)
1. thrilling - very exciting
spins - turningmovements
haunted - with ghosts
literally - actually,really
senseless - to the point of hysteria
corridors - passageways
portholes - windows,usuallyround, on the side of a
ship or aircraft
attendants - peoplewho watch and take care of others
at a swimmingpool etc
supervise - to vrratchsb/sth making sure everything
i s d one pr oper ly
negotiate - to get over or past (an obstacle)successfu l l y
muscle - part of the body that can be tightenedor
relaxedto producemovement
end up - to reach a point etc by lengthyprocess
showered - heavilysprinkled
spectacular - impressiveor dramatic
bang - to hit sth
track - a road made of a pair of parallelrails
stretch - a straight part of a track, road etc
2. 1. mast
2. snooze
3. w h i z z i n g
4. g ra b b e d
5. bouncy
6. swinging
3. (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise fhese texfrelated collocations and expressions.f checks in the
next lesson).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
st om ac h- s pinn i n g
to f ind
to judge
b r ain
to perform
to make
7.
B.
9.
10.
11 .
12.
risk
starry
to beat
i n fl a ta b l e
p a i ro f
wonderfulview
5 ' (AfterSs haye done Ex. 5, T elicitslexplainsthe
meaning of each distractor.)
1.A
2.8
3.D
4.D
5.C
1. A. translucent = allowinglightto pass through
(not transparent)
B. opaque = flot allowinglightto pass through
(eg wall)
C. froste6 = (for glass)opaque by giving it a
frostlikesurface
D . transparent : allowinglighttopassthroughso
that things behind can be seen
2 . A . cheer = make sb feel happy
B . entertain = receivesb as a guest
c . have fun = enjoy
D . celebrate : enjoy oneselfon a happy
occasion,eventetc
3 . A . invigilatoy= pefson presentat exam to make
sure it is conductedproperly
B . supervisor - personwatchingto make sure
sth is done properly
C. caretaker : janitor(personemployed)to look
aftera buildingetc) (eg school caretaker)
D. attendant = person providingservicein a
public palce (eg museum attendant)
4. A. spray = Sefldout liquid in tiny drops
B. splash : (of liquid)fly about and falt in drops
C. drizzle = rain in many fine drops
D. showe; = (of rain,sleet,hail) brieflyfall
5. A . sol o = by onesel f
B. lonelY = havingno friends
C . al one = on one' s ow n
D. lonesome = lonely
6 . ni ghtcl ub:dance
leisure centre : play a game of squash
circus: see the flyingtrapezeartists
amusement arcade: play video games or pool
ci nema:see a fi l m
funfair: take a roller-coaster
ride
youth club: meet otherteenagersfor socialactivities
Other suggested places of entertainment:theatre,
disco, pub, restaurant,concert hall, opera house,
sports stadium,exhibitioncentre.
(Suggested answer): I enjoy going to the funfair
because there's a varietyof activitiesto choose from
like roller-coaster
rides,big wheelsetc
37
ExamFocus:Unit3
Follow-upActivities:Part4 (p. 70)
(Suggested answers)
I'd preferto go on the dodgems.I lovetrying to drive
and crashinginto the other cars.The other rides
would make me feel sick.
F or an adult , l' d re c o mme n dth e M e g a w h e e ll.t' s fun
and she/hecould get a greatview of the city.
For a five-yearold I'd recommendthe pirateship. lt's
safeand fun for children.Theirparentscan leavethem
without worrying.
For a teenager, I'd suggest Whoopie Whizzer or
Rock'n'RollRideaway.They are fast, excitingrides.
ExamFocus- Useof English:Unit3 (p. 71)
Part 2
' 1 . point
2.
3.
4.
5.
touch
were
be
either
6.
7.
I.
9.
10.
11. did
1 2 . s u ch
'13.
only
1 4 . o th e r
1 5 . w h erever
keep/get
who
means/forms
since
on
Part4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
up
much
,/
been
no
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
it
,/
tar
so
,/
,/
made
./
of
to
Prepositions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
of
to
to
of
f or
of
int o
8. to
9. w i th ,
on/about
10. i n
11. w i th
12. w i th
13. i n
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
o f/a b o u t
fo r
of
to
about
fo r
at
21.
22.
23.
24.
at
on
for
from
ExamFocus- Listening:Unit3 (p. 72)
(Part 3 is a multiple matching exercise based on a
series of five shortrelatedexfractsof about 30 seconds
each, from monologues or exchanges betvveeninteracting speakers. Ss /lsten, making a first choice of
answers. Then they listenagain searching for specific
words related to the options.)
19.8
38
20.E
21.A
22.C
23.F
Part 3
Youwill hearfive peopletalking about personalappearance. For questions19-23,choose from the listA' F
which of the statemenfsappliesto which speaker.Use
the lettersonly once. Thereis one extraletterwhich you
do not need to use.
Speaker 1: To be honest,I'm a bit put off by peoplein
high fashion or flashy clothes. lt's personalitythat
countsforme.I' m happyw i ththew ayI l ook.Mycl ot hes
are comfortable,in my own style,and I neverchange
either.l'm fatterthanthe magazinesand modelsseem
to thi nkI shoul dbe. I' venevertri edto i mpresspe ople
with my body - always with my soul. That's what I
respectin others,too.
Speaker2: The human body is an art form - one of the
most wonderfulones I can think of. So why not treatit
with the respect it deserves?Man has always decoratedthings - it's a basic human expression.Humans
are literallypretty as pictures- so why wouldn't you
choose clotheswhich are just as pieasingto look at?
That' sal lfashi oni s tryi ngto do - al thoughI thi nkit 'sf ar
too commercial.But I don't believein followingfashion
stereotypes- it's importantto be well-dressed,rather
than fashionablydressed.
Speaker3; I lovedressingup - | feel so good in smart
clothes.I liketomakean impressionon people.And it's
betterif l'm with a well-dressedgroup - I feel stronger
somehow,more confident.My clothesare me - what
at
you see i s w hat I am. I don' tthi nki t' ssmal l -mi nded
all. Peoplepay attentionto smart,flashyclothes,and
I want that. Who says cars are more interestingthan
clothes?Yet I know people who'll talk about cars for
hours- spend loadsof moneyon them and treatthem
l i kea person!
Speaker 4; lt's not that I particularlygo on appearances- but the restof the world seemsto. I don't have
a particularpoint to make - and I can't really tell
anythingfrom others.I want to look acceptable- and
attractive,but I find it's a headachethinking about
stylesand coloursall the time. So I'm quite happy to
follow fashion,and presentthe image that the world
seems to like. I mean - it saves me from doing the
thi nki ng.I buy w hat' si n the shops- and i f I' m no t sur e
I ask my friends.I mean- we allconformwhetherwe like
it or not anyway.
Speaker 5; Well - | presentmyselfin whatevermanner
for w hat I' m doi ng - or - sh ouldI
I thi nk i s appropri ate
say - who I'm with. You see, I believethat a person's
choice of clothing,hairstyleor whatever- all tells a
story.I meanwe knowthereis body language,that our
movementstell things about us. These are all visible
signs- so is appearance.lt meanssometimesappearing in a way I'm not comfortable.But, I mean,if I need
to see the bank managerabout a loan, I can't turn up
in my favouritescruffytracksuit,can l?
ExamFocus:Unit3
Exam Focus - Speaking: Unit 3 (p. 73)
.
Parl2
(Suggested
answers)
Pictures
A andB
.
Picture A shows a group of friends having a meal
together.Picture B shows people dancing.People
in both picturesseemto havea nicetime.Theymay be
celebratingsomething.
I spend my free time watching televisionor playing
basketballwith my friends.
Peoplein my country entertainthemselvesby going
out to eat with friends,or going for coffee.
Some people go to the cinemaor the theatre.
Spendingtime with my friendsoffersme the chanceto
get out of the houseand to havefun. Also,it helps me
to relax and forget everydayproblems.
.
The closing remarks for formal letters are: yours
sincerely + full name if we know the name of the
recipientor Yours faithfully + full name if we do not
know the name of the recipient.
Thesalutationin a friendly letter is Dear + first name
(eg Dear Ralph)
(Suggestedendings for extracts 1, 2, 3)
1. I am deeply sorry that I will not be able to attend
the reception.
Yours sincerely,
Jane Smith
2. l'm sorryI won't be ableto be there.Enjoyyourself.
Yours,
Steve
3. I trustthe situationwill improveand I hope that this
w i l l not happenagai n.
Yours faithfully,
Tom Brown
Pictures C and D
Picture C shows a bear in captivityand picture D
shows a cougar in its naturalhabitat.The bear looks
unhappybeing behindbars.The cougarenjoysa free
lifestyle. Of course the bear is protected from all
possibledangers,whereasthe cougar has to survive
on its own.
I would preferto see an animal in its naturalhabitat
becauseit would be happierand behavemore
naturallythan an animal in a zoo.
I think the animal in picture D leads a happier life
because it is free to live the way it wants to instead
of being in a cage.
Keepinganimals in captivitycan be beneficialwhen
they are an endangeredspeciesbecauseit means
that they can breed and be looked after so that they
don't become extinct.
ExamFocus- Writing:Unit3 (p.74)
Letters
They are taken from varioustypes of letters.
Letter No 1 is a formal letter refusing an invitation.
Letter No 2 is an informalletterrefusing an invitation.
It is writtenin a chatty,friendlystyle.
Letter No 3 is a formal letter of complaint. lts style
is mild.The complaintis expressedin a mild manner.
Letter No 4 is a formal lettergiving advice.
Letter No 5 is a formal letterof application,
LettersNo 1, 3, 4 and 5 are formal letters whereas
LetterNo 2 is informal compared to the other letters.
The recipientis addressedin aformal letterwithDear
Mr/Mrs + surname (eg Dear Mr Miller)or Dear Sir/
Madam if we do not know the name of the recipient.
.
(Suggested beginnings for extracts 4, 5)
4. D earMr Jones,
I am writingin referenceto your letterof June 15
i n w hi ch you enqui redadvi ceabout ...
5. Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to apply for the post of Staff
Manageradvertisedin yesterday'sObseruer...
Tips for Writing Letters
lf you write to a friend of yours, or to your brother/
sister/cousin/niece,
you addresshim/herusingDear
and his/her name (e.9. Dear Tom, nol Dear Friend;
Dear Mary, nol Dear Sisler"c r Dear Sister Mary). lf yo u
writetoan aunt/uncl€Gf ,rs11ys,
you addresshim/her
using Dear + kind of relation + name, e.g. Dear
UncleTom,notDearUncle.lfyou writeto your mum,
dad, grandpa or grandma,you writeDear + kind of
refation (e.9. Dear Mum, Dear Grandma, not Dear
Mum Mary,DearGrandmaAnn).Informallettersif you
know the nameof the recipientyou sign usingYours
sincerely and your full name. lf you don't know the
nameof the recipient,you sign usingYours faithfully
and your ful l name.
39
ExamFocus:Unit3
(T can make a transparencylphotocoplesof this table for students'reference).
Formal letter when we know the name of the
recipient
Formalletterwhen you do not knowthe nameof the
recipient
2 Swan St.,
B ri ghton,
England.
5thSeptember,1996
(youraddress)
3 Ap p l e St.,
B ri g h to n .
2 n d A u g u s t,1 996
(youraddress)
Al lan S m it h,
PersonnelManager,
Sun Com pany ,
35 Oxford St.,
L ondon.
(the recipient'saddress)
The Manager,
The H i l tonH otel ,
11 2 ,S e a nR u e ,
P ari s,
France.
(the recipient'saddress)
Dear M r S m it h,
Dear Sir/Madam,
Yourssincerely,
MaryStevens
Yoursfaithfully,
James Robins
lnformal letter
Semi-formalletter showing respect for the recipient
with whom you are on friendly terms
33 StuartAve.,
C ul ts,
A berdeen.
5th November,1996
(youraddress)
5 CastleSt.,
Glasgow.
1 7 thO c to b e r,1996
(youraddress)
DearMr/MrsJones,
D earJi m,
Love/Regards/Bestwishesffou rs,
Sally
rs,
wishesfYou
Love/Regards/Best
Sue
* Rememberthat it is not necessaryto write addressesin the FCE Exam.
1. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
1 2.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
2 0.
40
F - complexsentencestructureand vocabulary
F - formal language
| - pronounsomitted,zappy style
F - formal language
- use of shortforms,colloquialexpressions
- short zappy style, chatty
| - use of short forms
F - no use of short forms
F - impersonalstyle- formal language
use of colloquialEnglish,chatty
colloquial,use of phrasalverb
- use of shortforms
- chatty
chatty, use of short forms
F - formal language
F - complexsentencestructure
F - non- c ollo q u i aEl n g l i s h
l nglish
t - pr onounso mi tte d ,c o l l o q u i aE
l nglish
t - pr onounso mi tte d ,c o l l o q u i aE
F - use of PassiveVoice,formal language
2 . 1 . m o d e l1
2. model 1
3. model2
4. model 1
5. model2
6. model 1
7. model 2
B . model2
3. Dear SiriMadam,
1. B - reasonfor writing,state problem
2. D - firstcomplaint(strong,showingdissatisfaction)
with justification
3. A - secondcomplaint(showingdissatisfaction)with
justification
4 . E - t h i r dc o m p l a i n t
5. C - demand for action
Yoursfaithfully,
Janet Barns
ExamFocus:Unit3
4. Letter a (formal)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
apologis e
6.
D ue t o
T.
be in attendance
B.
I have been intending g.
contact
10.
gency,the crew would have been totallyunprepared.
In addition,when the food arrived,it had not been
properlyheated.Apartfrombeingunappetising,
this is
extremelydangerous,as inadequateheatingcan result in severefood poisoning.
As I travel by plane frequently,I will seriously
reconsi derusi ngE agl eA i rl i nesagai nunl essthe si t uation improves.
u n d e rg re a tp re s sure
l hope
in the nearfuture
cordialdiscussion
I look forward
Model a
Paragraph Plan
Paragraph 1: reasonfor writing (clearup misunderstanding)
Paragraph 2: development(explainsituation)
Final paragraph: closing remark(suggesta second
meeting)
Yoursfaithfully,
HeatherBriggs
6 . (Suggestedanswer)
Dear Patrick,
I'm writingjustto sayhowsorryI am aboutthedelay
in payingyou back the money I owed you. I feel really
guiltyabout it but there was nothingelse I could do.
My bosspromisedme my wageswouldbe paidinto
the bankon Friday.Unfortunately,
the moneydidn,tgo
i n unti lMondaymorni ng,so I coul dn' tpay you bac k
unti lthen.
Anyway,I hopeyou willacceptmy apologyand that
you'renot angrywith me. I hope I didn'tcauseyou too
much i nconveni ence.
W hy don' t w e go out to di nne r
one eveningthis week? l'll give you a call during the
week to arrangeit.
Letter b (informal)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
say how sorry I am
B ec aus eof
make it
I've been meaning
get in touch with
6.
7.
B.
g.
10.
so stressedout
Hope
real soon
pleasantchat
I'm lookingforward
Model b
Paragraph Plan
Paragraph 1: reasonfor writing (apology)
Paragraph 2: development(explainreasonwhy
missedwedding)
Finalparagraph:closingremarks(arrangea meeting)
5. (Suggestedanswer)
Best wishes,
Melissa
7.1.E
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writingto complain about the quality of the
serviceand food I receivedon EagleAirwaysflight711
from Londonto Madridon 12thJune.
The crewweretotallyindifferent
to the passengers.
A fellow passenger,an elderlyman, requiredassistance and repeatedly pressed the call button. He
receivedno attentionwhatsoever.I happenedto turn
roundand sawthreemembersof the crewsittingatthe
back of the plane, chatting and smoking! | find this
behaviourunacceptable.Had there been a realemer-
2.A
3.D
4.c
5.C
6.8
7.F
Dear Sir/Madam,
p a r a g r a p h1 - s e n t e n c e E
paragraph2 - sentencesA, D
paragraph3 - sentencesG, C, B
paragraph4-sentenceF
Yoursfaithfully,
Kenneth Brown
T is advised to go through the following tables fo see the tanguage usedand the difference in formal and informat tetterwriting according to each type of letter.Remind Ss thaf semi4ormat styleis a combination of formal and informal
writing. T can ask Ss to think of any opening and closing remarksfor each type of letter.T can ask Ss to think of any
opening and closing remarks for each type of letterbefore he does Ex. 8 or after having done Ex. 8. Some useful
opening and closing remarks for lettersare:
Lettersof invitation
OpeningRemarks
ClosingRemarks
Formal
we would be honouredif you;l cordiallyinvite we would be gratefulif you could;we hope to see
you to; your presencewould be appreciated you; pleaseindicatewhetheryou will be able to
at; you are invitedto attend,etc.
attend, etc.
In fo rm al
I ' mwr iti n gto i n v i tey o uto ;w h y d o n ' ty o u come
and s pe n ds o m e ti me p
; l e a s ec o me to ;I ' d l ove
it if you could come to, etc.
I' d l oveto see you agai n;I hope you' l lbe abl eto
make it; pleaselet me know as soon as possible;
I'm lookingforwardto, etc.
41
ExamFocus:Unit3
Acceptingan invitation
ClosingRemarks
Opening Remarks
Formal
lwo u l db e d e l i g h te dto ; l w o u l db e to honoured I look forwardto seeingyou, etc.
to; I am writingto acceptyour kind invitation,
etc.
lnformal
l' d lo v eto c o me ;th a n k sfo rth e k i n di nvi tati on; I can't wait to see you again; until next Saturday
t he ...y o u i n v i te dme to s o u n d sl o vel y;I' d be then, etc.
glad to, etc.
Refusingan invitation
OpeningRemarks
C l osi ng R emarks
Formal
of; I hopeto be
It will be impossiblefor me to attend;I am afraid I am sorryto missthe opportunity
to meetyou at a laterdate,
I am unableto fit it into my schedule;I haveto giventhe opportunity
refuse;Due to other commitments,etc.
etc.
lnformal
I'mafraidI can'tcome;I'msorryto tellyou;I'd It's a real shame; I hope we can get together
loveto comebut;I'm sorry| can'tmakeit;
some other time; I'm sorry to; how about next
I won'tbe ableto come,etc.
week instead,etc.
Askingfor information
OpeningRemarks
Closing Remarks
Formal
I am writingto inquireabout; could you
possiblysend; may I request;I would be
gratefulif; could you pleasesend me further
details,etc.
lwould appreciateit if you could informme as soon
to receiving;it would be
as possible;I lookforuvard
of great help if you could fax me the details,etc.
Informal
can you send me; let me know; can you tell
me (if),etc.
let me know;tell me soon;send me the details,etc.
Givinginformation
42
OpeningRemarks
ClosingRemarks
Formal
I am writingto informyou about; in replyto
your query;the followinginformationis what
was requested;I am pleasedto be able to
assistyou in your enquiries,etc.
I hope that I havebeen of some helpto you; ltrust
that this is the informationyou require;please
informme if I can be of any further
assistance,etc.
lnformal
this is what I found out; I hope this is the informationyou were lookingfor; this is what
you asked me about, etc.
I hope this will help you; let me know if you need
any more hel pfi ndi ngout about;I' m gl ad I coul d
hel p you, etc.
Exam Focus: Unit 3
Lettersgivingdirections
Op e n i n g R e m a rk s
Closing Remarks
Formal
I have enclosedsome directionsand a map;
in case you do not know the exact locationof
t he, ..;I h a v ei n c l u d e ds o me d i re c tions;i f you
followthe directionsbelow/mapbelow...,etc.
Informal
in case you don't know the way l'll give you
I hope you understandthe directions;I hope that
some directions;hereare a few directions,so you can find your way alright;pay attentionto the
y ou d o n ' tg e t l o s t;l ' l l te l ly o u h o w to g et there; directions;my directionsshouldn'tbe too difficult
jus ta q u i c kn o teto te l ly o u h o wto g e tto...;l ' ve to follow.etc.
writtensome directions,and drawn a map to
help, etc.
I trust that you willfind these directionshelpful;I
hope that you are able to followthe directions
given, etc.
Applicationfor a job
OpeningRemarks
Formal
ClosingRemarks
I am writingwith regardto youradveftisement; I would appreciatea replyat your earliestconvenI would like to apply for the post of, etc
ience; I look forwardto meetingyou to discuss
the possibilityof employment;pleasecontactme
regardingany queries you may have, etc.
Lettersof apology
Remarks
Opening
Formal
I am writingto apologisefor; I must apologise
for; Pleaseacceptmy sincerestapologiesfor;
How can I apologiseenoughfor; I must apologise profusely
Informal
ClosingRemarks
Wordscannotexpresshowsorry| am;I hopeyou
willacceptmyapologies;
I hopemyapologies
were
received,
etc.
for, etc.
I hope you will understandwhen I say that;
Whatcan I say,exceptI'm sorrythat; l'm sorry
for; I owe you an apology:I'm so sorryif I upset
you in any way; I can'tdescribehow sorryI am
and how guilty I feel, etc.
I hope you believeme when I say how sorry I am;
I can't tell you how sorry I am; I beg you to forgive
me for; There is no excusefor...andI hope you'll
forgiveme, etc.
Lettersof complaint
OpeningRemarks
ClosingRemarks
Strong
I wasdisgusted
by; lwas extremely
appalled I fullyinsistyou replacethe itemat once; I demand
at;lwanttoexpress
mystrongdissatisfaction,you fully refundmy money, etc.
etc.
Mitd
I am writingto complain;I had been led to
belie v e Y
; o u r ... i s u n a c c e p ta b l eI;c oul dn' t
believethat, etc.
Nevertheless,
I hope/assumeyou will replace;I
trust the situationwill improve;I hope the matter
will be resolved,etc.
43
ExamFocus:Unit3
Lettersaskingfor advice
Opening Remarks
C l osi ng R emarks
Formal
I am writingto ask for your advice;Could you
possiblyofferyour advice;I would be grateful
if you could offeryour advice;Could you
pleasegive me your advice,etc.
I would appreciateit if you could give me your
adviceas soon as possible;I look forwardto
receivingyour advice;lt would be of great help if
you could adviseme, etc.
lnformal
I'm writingto askfor your advice;Canyou give
me your advice;Give me Youradvice
about, etc.
Give me your advicesoon; Send me your advice
soon;Y our advi cew oul d hel p me a l ot, etc.
Letters giving advice
C l osi ng R emarks
OpeningRemarks
Formal
I stronglyrecommendthat; I would suggest
that; I believethe best courseof action is;
I w o u l d a d v i s ey o u to , e tc .
I trustyou willacceptthisadvice;I hopethiswill be
of help; I would very much liketo know if this was
helpful/hasbeen of some use, etc'
lnformal
lf l w e re y o u ; H o w a b o u td o i n gth i s;W hYdon' t
you; Let me give you some advice,etc'
Hope this helped;Let me know how it went, etc.
Lettersexpressingthanks
Closing Remarks
OpeningRemarks
Formal
I am writingto thankyou for; I wishto thankyou
for. etc.
I wouldliketo
yourthoughtfulness;
I appreciate
re
expressmygratitude
; Your thoughtfulgift/gestu
etc.
greatly
appreciated,
was
lnformal
I ' m w ri ti n gto s a yth a n k sfo r;T h anksso much
for, etc.
How nice of you to think of me; Thanks again; I
won't forget your kind gesture,etc.
Lettersexpressingregret
OpeningRemarks
ClosingRemarks
Formal
I regretto informyou that; lt is with regretthat
I must informyou about, etc.
I cannot expresshow much I regret;Shouldyou
need any assistance,I would be happy to, etc.
lnformal
I'vegot somebad newsforyou;
Unfortunately,
I ' m w ri ti n gto te l ly o u s o me b a d n ew s;l fi nd i t
hardto tellyou that; I can'tfind an easyway to
tell you this, etc.
Words can't expresshow much I regret;lf you
need anything,I'd be glad to, etc.
Lettersexpressingcongratulations
OpeningRemarks
44
C l osi ng R emarks
Formal
I am writingto congratulateyou; I want to
etc.
expressmy congratulations,
I wishyou allsuccessin yourfutureendeavours;
I am confidentthat you will carryout your new
etc.
dutieswithconscientiousness,
lnformal
I'm writing to congratulateyou; Let me say
on...,etc'
co n g ra tu l a ti o n sC;o n g ra tu l a ti ons
I' m happyfor you; Good for you!; Y ou shoul dbe
so proud of yourself,etc.
ExamFocus:Unit3
8. 1. F formal - letteraskingfor details/information
Appropriate language:/ am writing(fullforms)
complex sentencestructure.I look forwardto
receiving
2. G informal- letter accepting an invitation
Appropriate language.,Thanks;woutd love to;
Let me know (chattystyle)
3. D informal- letteraskingfor advice
Appropriate language: l' m writing(shortforms);
Pleasetell me (chatty style)
4. E informal- letter of apology
Appropriate lang ua ge:l'm writing (shortforms);
How about...; Letme say...(chattystyle)
5. B formal - letter of invitation
Appropriate language: you are invited (passive voice); We would be honoured (,formal
language)n, o n -c o l l o q u i aEl n g l i s h
6. H informal- letterof thanks
Appropriate language I'd lke (shortforms);
Thanksagain (chatty styte)
7. C formal - letterof complaint
Appropriate lang uage: I am writing ...(tullforms);
I demand a full refund (strong manner of com_
plaint,complexsentencestructure)...
B. A friendlylettertellingthe news
Appropriate langua ge you won,tbelievehow ...
(short forms); Anyway; worked out, to take
you for a spin; (colloquialEnglish,chatty
style,phrasalverbs)
9. (Suggeted letter of application)
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writingto applyfor the positionof touristguide
which was advertisedin TheWeeklyTimeson Monday,
J u l y5 .
I graduatedfrom Weston College in 1gg0,with a
degree in Tourismand Marketing.While at Weston,I
travelledextensivelythroughoutEurope.I am a fluent
speakerof French,Spanishand German.
My current position is Senior Tourist guide in
Madrid,Spain with Cosmo Tours.t have been with
Cosmo for two yearsand have also worked in Seville
and Barcelona.My duties have includedtransferring
passengersto their hotels, organisingand leading
excursionsand dealingwith a varietyof queries.I have
e n clos edm y C. V . an d w o u l d b e g l a d to s u p p l y a ny
additionalinformationwhich you may need. I would
very much like the opportunity to work with your
company.
I look foruyardto hearingfrom you soon.
Yoursfaithfully,
An n D o b b s
10 . 1 .
2.
3.
4.
D - r eas onf or w ri ti n g(p a ra1 )
B - descriptionof event (settingscene) (para2)
A - descriptionof event (para3)
C - closingremarks (Finalpara)
11. a. giving details/information- formal
D earMr H i ggi ns,
I am writing to give you the informationyou
requestedabout the photographyschool...
... I hope that I have been of some help to you.
Pleaseinformme if I can be of any further
assistance.
Yourssincerely,
Jeremy Barking
b. (Before doing "b", T is advised to elicit useful
phrases for giving directions from Ss. Use fhe
suggestions below to help fhe sfudents.)
Some useful phrases for giving directions are:
Turn left/rightat ...i Go straight...; Bear left/
ri ght ...;Go al ong ... unti lyou reach...,etc.
giving directions - informal
DearJosie,
I thought l'd better drop you a line giving
directionsto my house for the party on Saturday
...You shouldn'thaveany difficultyin findingit,
but if you do, just give me a call.
See you then.
Love,
Bess
c. letter of apology - informal
DearJack,
ljust wantedto drop you a lineto say how sorry
I am for the way I behavedlastThursdaynight...
... Of course I know this doesn't excuse my
dreadfulbehaviour,but I do hope you can forgive
me.
Yours,
Jim
d. letter of invitation - informal
DearTina and Tony,
How are you both? Hope you're well. I am
writingto inviteyou to our wedding receptionon
May 23 at 6 pm. ...
We're lookingforwardto seeingyou, so let us
know if you are able to come.
Love,
Jamesand Mi l l y
e. letter of advice - formal
D ear Mi ss S ul l i van,
Thank you for your letter.I would suggestthat
you finishingyour universitystudiesshould be
yourfirstpriority.Afterobtainingyour degree,you
will have the opportunityto pursue other activities...
... I trustthat you will acceptthis advice,as I am
confidentthat if you concentrateon your studies,
you will succeed.
Yoursincerely,
Professor
Sutton
45
ExamFocus:Unit3
f. letteracceptingan invitation- informal
DearSusan,
...'
Thanksforthe kindinvitation
Untilthe 19ththen'
baby.
the
see
to
wait
can't
We
...
Love,
Mary
12. Model A
Dear Sir/Madam,
wrongstyte;[email protected]?|
on the 26thApril.I'm
in Ihe Obseruer
lettershoutd /"'
aOvertisement
reiO yo.-ur
be formal
interestedin the auto exchangeschemeand I'd be gratefulif yg
you
could send me moredetails.I havesome question
part of the
information
is missing
uses shorf forms
throughout the letter
missing information
toanswer
you
Do
I want to exchange my car for a new A9!9t
have Japanesecars?
t hasonl Ydone 130,000ki l ometres
andit,singoodcondition.l,da|so|iketoasr.UsesSamewords
as in the nofes
accepted. How old does my car haveto be? l'd be happyto send
photosand maintenancerecordsof my car if thiswould helpyou'
I'm lookingforwardto your reply.Thanksin advancefor your
h e l pa n d a d v i c e .
wrong ending,
full name needed
with Yours,carl (informal)'lt is also
Model A is bad becauseit startswith Dear Sir/Madam(formal)and it finishes
in the letterexactlythe same way as
vague about the detailswhich are required.The notes given have been used
are also used throughoutthe
forms
in the advertisement.part of the informationgiven hasn-'tbeen used. short
letter.
Model B
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing with regard to your adveftisementin The observer on April 26.
Any fuftherinformationyou could send me about your auto exchangescheme
would be greatlyappreciated.However,I would be gratefulif you could answer
givesall
a few questionsI have.
needed
I am interestedin exchangingmy car and purchasinga new Honda Civic'
information
you accept
\
\
\
\
I would like to enquireas to exactlywhat kind of car is required.Do
cars that are more than ten years old? Does your company accept all makes'
includinqGermancars?
has covered
I have a 1986 red OPel
same
the
to
i choose any make or am I limited
kilometr
130,000
includes information
from the rubric in the
writer's own words
Yours faithfullY,
Carl Briggs
the style of a formal letter'Each
Model B is good as it asks for specificinformationin a clear manner.lt follows
has been included,expressedin the writer's
paragraphhas a topic and all informationprovidedin the advertisement
own words.
46
ExamFocus:Unit3
Paragraph plan for Model B:
paragraph 1 - reason for writing
paragraphs 2, 3 - detailedquestions/information
frorn rubric
final paragraph - closing remarks
13.
1. !
2.c
3.a
4.9
5.e
6.h
7. d
B.b
(Suggested Opening Phrases)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
I am writingto expressmy dissatisfaction
with ...
I'm writingto say how sorry I am ...
I wish to apply for the positionof ...
... f'd fove it if you could come to ...
. . . I ' m af r aidI c a n ' t c o m e ...
I would be gratefulif you could send me more
informationabout ...
g. You requestedthe followinginformation...
h. . . . T hanky o u fo r th e k i n d i n v i ta ti o n...
three morningsa week lastingfour hours each lesson. Try not to choose Saturdayas it gets very busy
on the lake.
The instructorsare all well-qualifiedand are very
helpful.Thereare only five studentsin each classso
you get a lot of personalattention.
You will be provided with a lifejacketand sail_
boatsof course.Theyare quitesmall,but this makes
sailinga lot easier.The price of the course is only
t120, w hi ch i s not expensi ve.
Anyway,I hope l've answeredall your questions.
Good luck with the course.Let me know how it's
going!
Best wishes.
Karen
(Suggested Endings)
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
hope the matterwill be resolved...
beg you to forgiveme for ...
would appreciatea reply at your earliesl
nvenience.
I'd love to see you again.
hope we can get togethersome othertime.
. . . s end m e t h e d e ta i l s...
... I trustthat this is the informationyou require.
... I look forwardto seeingyou at ...
2.
3.
4.
1 4 . (Suggested answer)
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to express my strong dissatisfaction
with my recentstay at the Grange HealthSpa.
Contraryto your advertisement'sclaim that guests
would be offereda selectionof meals,we had to make
do with the same poor-qualityfood every day.
Moreover,I was appalledto find that the ,'luxury
suite"I was promisedwas, in reality,a small room
with barelyenough space to move around.In addition, the only view from my window was of the
hotel'scar park.
On leavingI was alsochargedfor drinksI had had
in the bar, even though your advertisementclearly
statesthat the pricewas all-inclusive.
Furthermore,I
also had to pay extra for an aerobics class I took.
I insiston some compensationfor my experience
or I will be forced to take this matterfurther.
Yours faithfully,
Ma rk Sma l l s
1 5 . (Suggested answer)
Dear Brian,
Thanksfor your letter.I'm glad you'rethinkingof
ta k inga s ailingc o u rs e .I' m s u re y o u ' l le n j o y i t.
Letme tellyou a few thingsaboutthe course.First
o f all, I ' d r ec om m e n dd o i n g i t i n J u n e a n d J u l y,
otheruiseit can be very cold.The lessonstake place
formal - letter of complaint; strong complaint - letter of complaint - literarystyle
(eg Neverbefore...)
Appropriate language; I wish to express
my dissatisfaction,
I insistthat my money
be refundedat once, I no longerwish ...
D
informal - refusing an invitation;short
forms,col l oqui alE ngl i sh
Appropriate language: Thanksfor, I'm
reallysorry I can't ...
B
informal - letter of congratulations; short
forms, zappy
Appropriate language:Congratulations,
I'm
so happy,good l uck ...
E
formal - letterof application;complexsen_
tences,non-col l oqui al
E ngl i sh
Appropriate language:lam writingin refer_
ence to your advertisement,
I am including
my C.V.,I am availablefor an interviewat
your earliestconvenience.
A
formal - letter of apology; complexsentences,non-colloquialEnglish
Appropriate language: I must apologise,I
regret,accept my most sincereapologies.
- informal
narrative-descriptive
letteracceptingan invitation- informal
lettergiving information- informal
letterof application- formal
letterasking for advice - formal
letterof complaint- formal
16. 1. C
5.
17. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1. (Suggestedanswer)
Dear Mike,
I'm sorry that I haven'twrittenfor so long, but I'm
onlyjustgettingbackto normalafterspending
a month
in Africa on safari. lt was a fantastic holiday, but
certainlynot one that I would recommendto the fainthearted.
It was a great adventure but a bit scary at times.
Nearthe end of the secondweek we weretravellingin
Land Roversacross a huge wildlife reservewhen
suddenly,out of nowhere,a huge rhinoappearedand
chargedat the group in the firstcar. Luckily,it missed
47
ExamFocus:Unit3
the car, but onlyjust,and then chasedus for aboutfive
minutesbeforegivingup. We were all so shockedthat
we forgot to take any pictures.The guides thought it
was all extremelyfunny,especiallyas it was meantto
be a photo-safari.
Apartfrom that one incident,everythingwent very
smoothlyand I took some great shots of hippos and
crocodilesduring a three-dayboat trip up the river.
Anyway,l'll tell you all about it when I see you.
R e g a rd s ,
Matthew
2. (Suggested answer)
Dear Stuaft,
It was a wonderfulsurpriseto hearfrom you again
after so many months. I'm pleased to accept your
invitationto go skiing at the weekend. I've already
startedto wax my skis and shop for a new ski jacket!
Your suggestionof going to Loon Mountainis an
excellentone.l'veheardgreatthingsaboutitsbeautiful
tr ails and long, w e l l -g ro o m e dru n s . l ts s k i l o d ge i s
reputed to be on a par with those at the great resorts
in Switzerland.
I'm very much lookingforwardto seeingyou again.
Let'smeeton the 5th at 10 am at the bottomof chairlift
#2.We'll catchup on eachother'slivesas we go up the
mountain.and then race to the bottom!
S e e y o u th e n ,
Tim
3 . (Suggested answer)
Dear Hans,
I ' v ef oundt he i n fo rma ti oyno u a s k e dm e fo r,l ' l lgi ve
you all the details when you come to see me next
month, but here'sa summaryin the meantime.
Three area institutionsoffer post-secondarybusinessprogrammes.CavendishCollegeis herein town,
but it is known more for its medicalcoursesthan its
commercefaculty.
The Universityof Thwipp is about an hour away by
train.lt has about 300 businessgraduateseveryyear,
and is said to be top-notch.One drawbackis its cost:
tuition is about t5,000 per year.
The Googol School of Businessis probablyyour
town,is inexpensive,
bestbet.lt'sa half-hourwalkfrom
and offersa wide varietyof businessand economics
courses.
Hope this is of some help. See you next month!
Love,
Heidi
4 . (Suggested answer)
Dear Sir,
I am writingin responseto your advertisementon
forthe positionof Junior
May 1Othin TheSundayTimes
Reporter,for which I wish to aPPly.
I believethat I have the proper qualificationsand
experiencefor the post advertised.I worked on my
school'smonthlymagazine,where I becamethe edi-
48
tor. At OxfordUniversityI was also a reporterworking
for the weeklystudentnewspaper.BeforeI graduated
from Oxfordwith a degreein Journalism,I took a oneyear sabbaticalworkingfor a small local paper.I was
responsiblefor coveringmajorlocalevents,as well as
writinga weeklybusinesscolumn.I alsowrotevarious
articleson travel and tourism, and home improvements.
I have enclosedmy CurriculumVitae,which gives
full detailsof my previousexperienceand educational
qualifications.I am availablefor an interviewat your
earliestconvenience,and I look forward to meeting
you to di scussempl oymentopportuni ti es.
Yoursfaithfully,
Jason Green
5. (Suggested answer)
Dear Mrs Brown,
I am writingwith regardto my son's behaviourat
school recently.I would liketo ask for your adviceon
the matter.
As you know, Darren has had some problems
adjustingto life at high school. He appearsto have
stopped doing his homeworkand has become very
disruptiveduring his classes.His teachers have all
complained about his behaviour and say that he
disturbsthe other students.I can't understandthis
suddenchangein behaviour.Darrenhas alwaysbeen
such a well-behaved,hard-workingboy in the past.
I have tried to talk to him but he is unwillingto
discusshis problemswith me or hisfather.SinceI have
never had any complaintsabout my son's behaviour
before,I am not sure about what I should do.
I would be gratefulif you could offer me your
advice.I look forwardto your reply.
Yours sincerely,
Jane Baton
6' (Suggested answer)
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to complain in the strongestterms
about the roadworkswhich have been in progress
outsidemy housefor the lastfour weeks.
The noise is intolerable,starting at eight in the
morning and continuing until five in the afternoon.
Moreover,there has been no attemptto tidy the area
around the works and there are bricksand piecesof
wood all overthe street.This has resultedin unnecessarydelaysin traffic,notto mentionthe inconvenience
this causesto pedestrians.
As a localtaxpayerI am disgustedto see my money
being spent in this way. Although the roadworks
should have been completed weeks ago, workers
keep loiteringaround,makingno attemptstocleanthe
area or finishthe project.
of the councilcome to
I insistthat a representative
inspectthe roadworksimmediatelyto seewhat can be
done to improve this situation.I look forward to a
prompt reply.
Yours faithfully,
Thomas Brown
Unit4: Part 1
Unit 4
Unit4-Part1
Warm-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 82)
.
(Suggestedanswers)
They'rein Egypt.Everyone
thinksslavesbuiltthem.
Pharaohs
wereburiedinside.Manytourists
visitthem.
.
(Suggestedanswers)
- camel-Egypt- King- build- slaves
pyramid
- mummy
- sphinx- Pharaoh,
etc
.
Warm-upListeningActivity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
archaeological
m em or ial
daught er
storehouses
g r ain
w is dom
a lien
apocalypse
L
10.
11 .
12.
13.
14.
15.
to m b
body
tools
million
taxation
re l i g i o u s
architects
ReadingTask:Part 1 (p. 82-83)
1 .C
2.F
3.8
4.D
5.G
6.H
VocabularyExercises:Part 1 (p. 84-85)
1 . d i stinc t iv e- unique ;s p e c i a l
instantly - immediately
construction - act of buildingsth
speculation - act of theorisingabout sth
o ri g i n - s our c e
storehouses - placeswherethingsare kept for future
use
wisdom - deep knowledge
road sign - sign on road that gives directionsor
instructions
alien - creaturefrom anotherplanet
converted - changed
chambers - rooms
latter - the last of two things mentioned
evidence - informationthat may prove sth
entire - whole
mud-brick - of wet earthor clay made into blocksand
d ri e d
advance - improvement
era - period of time
workforces - groups of peoplewho work
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
d ev is ed
evolution
wicked
mem or ial
mult it ude
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
mu n d a n e
traced
g ra i n
fa m i n e
attributed
3. (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise these fexfrelated collocations and expressions.f checks in the
nert lesson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
to foresee
speculative
to capture
to bri ng
to lead
doubt
master's
B.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
ski l l ed
si gni fi cant
to underesti mate
deceased
widely
appoi nted
archaeological
4. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
l ocati on
construction
undoubtedl y
achievement
i mpressi ve
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
ori gi nal l y
Transportation
technological
certainly
archaeologists
5. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
. . .I c a n p u t u p w i t h. . .
...to put me throughto ...
... put fonvardhi s opi ni on...
... put the fi re out/putout the fi re ...
... put asi deour di fferences...
... put off goi ng to the ...
... to put across my ideas .../toput my ideas
across...
6. 1. monuments
2. compared
3. w hereas
4. memory
5. templ e
6. of
7. (T should go through the cues with the Ss and explain
any unknown words. Then Ss work on their own. Ss
report back to the c/ass.)
(Suggested answer)
The Colosseumis in Rome,ltalywhereasthe Kremlin
is in Moscow,in the former SovietUnion.The Colosseum i s obvi ousl ymuchol derthanthe K reml i n- i t w as
bui l t i n B 0 A .D .,w hi l ethe K reml i nw as bui l tfar more
recently.The Colosseumwas used as an arena for
gladiators,whereasthe KremlinhousesRussia'scentralgovernmentoffices.Thetwo constructionsarealso
very differentin terms of shape; the Colosseumis a
circularamphitheatremadeup of rowsof arches,while
the Kremlinhas many minaret-shaped
towers and is
surroundedby high walls.In terms of buildingmaterials, the Kremlinwas built using red-colouredbricks,
and the Colosseumusing large stone blocks.
8. a) 1 . custom
3. ceremony
2 . habit
4. tradition
b) 1 . monument 2. civilisation 3. culture
Follow-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 85)
(Suggested answers): I think the pyramidswere
probablylibrariesfor the Egyptians.They had an
advancedcultureand would have wanted to preserve
their knowledge.Maybethey werejust builtfor decoration.
49
Unit4: Part2
Tomb of Mausolus
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
HangingGardensof Babylon
Colossusof Rhodes
lvory/Goldstatue of Zeus (Olympus)
Pharos,Alexandria
(T elicitsinformationfrom Ss and writesiton the board.
Ss, fhen, look atthe notesand talk aboutthe Pyramids.)
Theories: Greek,Medieval,Arab, Modern
History of Construction:amazingachievement,
organisedworkforces,used buildingramps/copper
and stonetools,more than two millionblocksmoved.
The workers: popularbeliefthat they were slaves,or
bound by religiousduty, now believedthat they did it
as a form of taxation.
(Suggested talk)
Hello.Today'stheme is the Pyramids.Let'slook at
theirhistory.Thereare manytheoriesaboutthereason
the Pyramidswere built.The Greeksbelievedthat the
first pyramid was constructed as a memorial to the
wicked King Khufu'sdaughter,while during medieval
times they were believedto be warehousesfor storing
grain. Arab philosophersthought they were libraries
for preservingEgyptianscientificand medicalwisdom.
Moderntheoriesrangefrom the pyramidsbeing used
as predictivedevices, to a theory that the pyramids
were constructedby aliensas a road sign!
However,if they were builtby humans,then it was
an amazing achievement,especiallybecause they
usedsuchprimitiveequipment,suchas buildingramps
and copperand stonetools.The popularbeliefusedto
be that the workerswere slavesor builtthe pyramids
out of religiousduty,but it is now believedthatthey did
so as a form of taxation.
:
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
GrammarCheck:Part1 (P.85)
of
about
towards
to
to
7.
8.
f.
10.
11.
./
'/
into
,/
with
12. from
13. for
14. to
15. /
(Suggested answer)
I thinkbeingableto trustsomeoneand talk aboutyour
problemsand feelingswith them makesa realfriendship.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
hel pi ngi n ti mesof cri si s
sharingsecrets
enjoyingthe same hobbies
seeingsomeoneregularlY
knowingsomeonea long time
buying each other Presents
(Suggestedanswer): lthink men and women expect
differentthingsfrom theirfriendships,women wanting
friendsthey can talk to on an emotionalleveland men
wantingpeopleto do things with. All people do however want to be with people they can trust and whose
companythey enjoy.
Warm-up Listening Activity
1.F
2.F
3.T
4.T
5.F
6.F
ReadingTask:Part2 (P.86-87)
7.
8.
9.
10.
C (Ln 5-7)
C (Ln16-18)
C (Ln13-15)
D (Ln 22-23)
1 1 . B ( L n2 9 - 3 0 )
12. A (Ln 34-36)
13. C (Ln 47)
VocabularyExercises:Part2 (p.88-89)
1. mates- friends
proportions- size
well-stocked- fullof suPPlies
- reddish-PurPle
plum-coloured
take
registryoffice - an officewherecivilmarriages
place
misplacing- losingtrackof
inseparable- veryclose
factor outcome
irony - unexpected
meaningful- fullof purpose;significant
mutually- together
kick in - to startto havean effect
squeezedout - replacedbYsth else
fulfilment
purred
launch
qualify
reunion
Unit4 - Parl2
.
3. (Ss shou/d memorise these text-related collocafions
and expressions.T checks in the nexf /esson.,)
50
(Suggested answer): These men look as if they're
very close friends.They could even be brothers.The
group in the secondpicture(p.87) lookas thoughthey
could be fellowstudentsat university.I thinkthatthese
peopleare friends,sharingthe same interestsdespite
their race and religiousbeliefs.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
convert
cram
flounder
afflicts
maintenance
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
to play
vi cti m
fri ends
to form
purring
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
to make
emotional
to cram
well-stocked
to serve
11.
12.
13.
14.
to l ose
to go out
to talk
to get to
Unit4: Part3
4. 1. bosom buddies - very closefriendse.g.Peterand
Jack are bosom buddies; they teII each other everything and spend alltheir time together.
2. friends in high places - said of sb who knows
important,influentialpeople e.g. My fatherhelped
me to get a job in the company where he works, as
he has friends in high places.
3. fair-weatherfriend - personwho is friendlyonly
when things are going well.e.g. Joe turnedout to
be afair-weatherfriend; as soon as I startedhaving
problems he stopped ringing me.
4. make friends - becomefriendse.g"Sa//ymet Ann
on the first day of school and they made friends
immediately.
5. a friend in need is a friend indeed - a true friend
is one who helpswhen times are hard e.g. Chris
sfood by me throughoutmy ordeal; in this case the
saying "a friend in need is a triend indeed', is
definitely true.
5 . 1. compatriot 3. acquaintance
2. mate
4. companion
6. 1 . D
2.8
7 . 1 . out with
2 . in with
e thr ough
3.8
4.D
5.A
4. for
5. off
6. o n /u p o n
8 . 1 . r ewar ding
2 . s t r ongly
3 , Undoubt edly /
Doubtless
4 . ionelines s
5. isolation
6. warmth
7. intimacy
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
(Suggested answer)
We're great mates.I've known Nigel tor 17 years.We
usedto go for drinkstogetherand we playedin a band.
When he had problems,he slept on my sofa and had
the run of my house.He used my car for his
weddingtoo. Once he was married,we neverhad time
to meetor go out,eventhoughwe liveneareachother.
There wasn't any argument.Now, we have to really
make an effortto meet,but I stillconsiderhim a close
fri end.
GrammarCheck:Part2 (p. Bg)
6.C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
i0.
7 . b e h i n dw i th
B. apart
re l a ti o n s h i p
security
c o n s i d e ra b l y
faithful
trustworthy/trusting
p e rs o n a l
c o n fi d e n c e
(As an extension T can ask Ss to draw their famity tree
and talk about it.)
. . .c a m e a s a s h o c kt o . . .
. . . he f ell v ic t imto ...
... got to the point where/that...
. . . r egar dshim a s ...
... have lost contactwith ...
Warm-up
Activities:Part3 (p.g0)
.
(Suggested answer): I think the text is about the
problems society faces due to unemploymentand
povefty.
.
(Suggested answer): dole, redundancy,sack, fire,
boredom, applicationform, unemploymentbenefit,
poverty,work, factory, cutbacks, etc
.
(Suggestedanswer):
The main causesof unemploymentare:
- a bad economicclimate
- advancedtechnologyreducingthe number of
workersrequiredfor a job
- over-populationin many cities
- people under/over-qualified
for many jobs
- lack of skilledworkersto operatenew technology
(Suggested answer)
Friendshipis very importantto me becauseit's nice
to havesomeonetoconfidein and shareyourthoughts
and feelingswith.I once had an argumentwitha friend
becausehe borrowedmoney and didn't pay it back.
I felt he had taken advantaqeof me.
. . .a p o l o g i s e d
f o r b e i n g. . .
... compl ai nedthat S am neverdi d ...
... agreedthat the dressw as ...
... accusedTi m of taki nghi s ...
... w arnedher not to be ...
... encouragedher to take part ...
... begged hi m/hernot to l eave...
... advi sedher to go ...
... admitted(to) havingeaten ...
. . .s u g g e s t e dg o i n gt o t h e . . .
Unit4-Part3
Follow-upActivities:Part2 (p. 89)
.
(T elicitsinformationfrom Ss and writesit on the board.
Then Ss talk about their friendship with the writer.)
How long we've known each other: friends tor 17
years
Things we used to do: go to pub, play in band
Ti mes I' ve hel ped hi m: put hi m up w hen he had
nowhereto stay, lend him a car at his wedding
How we lost touch: he got marriedand was busy - we
didn't tall out or argue
5. partner
6. associate
9 . fri e n ds hip:pal, boso m b u d d y ,c o m p a n i o nfri
, end
work: acquaintance,colleague,partner,workmate,
associate,boss, employee
fa mily : s on, hus ba n d , c o u s i n , w i fe , a u n t, b ro th er,
mother-in-law,
spouse,stepsister,widow, niece,
u n cl e,nephew
10. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
.
.
Warm-up Listening Activity
1. T
2.F
3.T
4.r
5.F
6.F
51
Unit 4: Part 3
a) apply for: earn money, interestedin particular
subject,etc
b) resign from: low wages, unsociablehours,find
a more chal l engi ngj ob, etc
c) are fired from: do sth wrong, embezzlemoney,
constantlybe late,leaveearlierthan they should,
etc
d) are promoted to: work hard and efficiently,etc
e) retire from: reachage limit,etc
ReadingTask: Part 3 (p. 90-91)
1 4 . A 1 5 .|
1 6 .G
1 7 . 8 1 8 .H
20.E
1 9 .D
VocabularyExercise:Part3 (p. 92-93)
1 . growth - expansion;act of gettingbigger
global - relatedto the whole world
inequality - situationin which not everybodyis
treated in the same way
poverty - the conditionof being extremelypoor
rapid - quic k and s u d d e n
heightened - increased
industrialised - having a developed manufacturing
system
wealth - possessionof a large amount of money/
propefty etc
poses - brings up, causes
rate - level
raw materials - untreatedsubstances/ coal, oil etc
labour - workers
immigration - the movingof peoplefrom one country
to anotherto settledown permanently
skilled - havingbeing trainedto do a particularjob
supplies - gives sth
ret r aining- t eac h i n gs b n e w s k i l l s
reduced - lower in output,amount etc.
policy - plan of action
goal - what one wants to achieve
structured - organised
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
boom
s ur plus
fund
out put
5.
6.
7.
8.
9 . tra d e
10. in the lurch
a s s e mb l e
conducive
asseft
q u a d ru p l e
3. 1 . wage,s alar y
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(Suggested answer)
SA; I think that peopleapply for jobs to earn money,
and to have somethingto do.
SB; Yes,and also becausethey may be interestedin
a particularsubject,and wantto work in thatfield.
SA; That could also be a reasonwhy people resign
from a job, to do a differentjob thatthey are more
interestedin.
SB; Yes.Theymightalsobe firedfor doingsomething
w rong.
SA; Or promotedbecausethey do very good work.
SB; You have to put in a lot of effortto get promoted.
SA; I agree.
SB; Peopleretirefrom theirjob when they havedone
it for a long time and have reachedan age when
they don't haveto work any more.
SA; Yes. In that case,they will receivea pension.
8. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
9. 1. unemployed
2. gradually
3. employer
temporary,full time, permanent
ear nings per
, ks
g a i n ,p ro fi t
ex pendit ur e,
gain,annualin c o me
wor k ,win
7.
B.
L
10.
11,
12.
raw
to decrease
to pose
to raise
f igur es
to earn
5. 1 . ' f
2.a
3.d
4.b
1 . af t er 2. beh i n d
boom
developing
job
unskilled
manufactured
to cut back on
5.e
3. on
6.g
7.c
4. out of
7 . (T elicitspossib/e reasons and writes them on the
board, fhen Ss work in closed pairs. f asks some pairs
to report to the c/ass.)
52
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
nightshifts
flexitime
chi l d care
cl ock i n and out
pay and condi ti ons
(AfferSshavedone Exercise8T can askSs to coverthe
textand remember as many words as posslble related
to the theme "work.")
4. government
5. daily
6. choi ce
(AfterSs have done ExerciseI T can ask Ss to cover the
brt and remember as many words as possible related
to the theme"unemployment'eg on the do\e,unempIoyment benefit, etc and explain them.)
4 . (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise fhese texfrelated collocations and expressions.f checks in the
nert lesson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
impression
curri cul umvi tae
qual i fi cati ons
interview
shift-work
Follow-upActivities:Part3 (p. 93)
.
(Before Ss prepare their talk, f goes through the
causes and solutions and explainslelicitstheir
meaning giving examples if necessary.)
e.g. T: Why is cheap labour in developing
countries a cause of unemployment?
SA: Because an employer would prefer to
employ sb who asks for /ess money than
sb who asks for what the stafe says.
Unit 4: Part 4
GrammarCheck:paft 3 (p. gg)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
. . .f or f ear of be i n g m a d e ...
.. . s o t hat m one yc o u l d b e ...
.. . in or dert o s a ti s fy...
.. . t o av oidf allin gb e h i n d...
.. . wit h a v iew t o p ro v i d i n g.,.
... preventthe government(from)reducing...
U n i t4 - P a r t 4
Warm-upActivities:part4 (p.g4)
Note:the paintingon p. 94 in the S's book has been paintedby CamiflePissarroand the other
on p. 95 in the S,s
book has been paintedby AugusteRenoir.
'
(T draws the following spidergram on the board and eticitsfrom Ss as many
words as possible relatedto the
theme "museum."T helps Ss wrlh types of museumsi/Ss' knowtedge is tim1ed.)
old ships, battledescriptions,submarines,
photographs,machines
statues,paintings,
metals,coins,
ceramics,
fossils,minerals
M A RI T I M EM U S EU M
N A TION A LMU S E U M
coins,statues,
tapestry,
weapons,jewellery
armour,weapons,medals
ARCHAEOLOGICAL
MUSEUM
W A R MU S E U M
MUSEUM
old scientificinstruments,
mo dels ,f os s ils ,m in e ra l s
chi l dren' sgames,ol d dol l s,
teddy bears,model trains
S C I E N C EM U S E U M
TOYMUSEUM
FOLKMUSEUM
N A TU R A LH IS TOR YMU S E U M
pottery,traditional
clothes
dinosaurbones,fossils,minerals
(Suggestedanswer)
TheGrahamSutherlandGallerymustcontainart and palntings,
or perhapssculptures.
TheMuseumof welsh
woollen Industryprobablyshowsthe historyof the Welshwooltrade.The National
Museumand Gallerymust
exhibit
thingsto dowiththecountry's
heritage,
suchasoldcoins.TheRomanLegionaryMuseummighthaveRoman
soldiers'uniformsand Romancoins.TheWelshIndustrialand MaritimeMuJeummust
havemachines,
trains
andships.
Warm-upListeningActivity
1 . d r awings
2 . sc ulpt ur e
3. work
4. weaving
5 . e x h i b i ti o n
6 . 4 ,6 0 0
7. two
B . tour
53
Unit4: Part4
ReadingTask:Part4 (P.94-95)
21,22.A, D (inanYorder)
29.E
24. E
25. D
26. C
27. A
28,29.B, E (inanYorder)
30'
31'
32.
33.
34'
35.
D
E
D
c
A
A
VocabularyExercises:Part4 (p. 96)
1. works - paintings,drawingsetc
token - sign
houses - contains
contemPorary - modern
sculpture - shapesor figuresmodelledin stone,clay
etc
crafts - traditionalhandiwork
accessed - reached
located - situated
mounts - displays
spinning - methodof makingthreadfromfleece,using
a rotatingwheel
weaving - method of making cloth
dyeing - changingthe colour of sth
fleece - sheeP'swool
trails - paths
settings - sites
tracing - describingthe developmentof sth
fossils - rocks marked with the imprint of ancient
creatures
minerals - chemicalsubstancesformed naturallyin
the gr ound
fortress - ancient castle
garrison - soldiersdefendingthe town they are stationed in
discounted - offeredat a lower price
prior - previous
maritime - naval;havingto do with the sea
transPorted - carried
waterfront - area beside the sea
2. (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise fhese fextretatedcollocationsand expressions.r checks in the
nexf /esson.)
9. to be
10. i l l ustrate s
11. outstanding
1.
2.
3.
4.
hi stori cal
to recei ve
open-air
to satisfy
5.
6.
7.
8.
to sP ark
admi ssi on
aspects
to obtain
3. 1.
2.
3.
4.
Visitors
variety
exhi bi ti on
famous
5.
6.
7.
8.
resemblance 9. attractions
10. memorable
historical
rel i gi ous
monarchY
4. 1. knitted
2. embroidered
3. sewed
4. stitched
5. woven
5. 1. fossil
2. statue
3. woven
4. i ndustry
5. ancient
6 . b . sculpt- sculPtor- sculPture
entertain- entertainer- entertainment/show
d . sing- singer- song/music
e . compose- composer- music
f. write- writer - novel/storYetc
g . weave-weaver-cloth
h. draw-artist-drawing
i . makespottery- Potter- vases etc
j makeswoodenobjects- carpenter- tables/chairs
etc
- musician- music
k. playsin an orchestra
l. writespoetry- poet' poem/poetry
- photographs
m. takesphotos- photographer
n. appearson the stage actor performance/play
Follow-upActivities:Part4 (p. 96)
pairsand T checks. Finallysome pairs report
I eticitsinformationfrom ss fo filt in the table.ss then, work in ctosed
to the c/ass.)
LOCATION
EXHIBITS
OTHEREVENTS
A
HaverfordWest
prints,sculPtures,
drawings,
children's
crafts,photograPhY,
work
talks. lectures,visits
B
Dre Fach Felindre
craft workshops
weavingand dYeing
spinning,
in action,
machinery
demonstrations,
followfactorytrails
evolutionof WalesjourneY
artlsciencedisplaYs,BronzeAge,
coins, early Christianmonuments,
fo s s i l s ,c e ra mi c,si l ver,coi ns,
mi n e ra l s
c
54
D
lsca
s o l d i e r' sw e a pons,R omanfi nds
you can exploreold Romantheatre
E
Cardiff'sdocklands
shiPs,trains,
workrngmachinery,
othervehicles
tour, chi l dren' s
mi ni -rai l w ay
activitiesin holidaYPeriods
ExamFocus:Unit4
(Suggestedanswer)
A; Goodmorning.GrahamSutherland
Gallery.
CanI
helpyou?
B.' Yes,please.Couldyou tellme wherethe gallery
is exactly?
A: Certainly.lt's fivemileseastof Haverford
West.
B,' Thankyou.Whatexhibitsdo you have?
A; Well,youcanseeSutherland's
drawings
andprints
and work of appliedart.
B; Lovely.ls thereanythingelse?
A,' You can seecontemporary
paintingsand scutpture,crafts,photography
and children's
work.
B: Thankyou verymuch.
.
(Suggestedanswer)
- the machines
MuseumE soundsinteresting
actually
workandtherailway
tourmustbefun.I wouldn'tfancy
MuseumB as I'm not reallyinterested
in wool.
ExamFocus- Useof English:Unit4 (p. 9Z)
Part 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
more
about
so
how
on
, . . 1 : , ,,: ,
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
,
o u rs e l v e s
matter
what
course
were
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
part3
ta k e
over
those
because
mind
.. .,
::,
(Part 3 consisfs of 10 discrete ifems with a tead-in
sentence and a gapped response to complete using a
given word. Grammar and vocabulary are tested in this
pad. Ss read the lead-in sentence and the given word
and think how it can be used grammatically in the
gapp ed response,then wr itetheir an swers,keep ing the
meaning similartothatof the lead-in sentence.Ss haye
to keep in mindthatthey mustusetwotofivewords (the
givenword counts)tofillinthe second sentence.Ss reread their final answers, checking for correct spelting
and grammaticalaccuracy.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
. . . y o um i n di f l b o r r o w e d . . .
... hardly/barelymake out ...
... sooner had he leftthan ...
... is believedto have acted ...
... is out of wor k ...
... in t he habitof ta k i n g ...
... would have been allowedto ...
... advisedme to break ...
. . .t o b e d o n e u p . . ./ d o i n gu p . . .
... needst o be c h a n g e d...
Prepositions
't.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
L
9.
10.
11.
to
in
into
from
to
oflto
with
in
in
with
in(to)
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
on
in
in/between
into
with
in, with
for
from
on
for
for
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
for
to
on
to
at
from
of
to
on
ExamFocus- Listening:Unit4 (p. 98)
::
(Part 4 is a monologue or text involving interacting
speakers and lasting approximately 3 minutes.Ss /rsten
noting down any answers they are sure abouf. Ihen Ss
listenagain checking the answersthey have written and
writing the answers to the remaining questions.)
24. W
25. 1
26. |
27. W
28. J
29. J
30. J
Part 4
You wiII hear a radi o discussion b etween an i nterui ewer,
a family psychologist,(Wendy Fletcher)and Joanne
Clark (a mother). Answer questions 24-30, by writing t
(for lnterviewer), W (for Wendy Fletche) and J (for
Joanne Clark).
lnteruiewer Todaywe are discussingthe age at which
women decide to start a family. And with us in the
studiowe have a psychologistat the ElmhurstHealth
Centre, and Joanne Ciark - mother of two young
children.Now Wendy - more and more women these
days are choosing to have their children later - and if
there is one thing likelyto generateheateddiscussion
it's a woman startinga family in her forties.
Wendy: Well, where there is choice there is thought
and discussion.There was a stigma attachedto the
older motherdue to healthrisks- but withthe advances
in medical care there is no reason for this now.
lnteruiewer; But the risks do increasewith age, don't
they?
Wendy: Yes - but medical science is well able to take
care of that now, and to advise a mother beforehand.
lnteruiewer.' Does it matter how old a mother is? I
mean,some people seem to suggestthat older
women just haven't got what it takes to be a good
mother.
Wendy:We reallymust dispelthe ideathat if you follow
the rules in societyyou will be doing the right thing.
People will accept a new mother of eighteen more
easilythan one of forty-four,but there's no reasonfor
it. There are good and bad parentsthe world over.
55
ExamFocus:Unit4
Interuiewer.'Well,let's hear what Joanne Clark has to
say about that.
Joanne: Well, after nearlytwenty years of travelling
with my husbandwe decidedto settledown and
have a family.I was in my fortiesand I hearda lot of "Oh, you won't have the energyto go chasingyoung
ch ildr enar ound"a n d th i n g sl i k eth a t.We l l ,I w o u l dn' t
have had the energy when we were forevermoving.
But the peacefuland settledlifewe havemakesup for
whateverenergy I might have lost over the years.
lnteruiewer.'Now, being an older parent must bring
other rewards.
Joanne: Yes - peoplesaidthatwhen the childrenwere
twenty I would be the grand old age of sixty-odd,
But I think that the years have helped me - | don't get
nearlyso wound up about littleproblemsas I did
twenty years ago.
lnteruiewer;Are there any drawbacks?
Joanne: Well- | mustsaythatothermothers- at school
a nd s o on - don' ta l w a y si n c l u d eme i nth e i rc h a t,or ask
me to come along with them. I often haveto makethe
first move. And I don't alwaysfind things in common
withveryyoung mums.But it was stillthebestdecision
I've ever made.
lnteruiewer Well - thank you both very much for
talkingto us. lf you'd liketo give us your viewson the
(fa d eo u t).
subjec tpleas ewri tei n to ..........
ExamFocus- Speaking:Unit4 (P.99)
Part 3
(Suggested answer)
SA; The firstthingthat I would put in the time capsule
wouldbe the computer,becausecomputersplay
a large role in society today and it would be
importantfor historiansof the futureto knowthis.
, n d th e s a m eg o e s fo rth e te l e vi si on.
SB : Y es ,I agr ee a
SA; The video recorder should be put in as well
becausepeopletoday spend as much time
watchingvideos as they do watchingTV.
SB; Another item that should be put in the time
capsuleis the cassetterecorder.
SA; Yes, music is definitelyan importantpart of our
livestoday,and so are books,so they should be
put in t oo.
SB; Yes. I'd put the fax, too. I think it would show
historiansof thefuturemoreclearlywhatour lives
are like today, and how advancedour technology is .
SA; Well,I don't think this is quite important.I would
also put some picturesof current affairs.
SB; That'sa very good idea,indeed.That'sthe best
way for them to see our life nowadays.
SA: How about some newspapers,as well? etc
56
Part4
(Suggested answers)
.
.
.
.
Yes, I enjoy learning history because I like
learning about my ancestors and how they
lived.
SB; Youcanalsoseehow peopleprogressedthrough
the years.
SA.' The study of history is important because we
can learnfrom mistakesmade in the past so
that we don't make them again in the future.
helps
SB; Yes,and knowingabout historicalevents
today.
happen
that
things
to
understand
us
SA.' I think that people in the future will definitely
learnabout certainwars such as the GulfWar
as these have been the big events of the degade.
SB; Yes,and they will probablyalso learnaboutthe
problemswe are havingwith pollution- they
may even still be affectedbY them.
SA; Theymightalsolearngreatsportingevents,like
the Ol ympi csand the W orl d C uP .
SB; Yes,these eventscould stillbe taking place in
the future.
SA.' I think that life500 yearsfrom now will be very
different.So much will have changedthat the
world will be a totallydifferentplace.
SB; I agree, but I think that there is a chance that
therewill havebeena nuclearwar,whichwould
leaveno survivors.In that case the earthwould
be a burnt-out,desertedPlanet.
SA.'
ExamFocus- Writing:Unit4 (P. 100)
Essays
Argumentative
(Note:Ss areadvisedto buy a dictionaryof quotations,
e.g. The MacMillan Dictionary of Contemporary
Quotationsby Jonathon Green).
(Suggested answers)
(T deals with picturesas explained in the first unit.)
Picture A - Reasons
Yes I agree: both old and young learnto livetogether,share,compromise;young peoplecan benefit
from the advice of the older family members;young
peoplecan helpthe elderlyby doing choresfor them;
companionshipand supportfor both old and young,
etc
No, I don't agree: conditionof old age can burdenthe
in dealingwithold
young;the young areinexperienced
people'sailments;mutual invasionof privacy;older
peoplewantpeaceand quiet,whileyoung peoplewant
an active life, etc
Exam Focus: Unit 4
Picture B:
Arguments for: working mothersprovidethe familywith additionalincome;work gives mothersa feelingof
i n d e pendenc e
and s e l f-c o n fi d e n c th
e ; e i rc h i l d re nl earnto be more i ndependent
Arguments against: working mothers become over-burdenedwith too many responsibilities;
they only see their
childrenfor a few hours each day; they must pay for expensivechildcare;childrennot properlyraised
Picture C:
keep public aware
of eventsall over
the world
newspaperscan be used
in the classroomas they
providecurrentinformation
smallereventsare not
publicisedbecausemight
not be seen as newsworthy
s o c i a l v i e w poi nt
keep the publ i c
informedabout changing
economictrends
economicviewpoint
the informationin newspapers
is not alwaysreliableor
correct
the role of
the free press
mis-reporlingan event or overemphasising
insignificantdetailscan have negative
effectson business
political viewpoint
revealsthe truth about
politicians'intentions
articlesmight not be objective
becausethe newspaperfavours
a certain politicalparty
1 . Mo del A
u s e o f l i n k i n gw o rd s
use of
quotation
givesexamples
to support
statements
Competitionhaslong beenthe
ng forcebehindimprovementsin areassuchas world
much can be said againstthe desireto come
first.As BernardHunt.
s h j o u rnal i st
experiencedit, you cannot do without it."
"Winningis a drug. Once you have
is that it can encouragedishonesty.
Denan-Oparlvantageof competition
the largenumbersof athleteswho are disqualifiedfrom eventsevery
year for havingtaken harmfuldrugs to improvetheir performance.Politicianshave also
been known to be untruthfulwhen they want to win an electionso much that they will lie
to get votes. In industry,the competitionto produce more goods at cheaperpricesis so
givesthe other greatthat it can leadcompaniesto open factoriesin poor countrieswherethey can exploit
side of the
employeesby makingthem work long hoursfor low wages.
argument
eans that athleteshave to make the greatest
effortthey can, which is an excitingthing to watch.Becauseof competitionin the political
arena,politiciansare encouragedto makevisibleimprovementsto the countryin an effort use of
sequenc r ng
to gainvoters'support,whichin the end benefitseveryone.
€Iallylompetition in
words
inOustlyf,nGi)lead to lower prices,which is undoubtedlybeneficialfor consumers.
consumers
uSeSgenera|-Toconc|ude,competitionha|thoughitcanresu|tin
dishonestyand exploitation,its benefitsoutweighit\rawbacks and has a positiveeffect
on many aspectsof our lives.Moreover, the com
spiritis alwayswith us, and is
difficultto control,howeverhard one tries.
givesa balancedconsideration
of the topic in the conclusion
isations
Model A is good becauseit is writtenin a formal styleand is well-organisedinto paragraphs.Each paragraph
developsone specificaspectof the topic. The use of a quotationin the first paragraphis effective.The concluding
paragraphsums up the issueeffectively.
The vocabularyused is not overlysimple and linkingwords are used
appropriately.
Linking words: however,on the other hand, becauseof, finally,to conclude, etc
57
ExamFocus:Unit4
Model B
y,
use of
short forms
toovague
waYs?
ompetitionis good. In some ways competitionis bad.
and sports.
*l''en it makesthingsbetter,suchas business
\ \ t Agood
,
whenit hurtsPeoPle'
useof
\$ibad
is bad if it makespeoplenottellthe truth,e.g.politicianr
Competition
strong
:
Dersonal *
.-...--------:------:
expression,@thatdon,tte||theu,,nfee|ings
strong
to make them run faster.etc.
overgeneralisation
as thrown off the track team at schoolfor taking such drugs.
The whole world knows that this is bad for their bodies.Factoriestry to compete
pay lousywages to poor people in poor countries.
personal too much when they
good
because athleteswant to get better at spotts
Competitionis
examples
and politicianstry to make their countriesbetterand factoryproducts
blind reference
get cheaper.
to
statistics
,/
,.__________._
has its good and its bad side
,@ompetition
"nc @,i.)prove that competitionis beneficialand harmful.
grves
inappropriate
veryinformallanguage,
for argumentative
essays
style.Use
emotion(eg."l hatethem!")whichis inappropriate
ModelB is bad becauseit includesobviouspersonal
("thewholeworldknows")
("lousy")
arenotrecommended.
Overgeneralisations
shouldbeavoided.
ofslanglanguage
whichlacks
("Someone
"Soyousee").Paragraph
3 consists
of onelongsentence
I know...",
Thestyleistoo personal
linkingwords,andsequencing
properpunctuation.
Theparagraphs
areshortandarenotfullydeveloped.
Quotations,
wordshavenot beenused.
Paragraphplan
Introduction:statetopic
it, you cannotdo withoutit.";
paragraph2: arguments
is a drug.Onceyou haveexperienced
against("winning
- athletes/drugs,
politician/lie,
of the poor).
industry/exploitation
encourages
dishonesty
competition
likeworldtradeand sports
paragraph3: arguments
is the drivingforcebehindimprovements
for (competition
tryto improvecountry
performances;
makethe greatestefforttheycan;politicians
athletesmustriseto a challenge,
in industryleadsto lowerpricesfor consumers)
to gainvotes;competition
wordsor expressions
of opinionwithoutuseof personal
Conclusion:balancedconsideration
2. 1 . d
a
2.c
3.a
4.b
Techniques for first paragraphs:
1.
2.
3.
4.
s t at ean opini o n
addressthe readerdirectly
referto a strange situation
startwith a problemthat needs a solution
Techniques for last paragraphs:
a. statea personalopinionand give the reader
somethingto consider
b. give the readersomethingto consider
c. end with a quotation
d. summarisethe composition
g p ini ons
1 . ex pr es s ingop i n i o n s
3 . e x p re s s i n o
4. providingsolutions
2. advantages/disadvantages
(Suggested titles)
1 . Dis c iplineis t a u g h ta t h o m e
2. Technology moves forward
58
3. Fireand police departments;vitalto society
4. Rubbish- where should we put it?
3. 1 . c
2.e
3.b
4.t
5.d
6.a
4. Paragraph plan
Introduction:statetopic
paragraph 2: arguments for (children learn to be
independent from early age; woman provides extra
wage; woman has a personalsenseof her own identity
and self confidence)
paragraph 3: argumentsagainst(childcareis expensive;womandoesn'tspendenoughtimewithchildren;
resultin the woman being overmany responsibilities
tired;mothermay miss importantstagesin child'slife)
Conclusion: balancedconsiderationof the topic
(T should point outto sfudents the factthatthe conclusionin thismodel includes a balanced consideration.ln
other words, if sums up both points of view without
taking either side.)
ExamFocus:Unit4
Linking words
One point in favour
Al so
Thus
Moreover
On the other hand
Therefore
What is more
Fi nally
To sum up
Taking everythinginto
account
Equivalentreplacements
An argumentfor
In addition
Therefore
Furthermore
However
Thus
Moreover
Lastly
ln conclusion
A l l th i n g sc o n s i d e red
5 . (T elicits points/rom Ss and writes them on board. Use
suggesfions below for hints).
Arguments for: benefit to the local economy; promotesdevelopment;more employmentopportunities
Arguments against: can cause environmental
p ro b lem s ;nois e;po l l u ti o n
Sample sentences using "useful phrases"
- In the first place, tourismbenefitsthe local
economy.
- Not to mention the fact that tourism promotes
development.
- Furthermore,moreemploymentopportunitiesare
created.
- However,tourismcan cause environmental
problems.
- One can also argue that tourismcreatesnoise
pollutionand trafficjams.
- In conclusion, tourism has many benefitsbut it
has some negativeaspectsas well.
- Taking everything into account, carefulplanning
may help the situation.
Paragraph plan
Introduction:statetopic
paragraph 2: argumentsfor
paragraph 3: argumentsagainst
Conclusion: balancedconsiderationof the topic you can expressyour opinion
(Suggested answer)
Whiletourismhas many benefitsto localeconomy,
it also has some negativeeffects. Has it everoccurred
to you that tourism can completelydestroy a once
tranquilplace?
One argumentin favourof tourism is the fact that
visitorsspend a significantamount of money. This
greatlybenefitsthe localeconomy,not to mentionthe
fact that tourism promotesdevelopment.Roads are
reconstructed;new hotels,shops and restaurantsare
built to accommodatetourists.Therefore,more employmentopportunitiesare madeavailableto the local
p e ople.
On the other hand,tourismcan createmany problems.Increaseddemandson watersuppliesand higher
levels of waste production can cause environmental
problems;water shortagesmay occur along with the
problem of how to dispose of excesswaste. One can
also argue that tourism createsnoise pollutionfrom
night clubs and discos and trafficjams from the increaseof vehiclesin the area.
ln conclusion,it seemsthat tourismhas significant
benefits as well as aspects which have negative effects.Takingeverythinginto account,carefulplanning
by local authoritiesmay help to decreasethe negative
aspectsof tourism.
6. Linking words to be circled: as, in the firstplace,what
is more,anothermajorreason,in otherwords,furthermore, however,also, but rather,in conclusion, etc
Reasons to be underlined: unhealthy product is
being promoted; tobacco is a major cause of lung
cancer and is sometimesresponsiblefor heart disease;when in the presenceof smokers,non-smokers
must breathein second-handsmoke; advertsshow
young, beautiful,successfulpeoplesmokingand having fun;teenagersbecomeattractedto this glamorous
representation
of smokingwhich leadsto them taking
up the habit;averageteenagerdoes not considerthe
harmful effectsof smoking or that it is addictive.
7. 1. T
2. F (Thewritergives both sides of the argument).
3. F (The writer is against cigaretteadvertising- he
restateshis opinion using differentwords.)
4. F (The writer agrees with banning cigarette
advertising:"A numberof peoplebelievethat it
i s i mmoral andshoul dbe banned.l supportthis
view for a varietyof reasons.")
5. F (Thewritergivesthe otherside of the argument
- other people'sopinion,in the fourth paragraph.)
6.7
8. Paragraph Plan
Introduction:statetopic and opinion
Paragraph 2: give one side of the argumentand
reason
Paragraph 3: give the other side of the argument
and reasons
Concl usion : restateyour opinion using d ifferentwords
"Children Choosing their Own Toys"
Parentswho want their childrento learn how to
make responsiblechoices,sometimesallow them to
choosetheir own toys. ls it wise to give this option to
young chi l dren?
Those who think it is a good idea, suggestthat it
makes children feel happy, more responsibleand
grown-up to choose their own playthings.Furthermore,theyarguethatyoungstersenjoytheirtoysmore
when they have selectedthem themselves.Although
some parentsthinkthe besttoy is the most expensive
59
ExamFocus:Unit4
o ne, m any c hildr e ne n j o y s i mp l e ,e v e n h o m e -m ade,
toys.
On the other hand, the influenceof televisioncan
lead childrento make poor choices in the toys they
request.A toy may be desiredonly becausea friendof
the childhas it-notto mentionthat some toys askedfor
may be dangerousor unsuitablefor a child under a
certainage. Thus, a parent'sguidanceis necessary.
All in all, the idea of lettingsmall childrenchoose
their own toys and games does not seem advisable.
Only when a child reachesa certainage can he/she
correctlyjudge whethera toy is suitableor not.
9. . encouragepeopleto take more exercise--+emphasising the health benefits;not taking exerciseat all
is risky
. doctors can play an effectiverole -+ persuade
people to change habitsand exercise
. sports centrescould open earlier,close later,and
offer weekend activities-+ people would be able to
make better use of sporfs facilities
. companiesshould sponsorsportsteams and hold
regularsportsevents-+ employeeswillnot consider
exercisea chore but a way of making the most of
their leisure time
Paragraph Plan
Introduction:statethe Problem
Paragraph 2: suggestion1 and reason
Paragraph 3: suggestion2 and reason
Paragraph 4: suggestion3 and reason
Fi nal par agr aph :s u mma ri s eo p i n i o n
10. 1. F (Thewriterstatesthe problem in the introduc t ion. )
2. F (Onlythe second,the third and the fourth
par agr ap h si n c l u d ea s u g g e s ti o n .)
3.7
4.7
5 . F ( T hewr ite rs u mma ri s e sh i s /h e ro p i n i o n.)
6 . T ( eg.A noth e rs u g g e s ti o nA, l l th i n g sc o n s ider ed.e tc .)
DISCUSSIONCLOCK ANALYSIS
Note; Specialemphasisshould be given to the Discussion Clock on p.l06 in fhe Ss' book. This clock
helpsSs organise their thoughts when considering a
discursive essay and come up with a well-written
composition.Tcan demonstrateitsfunctionby analysing the following question: The Role of the Free
Press.
D is c us s :T help s Ss a n a l y s eth e s u b j e c tu s i n gthe
discussionclock and/orgivesthem ideasto demonstrate how the clock works
amusing- intruPersonal:entertaining,informative,
sion on celebrities'privatelives
Religious:informativeof variousreligionsroundthe
world - prejudicedapproach towards various religions
60
Scientific:informativeof researchand new developments that can benefitsociety - can make morally
questionableadvancesseem immediatelyacceptabl e
Historical:helps peopleput currenteventsintotheir
historicalperspective- too much emphasison the
past can distort coverage of current news stories
Moral: lets people know what is now acceptableto
publish,ie,what levelof crude language,explicitsex,
etc - can offend many PeoPle
of the day,
of the pol i ti cal i ssues
P ol i ti cal :i nformati ve
and the policiesof the variousparties- coveragecan
be one-si ded
Artistic: informativeof modern movements in art,
new artists' work - can ignore certain innovative
artistsif not "mainstream"enough
Economic: informativeof markettrends and developments;hel ps i nvestorsmake deci si ons- i ncom pletecoveragecan leadto missedinvestmentopportuni ti es
Educational: informativefor studentswho want to
learnabout world events,politics- informationmay
be incorrectof biased in favourof a certainpolitical
i deol ogy
S oci al :i nformspeopl eregardi ngupcomi ngcul tur al
events,sportsmatches,shows,films,protests,festivals - smallereventsare often not publicisedin the
paper,as they're not seen as "newsworthy"
Geographical:letspeopleknow about occurrences
all around the world - importantforeign eventsare
often ignored,as space is limitedin newspaper
11. aspects i ncl uded
- personal: entertaining,informative,amusing,we
forget our problems
opposite viewpoint: intrusionon the privacyof
celebrities
- political: revealsthe truth behind speechesand
accusations
opposite viewpoint: most newspapersfavoura
particularpoliticalparty - articlesnot objective
- educational:sourceof up-to-dateinformation;
in-deptharticles;local and internationalevents
opposite viewpoint: not alwayscorrectinformation facts often falsely reported not always appropriatelearningmaterialfor students
For other aspects see the above analysisof the
di scussi oncl ock
12. Sample essay on Capital Punishment
Paragraph Plan
Introduction:statetoPic
paragraph 2: one point of view (moral)
paragraph 3: anotherpoint of view (economic)
paragraph 4: a third point of view (social)
C oncl usi on: gi veyour ow n opi ni onbasedon th e
points alreadymentioned
Exam Focus: Unit 4
(Suggested answer)
Capit alpunis h m e nits a h i g h l yd e b a ta b l es u b j ect
which alwayscauses great discussion.Indeed,the
United States of America shows the most marked
sp l itin publicopin i o no v e rth e d e a thp e n a l ty So
. me
states still uphold it while in others it has been
a b olis hed.
On moral grounds it would appear that capital
punishmentis not right,as no one should be able to
make the ultimatedecisionwhethersomebodylives
or dies (the Ten Commandmentsstate ,'Thoushalt
not kill").However,some peoplearguethatif a person
takes another'slife,he loses his own rightto live.
Froma psychologicalpointof view,it is difficultto
predicthow the citizenswill reactto the existenceof
ca pit alpunis hm en t.O n th e o n e h a n d ,p e o p l em i g ht
be impressedwith the state'sstrong stand against
vi o l entc r im inalsT. h e y c o u l d ,h o w e v e r,c o m e to
th i n kt hat" lif eis c he a p "i f th e s ta tei s k i l l i n gp ri s o n e rs.
Socially,authoritieshopedthat the deathpenalty
would work as a deterrentto potentialcriminals.But
in countrieswherethe deathpenaltyis stillin use,the
murder rate has not decreased.Indeed,figures in
Americashow that crime rateshaveactuallyrisenin
stateswhere capitalpunishmentis in effect.
The deathpenaltyis a subjectwhich continuesto
be discussedat great length.All things considered,
I believe that the executionof particularlyhorrific
murderersis preferableto keeping them in prison.
However,no case rs as simpleas that,and therewill
always be reasonswhy that person shouldn'thave
been put to death.
Paragraph Plan
Introduction:statetopic
paragraph 2: advantages
paragraph 3: disadvantages
Final paragraph: balancedconsideration
Advantages:reducechanceof losingmoneydue to
theft;purchasescan be made even if one is short of
cash;shoppi ngby tel ephonei s now possi bl e
Disadvantages:people often spend more money
thantheyoughtto;creditcard companiesencourage
usersto pay off bills slowly,causingpeopleto sink
into debt
14. 1. T
2.7
3. F (l ncl udi nga quotati oni s one techni queyou
can use to grab the reader'sattentionand
make him/herwant to continuereading.)
4. F (Do not includestrong personalwords (eg I
believe)or shortforms. Use words such as:
it seems that, it can be seen that, etc.)
5. T
6 . F (Always
supportyoursuggestions
with
reasons.)
7. T
B . F (Youcangiveyouropinionaswell,butwithout
usingpersonal
wordsor expressions.)
9 . F (Argumentative
compositions
shouldbe writ-
ten in a formalstyle.)
10. T
15. 1. E xpressi ngopi ni on
13. Model
"Chargeit!" is a cry now heard all over the countries of the industrialisedworld. The use of credit
cards has become widespread,but along with the
conveniencecomes some risk.
Firstof all,the advantagesof usingcreditcards
are considerable.Reducingthe amountof cash one
needs to carry also reducesthe chance of losing a
lot of moneyin caseof theft.Furthermore,purchases
can be made even though the cardholdermay be
temporarilyshort of cash. Also importantis the fact
that with creditcards,shoppingby telephoneis now
possible.Customerscan order productsor services
without leaving their homes.
However, credit cards can be misused. For
example,peopleoftenspend more than they ought
to; it is sucha temptationto over-useyour creditcard!
Moreover,the credit card company gives the custo mert he opt ionof m a k i n ga " mi n i mu mp a y me n t'o, n
u n paid m ont hly bi l l s . T h i s i s a m a j o r d ra w b a ck
because it encouragesusers to pay off their bills
slowly.lt does not take long for people to sink into
debt if they use their credit cards unwisely.
In conclusion,the credit card is an impoftant,
practicaltool in the trend towardsa "cashlesssociety",but peoplemust be awareof the dangersposed
by the use of this method of payment.
Paragraph Plan
Introduction:statetopic and your opinionclearly
withoutusing too many personalopinionwords
(youngpeople lack knowledge;the elderly lack
the physical ability to take advantage of their
wisdom)
Paragraph 2: give the first argumentand examples or reasonto supportyour opinion
(difficult for old people to take care of themse/yes - living with the young makes their life
easief
Paragraph 3: give the second argumentand
examplesor reasonsto supportyour opinion
(living with the young provides companionship;
the young can benefit eg experience,advice)
Paragraph4: givethe otherside of the argument
and reason
(invasion of privacy; the young are inexperienced in dealingwith the old; the old need peace
and quiet;the young need to have an active life)
Conclusion: restateopinion
(old and young should live together under the
same roof)
61
ExamFocus:Unit4
(Suggested answer)
A French saying from the Middle Ages goes "lf
youth knew; if age could,"which accuratelysums up
the main differencebetweenyoung and old people.In
otherwords,young peoplelack knowledge,whilethe
advantageof the
elderlylackthephysicalabilitytotake
wisdom that they have acquiredover the years'
A good idea is to haveyoung people livetogether
with old peoplewhile they grow up. As many old
people are not very mobile, they often have difficulty
taking care of themselvesand are challengedby
simple,everydaytaskslikeshoppingand cleaningthe
house. Livingwith younger membersof their family
would mean that they wouldn't have to worry about
these things.
No les s im po rta n ti s th e c o mp a n i o n s h i pw hi ch
livingwith otherswould provide,particularlyas this is
somethingthat the elderlyoftenlack.Similarly,young
people can benefitfrom livingwith the aged: old
peoplehave a lifetimeof experience,and their advice
will undoubtedlybe of helpto youngermembersof the
fa m ily .
However,some people argue that apart from the
obvious invasionof privacywhich both sides would
experience,the young are inexperiencedin dealing
wit h old people ' s a i l me n ts .Al s o , o l d p e o p l e n eed
peaceand quiet,whiletheyoung prefertolivean active
l i f e.
Althoughit is truethatyoung and old peopledo not
see eye{o-eye on many issues,I feel that the idea of
young and old f a mi l yme mb e rsl i v i n gto g e th e ri n the
sam e hous e c an o n l y b e g o o d . In m y v i e w , i t i s an
effectiveway of promotinggreaterunderstandingbetween older and youngergenerations,enablingthem
to share an experiencethat will undoubtedlybring
them closertogether.
2. ExpressingoPinions
Paragraph Plan
.
lntroduction: stateoPinion
(life in the future will be bette)
Paragraph 2: argument 1 and reason
(life will continue to be easy due to rapid technological advancement)
Paragraph 3: argument2 and reason
(humansare becoming aware of the damage
caused to the environment- already dealing with
problems)
Conclusion: restateoPinion
(tifein futurecan become better,but our actions will
affect future generations)
(Suggested answer)
As we advancetowardsthe 21st century,I tend to
believethat life in the futurewill undoubtedlybecome
betterfor a number of reasons.
The main reasonwhy I believethis, is the fact that
rapid technologicaladvancementsover the past few
decades have made life a lot easier,and there is no
reasonto believethat they will not continueto do so.
For example,gadgetsand appliancessuch as
62
washingmachines,remotecontrols,microwavesand
mobilephoneshavemade our livesa lot moreconvenient,so there is no reasonto doubt the fact that lifewill
become increasinglyeasy as time goes on and more
labour-savingdevicesare invented.
Anotherfactorthatwill leadto lifebeingbetterin the
future,is the fact that humansare becomingincreasingly aware of the damage they have caused to the
environment.In fact they are already dealing with
damagetotheozonel ayer
probl emssuchas pol l uti on,
and endangeredspecies.lf this attitudecontinues,it is
very likelythat in the futurethe world will be a much
placeto livein.
cleaner,more environmentally-friendly
All things considered,despitethe many negative
aspectsof life in today's world, I feel that life in the
futurecan only get better,as long as we remember
that what we do today, will not only affectus, but future
generationsas well.
3. Advantages and disadvantages
Introduction:statetoPic
(the consumption of fast food has risen dramatically)
Paragraph 2: argumentsfor
(convenient; fast;leaves people plenty of time;
quick and efficient service in fast food restaurants)
Paragraph 3: argumentsagainst
(not healthy; expensivecompared to home
cooking; discouragespeople from eating with
family and friends)
Conclusion: Give a balancedconsiderationor your
opi ni onw i thoutusi ngpersonalw ords or
expressions
(convenient,short-termsolution - should not
replace traditional ways of eating)
(Suggested answer)
The paceof lifein today'sfast-movingworld is such
that many people no longer have time to do basic
householdchores,let alonecook. Forthis reason,the
consumptionof fastfood has risendramatically- but
is this a good thing or not?
The main argumentin favourof fast food is the fact
that it is convenient,leavingpeoplewith more time to
concentrateon more importantthings.Servicein fast
food restaurantsis quick and efficient,and one is able
to eat one's meal with a minimumof fuss.
On the other hand, fast food is not particularly
healthy,especiallywhen eatenregularly,and can also
be ratherexpensivecompared to cooking at home.
Also,many peopleare of the opinionthatfastfood has
contributedto a breakdownin societybecauseof the
factthat it discouragespeoplefrom sittingdown to eat
a home-cookedmeal with familyand friends,and
from enjoyingthe conversationthat goes with it'
To sum up, although fast food is a convenient,
short-termsolutionto the problemsof a high-pressure
lifestyle,it should not be allowedto replacehealthier,
more traditionalwaYsof eating.
ExamFocus;Unit4
4. Discursive essay
Paragraph Plan
Introduction:set the topic
(society recently began to condemn the killing of
animals)
Paragraph 2: one point of view - (trade)
(pharmaceuticals,ivory)
Paragraph 3: anotherpoint of view - (food)
(pro-vegetarians'and co n noisseurs'view)
Conclusion: give your own opinion
(killing of animals justifiable as long as whole
animalis used and killed in a humane way)
(Suggested answer)
To what extent is it morally acceptable to kill
animalsfor the purposes of trade and food? Some
animal lovers insistthat it is never acceptable,while
many connoisseurscan't imaginelifewithoutsteak.
Advancesin the pharmaceuticals
trade requirethe
experimentation
on, and the deathof, counilessmonkeys and rats.Since new drugs help maintainhuman
health,this seems justifiable.But a cosmeticscompanykillinga rabbitaftersmearingmascaraon itseyes
is clearly indefensible,as is killing an elephant,an
endangeredspecies,to use itstusksfor ivoryjewellery.
The use of animalsfor food is ethicallypermissible,
providedthat the animal is well taken care of while
alive, is killed painlesslyand is not an endangered
species.The wholeanimalshouldalso be used -- e.g.
cow hidesmade into leatherclothes,bags and shoes.
Still, a pro-vegetarianecological argument can be
madeagainstkillinganimalsfor meataltogether:for an
animaltoproduceone poundof meat,it musteat many
poundsof grain.Despitethis,some peoplestillbelieve
that life without barbecued sausages is not worth
l i vi n g.
ln conclusion,there is a fine line betweenacceptable and objectionableuses of animals. Although
animalrightsenthusiasts
willalwaysbe againsttheuse
of animalsfor tradeand food, in my opinionthe use of
non-endangeredspeciesof animalsis acceptableas
long as the whole animalis used and that it is killedin
a humaneway.
5. Providing solutions to a problem
Paragraph Plan
Introduction:statethe problem
(forest fires spread quickly)
Paragraph 2: suggestion1 and reason
(separateforests into smallsecfions - prevent fire
from spreading)
Paragraph 3: suggestion2 and reason
(ensure there is quick and easyaccess to forest
areas - easilyput out the fire)
Paragraph 4: suggestion3 and reason
(harsherpunishment - would prevent potential
arsonr'sts)
Conclusion: summariseopinion/finalsuggestionand
reason
(the problem can be solved if all the suggestions
mentioned are put into effect)
(Suggested answer)
The problem of forestfires is one that many countrieshaveto dealwithinthe summermonths,and every
yearthousandsof acresof woodlandand forestarelost
to it. The natureof forestfires is such that they spread
incrediblyquickly, often leavingfire-fighterswith litile
or no chance of bringingthem under control.
One solutionto this problemis to separateforests
into smallsectionsdividedby earthditcheswhich will
preventfire from spreadingshould it break out in a
section of a forest.
Anotherimportantmeasurethat shouldbe takenis
to ensurethatfire-fighters
havequickand easyaccess
to all areasof a forest,becauseif a fire is detectedin its
earlystages,it is oftenpossibleto put it out beforeit has
the chanceto cause too much damage.
Finally, the fact that many fires are deliberately
startedcannot be overlooked,and for this reasonthe
crime of arson should be more severelypunishedin
order to discouragepotentialarsonists.
To sum up, there are a number of ways to prevent
forestfires,but only if they are all put into effectwill the
problem be effectivelydealt with.
6. Advantages/disadvantages
Paragraph Plan
Introduction : state topic
(there are advantagesand disadvantagesto
camping holidays)
Paragraph 2: advantages
(cheap holidays; can stay wherever you like;
escape from stress; exciting experience)
Paragraph 3: disadvantages
(lack of amenities; involves extra work; get tired)
Conclusion: give a balancedconsiderationor your
opinionwithoutusing personalwords or expressions
(enjoyable experience as long as you are prepared
to go and suifs your personality)
(Suggested answer)
Camping is, by and large,a pastimethat people
either love or hate, depending on their personality.
Those who are in favour of it, are quick to point out its
many advantages,while those to whom it does not
appealto,oftenfailto see anythingpositiveabout it at
all.
The advantagesof camping holidaysare mainly
financial,since they are considerablycheaper than
stayingin a hotel.Theyalsoprovidea lot morefreedom
of choice in terms of where you stay,since a tent can
be pitchedalmostanywhere.Formanypeople,though,
the main reasonfor going on a campingholidayis the
escapeit offersfrom the stressof everydaylife;afterall,
the chanceto sleep in the open air, underthe starsis
not one that we often get.
However,there are also disadvantagesassociated
with camping holidays,the main one being a lack of
amenitiessuch as runningwater,which can make life
very inconvenient.Another disadvantageis the fact
that this lack of amenities,which we usuallytake for
63
Exam Focus: Unit 4
granted, can make a camping holiday very tiring
becauseof the extrawork involved,meaningthat it is
possibleto returnfrom a camping holidaymore tired
than when you left.
Takingeverythingintoaccount,campingcan be an
enjoyableexperienceas long as one is preparedto go
without a few luxuries for a shorl period of time'
Pr obably t hem ainre q u i re me n tfoarn e n j o y a b l ec amping holiday,however,is that it suits your personality'
7 . Advantages/disadvantages
Paragraph Plan
Introduction:statetoPic
(computers play an impoftant role in our lives; we
use them even for entertainment)
Paragraph 2: argumentsfor
(help the child sharpen hislher responses;
combine education and entertainment)
Paragraph 3: argumentsagainst
(unhealthyto stareat a screen for hours; children
havebecome /essactive;computersare expensive;
parentshave financialproblems and feel pressured
to buy a comPuter)
Conclusion: give a balancedconsiderationor your
opinionwithoutusing personalwords or expressions
(computers should not play such an important role
in people's /ives)
(Suggested answer)
Computerstoday play a more importantrole in our
livesthan ever before.We use them not only at work,
but at home as a way of relaxing,and many children
now need nothingmorethan a computergame in front
of them to keep them entertainedfor hours.But is this
necessarilya good thing?
A point in favourof computergamesfor childrenis
the factthattheycan oftenhelpthe childto sharpenhis
or her responses,sincethey requireplayersto act and
. u rth e rm o reth, e rea rema n yc o mpure s pondquic k ly F
ter games availablethat combineboth educationand
entertainment.For example,computer word games
enablea childto expandhis knowledge,oftenwithout
realisingthat he is doing so.
On the otherhand,staringat a computerscreenfor
h our son end s e e msto b e u n h e a l th yfo r a c h i l d ,and
computergames have ceftainlyplayeda part in children today becominglessactive.Added to this, is the
fact that computersare expensive- this can lead to
financialproblemsfor parentswho feel pressuredto
buy one even though they cannot affordit'
In conclusion,althoughcomputersand computer
games can have a beneficialeffect on children, it
seemsthat they shouldnot be allowedto playsuch an
importantrole in their livesto the exclusionof everything els e.
64
8. Providing solutions to a problem
P aragraphP l an
Introduction:statethe Problem
(risingcrime rafes - cities become unsafe places)
Paragraph 2: suggestion1 and reason
(increasepolice patrolsin notorious p/aces defers offenders, cost effectivemethod)
Paragraph 3: suggestion2 and reason
(emptoyPeoPle - no need to steal)
C oncl usi on:summari seopi ni onor gi vebestsuggestion and reason
(deat with unemptoyment-- the best way to deal
with the problem because unemploymentcauses
it)
(Suggested answer)
Risingcrime rates in towns and citieshave led to
many of them becoming extremelyunsafe placesto
live in, and it is obviousthat somethingmust be done
to tacklethis Problem.
One possiblesolutionis to increasepolicepatrols
in areas notoriousfor petty crime. The presenceof a
police officer is undoubtedlya deterrentto anyone
consideringsnatchinga purse or stealingsomething
from a shop and is probably one of the most costeffectivemethods of reducing petty crime.
Anotherway of tacklingthe problemof pettycrime
isto focuson someof the reasonswhy it occurs'lf more
jobs were availablethen a number of petty criminals
would not need to stealin order to make ends meet.
To sum up, eventhoughshortterm solutionsto the
problem of petty crime can be effective,the only way
to completely rid society of it, is to deal with the
underlyingcauses.Forexample,unemploymentcould
lead to petty crime. lf the unemploymentproblem is
solved,the problem of petty crime will be solved as
well.
(Tis advisedto photocopy the following pagesof linking
words and phrasesfo hand out to Ss as a reference-)
To express PersonaloPinion
. In my opinion, lifein the countryis much healthier
than in the citY.
. In my view, life in the countryis much healthier
than i n the ci tY .
. To my mind, life in the countryis much healthier
than in the citY.
. To my way of thinking, life in the countryis much
healthierthan in the citY.
. PersonallyI believethat lifein the countryis much
healthierthan in the citY.
. lt strikes me that life in the countryis much
healthierthan in the citY'
. I feel very strongly that life in the country is
much healthierthan in the citY.
. I am inclined to believe that life in the countryis
much healthierthan in the citY'
Exam Focus: Unit 4
.
.
lt seems to me that life in the countryis much
healthierthan in the city.
As far as I am concerned, life in the countryis
much healthierthan in the city.
To list advantages and disadvantages
. One disadvantageof being famous is the lack of
privacy.
. Another disadvantageof beingfamousis the lack
of privacy.
. One other disadvantageof being famous is the
lack of privacy.
. Afurtherdisadvantageof beingfamousisthe lack
of privacy.
. The main disadvantageof being famous is the
lack of privacy.
. The greatestdisadvantageof beingfamousis the
lack of privacy.
To list points
. Firstly, many childrendo not receiveproper
sc hooling.
. First of all, many childrendo not receiveproper
s c hooling.
. In the first place, many childrendo not receive
properschooling.
. Secondly, many childrendo not receiveproper
sc hooling.
. Thirdly, many childrendo not receiveproper
sc hooling.
. Finally, many childrendo not receiveproper
sc hooling.
. To start with, many childrendo not receiveproper
sc hooling.
To add more points on a topic
. What is more, parentsshould disciplinetheir
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
childr en.
Furthermore,parentsshould disciplinetheir
ch ildr en.
Apart from this, parentsshould disciplinetheir
ch ildr en.
fn addition, parentsshould disciplinetheir
childr en.
M or eov er ,par en tss h o u l dd i s c i p l i n e th e i rc h i l d r en.
Besides, parentsshould disciplinetheir children.
Par ent ss houlddi s c i p l i n eth e i rc h i l d re n to
, o.
Not to mention the fact that parentsshoulddiscip l inet heir c hildr e n .
Pa r ent ss houldal s o d i s c i p l i n eth e i rc h i l d re n .
To refer to other sources
. With reference to the recentnewspaperarticle,
air
travelis becomingmore dangerous.
. According to the recentnewspaperarticle,
air
travelis becomingmore dangerous.
To express cause
. Because of the fact that the employeeswork
extremelyhard, I believethat they deservea pay
ri se.
. Owing to the fact that the employeeswork extremely hard, I believethat they deservea pay
rise.
. Due to the fact that the employeeswork extremely
hard, I believethat they deservea pay rise.
. The employeeswork extremelyhard. For this
reason, I believethat they deservea pay rise.
To express effect
. Hotelrestaurantsareexpensive;therefore,
people
generallyavoid them.
. Hotel restaurantsare expensive;thus, people
generallyavoid them.
. Hotel restaurantsare expensive.As a result,
people generallyavoid them.
. Hotel restaurantsare expensive.Consequenily,
people generallyavoid them.
. Hotel restaurantsare expensive,so, people
generallyavoid them.
. Hotelrestaurantsareexpensive.As a consequence,
people generallyavoidthem.
To emphasise what you say
. Clearly, an increasein touristswould mean more
money for the community.
. Obviously, an increasein tourists would mean
more money for the community.
. Of course, an increasein touristswould mean
more money for the community.
. Needless to say, an increasein touristswould
mean more money for the community.
. In particular,an increasein touristswould mean
more money for the community.
To express reality
. In fact, many peopledo nottakeany dailyexercise
whatsoever.
. As a matter of fact, many people do not take any
daily exercisewhatsoever.
. The fact of the matter is that many people do not
take any daily exercisewhatsoever.
. Actually, many peopledo not take any daily
exercise whatsoever.
. In practice, many people do not take any
daily
exercisewhatsoever.
To express difference between appearance
and reality
. At first sight, fast food looks good but it is
actually
extremelyunhealthy.
. Apparently, fast food looks good but it is actually
extremelyunhealthy.
65
ExamFocus:Unit4
.
On the face of it, fast food looks good but it is
actuallyextremelyunhealthY.
To bring up other points or asPects
. As far as the government is concerned, they
passeda law dealingwith this issuelast month.
. Regarding the government,they passed a law
dealingwith this issuelast month.
. As for the government,they passeda law dealing
with this issue last month.
. With regard to the government,they passeda law
dealingwith this issue last month.
To give examples
. For instance, 50% of familiesgo abroad for their
holidays every year.
. For example, 50"/"of familiesgo abroad for their
holidays every year.
To refer to what actually hapPens
. In practice, studentsspend more time watching
televisionthan doing their homework.
. In effect, students spend more time watching
televisionthan doing their homework.
To
.
.
.
make general statements
As a rule, the idea has been a great success.
Generally,the idea has been a great success.
In general, the idea has been a great success.
To make partly correct statements
. Up to a point, this behaviouris an indicatorof
people'sattitudestowardssuch plans.
. To a certain extent,this behaviouris an indicator
of people'sattitudestowardssuch plans.
. To some extent, this behaviouris an indicatorof
people'sattitudestowardssuch plans.
. In a sense, this behaviouris an indicatorof people's attitudestowardssuch plans.
. In a way, this behaviouris an indicatorof people's
attitudestowards such Plans.
To express limit of knowledge
. To the best of my knowledge,this kind of corruption could have been going on for years.
. As far as I know, this kind of corruptioncould have
been going on for years.
. For all I know, this kind of corruptioncould have
been going on for years.
To state other people's opinion
. lt is popularly believedthatthe influenceof television has led to an increasein crime.
. People often claim that the influenceof television
has led to an increasein crime.
. Contraryto popular belief,the influenceof television has not led to an increasein crime.
66
It is a fact that the influenceof televisionhas led to
an i ncreasei n cri me.
It is often alleged that the influenceof television
has led to an increasein crime.
People argue that the influenceof televisionhas
led to an increasein crime.
Many people argue that the influenceof television
has led to an increasein crime.
A lot of people think that the influenceof television
has led to an increasein crime.
A lot of people believe that the influence of
televisionhas led to an increasein crime.
To express balance (the other side of the
argument)
. ...w hi l e l ongerw orki nghoursw i l lmeanthatpe ople
will have less leisuretime.
. On the other hand, longerworkinghourswillmean
that people will have less leisuretime.
whereas longer working hours will mean that
people will have less leisuretime.
. Ontheotherhand,longerworkinghourswillmean
that people will have less leisuretime.
To make contrasting points
. Cars cause pollution,yet people keep on using
them to travel to work every day.
. Cars cause pollution;however, people keep on
using them to travel to work every day.
. Cars cause pollution;nevertheless,people keep
on using them to travel to work every day.
. Although cars cause pollution,people keep on
using them to travel to work every day.
. In spite of the fact that cars cause pollution,
people keep on using them to travelto work
every day.
. Cars cause pollution,but people keep on using
them to travel to work everYdaY.
. While cars cause pollution,peoplekeep on using
them to travel to work everYdaY.
. Despitethe fact that cars causepollution,people
keep on using them to travelto work everyday.
. Even if carscausepollution,peoplekeepon using
them to travel to work every daY.
. Eventhough carscausepollution,peoplekeepon
using them to travelto work every day.
. Cars cause pollution;at the same time, people
keep on using them to travelto work every day.
To conclude
Finally,the campsitewould be an ideallocationfor
a fami l yhol i day.
Lastly,the campsitewould be an ideallocationfor
a family holiday.
Above all, the campsitewould be an ideallocation
for a family holiday.
All in all , the campsitewould be an ideallocation
for a family holiday.
Unit 5: Part ''l
Taking everything into account, the campsite
would be an ideal locationfor a familyholiday.
On the whole, the campsite would be an ideal
locationfor a family holiday.
All things considered,the campsitewould be an
ideal locationfor a familyholiday.
ln c onc lus ion, th e c a m p s i tew o u l d b e a n i d eal
locationfor a family holiday.
As I have said, the campsitewould be an ideal
locationfor a family holiday.
As it was previously stated , the campsitewould
be an ideal locationfor a family holiday.
On the whole, the campsite would be an ideal
locationfor a family holiday.
To sum up, the campsitewouldbe an idealiocation
for a family holiday.
To rephrase
. In other words, the decisionto ban smoki ng is
perfectlyjustified.
. That is to say, the decision to ban smoking is
perfectlyjustified.
To imply that nothing else needs to be said
. At any rate, an increasein the tax ratewould mean
better government services.
. ln any case,an increasein the tax ratewould mean
better government services.
. Anyway, an increase in the tax rate would mean
better governmentservices.
Accepting the situation
. Under the circumstances,thingswill not change
.
.
untilsome action is taken.
Things being as they are, things will not change
untilsome action is taken.
As it is, thingswill not change untilsome actionis
taken.
Unit 5
Unit5-Part1
Warm-up
Activities:
Part1 (p. 108)
'
(The T draws the following spidergram on the board and eticits from Ss words relevant to "shopping.")
guarantee,expensive,worthless,dear, cheap,
exorbitant,discount,excellent,specialoffer,
valuable,free, bargain
specialist
shop,stall,kiosk,tuckshop,market,
cornershop,department
store,ironmonger,
supermarket,
boutique,
fishmonger
SHOPPING
EQUIPMENT
shopkeeper,florist,butcher,grocer,
fishmonger,customer,shop assistant,
tobacconist,newsagent,baker etc
counter,trolley,shelf,bar code, cash register,
securitycamera, plastic carrier bags, basket
clothes,specialequipment,toys, books,
d ri n k s ,s h o e s.food, l uggage/bags,
sampl es
(Suggested answers): Two picturesare of people shopping.The coupleshave bought a lot of things and look
very happy.The other pictureshows someonewho's broke. He must have spent lots of money buyingthings,
presents, etc
(Suggested answer): I like shopping,when I'm not in a hurry.But I reallydon't like it when the shop assistantstry
to p res s ur em e int o b u y i n gth i n g s .
67
Unit 5: Part 1
.
.
(Suggested answer): I think that a "shopaholic"is
somebodywho becomesaddictedto shopping.For
them ,s hoppingis n o l o n g e ra p l e a s u reb, u t a w ay of
curing depression.lt must be a very expensivehabit'
Warm-up Listening ActivitY
1.F
2.T
3.F
5.T
4.T
6.F
7.F
ReadingTask:Part1 (P.108-109)
1.E 2.H 3.A
5.F
4.c
6.1
7.G
Part1 (p. 110-111)
Exercises:
Vocabulary
1. tedious - boring,rePetitive
release - an escape
minority - the smallerproPortion
shopaholics - people addictedto shopping
addiction - obsessionwith something;condition of
being dependenton sth
views - sees
escapism - a way to forgetyour problems
debts - amountsof moneYone owes
widespread - affectinga lot of people
vast - huge
filing - askingthe court to declaresth
bankruptcy - stateof being unableto pay your debts
dis or der - illnes s
root - basiccause
mania - obsession
2. f .
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
int er f er es wi th
p i l eu p
t r igger ed
chore
illusion
overdraft
targeted
proneto
3. (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise these fextrelated collocationsand expressions.f checks in the
nexf /esson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
t o f uel
to get out
t o giv e
a form
em pt y
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
vicious
to go on
c h ro n i c
to get to
th e d e b ts
11. to startall
12. the solutionto
13. buying
1 4 . w i d e s p r ead
store 3. customer
4. 1. department
4. bill
2. bid
5 . 1.
2.
3.
4.
windows hop p i n g
s hoppinglist
in stock
retailer
5.
6.
7.
8.
discount
in cash
bY cheque
dePosit
5. account
9. tag
1 0 . re fund
(As an extensionSs cover the text of Ex. 5 and say as
many words as possible relatedto shopping e.g. sa/es,
in stock, wholesaler etc)
68
6. (Ss do the exerciseon their own. While T checks the
answers. helshe explainsany unknown vocabula$.
fishmonger - octopus,cod, salmon,prawns,trout,etc
chemist - aspirin,toothpaste,shampoo, deodorant,
make-up,soaP ,etc
delicatessen- ham, olives,cheese,salads,cold cuts
etc
boutique - scarves,blouses,shirts,dresses,shoes,
bags etc
tuck shop - sandwich,biscuits,crisps,chocolateetc
department store - sheets,china, most items
newsagent- TV guides,postcards,cigarettes,drinks,
papers etc
stationery shop - envelopes,paper clips,pens, pencils, paper etc
locksmith - padlocks,keys,chainsetc
optician - contactlenses,sun glasses,normalglasses
etc
ironmonger - buckets,ladders,metal goods etc
greengrocer - lettuce,melons,onions,carrots,
potatoesetc
7. (Suggested answer)
A departmentstoreemploysmany peopleto serve
theirvast rangeof customers,whereascornershops,
oftenowned and run by the same person,aim to serve
the localcommunity.Becauseof this,cornershopsare
generallysmall,stockingavery limitedrangeof goods,
such as basic food products and some household
itemslikewashingpowder.Departmentstores,on the
otherhand,can normallyprovidetheircustomerswith
everythingthey need from clothesto electricalitems
and food. Departmentstores thereforehave to be
large,oftencovering6 or 7 floorsand centrallylocated
to attractas many customersas possible.
Another differencebetweenthe two types of shop
is the pricesthey chargefor similargoods. As department storescan buy stock cheaply in bulk, they can
offermorecompetitivepricesthan cornershopswhich
are forced to charge higher prices.
In my opinion,cornershops offerfriendlierservice
than impersonaldepartmentstores,and, as they
normallyhavevery long openinghours - eventrading
on Sundays,they can also help you in emergencies
w hen you run out of somethi ng.
8. (After Ss have done Ex 8, T checks their answers
elicitinglexplainingthe meaning of each distracto).
1.8
2.A
3.C
4.A
5.C
1. A. invaluable - extremelyuseful
B. priceless - impossibleto value in terms of
money
C. worthless - of no financialvalue
a lot of money
D. valuable - expensive/worth
2. A. overdraft - sum of money lent by a bank
B. bankruptcy- stateof beingunabletopay one's
debts
C. debt - money one owes
D. loan - money borrowedfrom a bank etc
Unit5: Part2
3. A. bids - price offersfor sth
B. auctions - eventsin which the public bids
for goods
C. sales - periodwheregoods in shopsare sold at
lower pricesthan usual
D. offers - items reducedin orice
4. A. bargain - good buy; valuefor money
B. offer - item reducedin price
C. profit - amount of money made on sth
D. reduction - lessening(in price)
5. A. in advance - before
B. in cash - with coins or notes
C. on credit - buying now, and paying in instalments later
D. by cheque - using a signed piece of paper
which representsmoney
Unit5-Part2
Warm-upActivities:Part2 (p.112)
(Suggestedanswers)
.
.
The articlemust be about televisionand its role in our
l i ves.
I l i kew atchi ngfi l ms,sport,comedy,musi cvi deos
and cartoons.
.
Warm-up Listening Activity
1. tastes
2. films
Gauses
Advice
beliefthat buying will -)
make your life happier
emotionalemptiness
-+
pressurefrom advertising-+
see a therapist
regularly
face your real
p ro b l e m s
cancelyour credit
cards
(Suggested Advice): Try to understandthat buying
things won't make your life better.In fact, it'll make it
worse becauseyou'll run up debts. Buying becomes
a vicious circle. Depressiongives you the desire to
spend which makes you buy things. However,new
thingssoon losetheirattractionand you feelyou have
to replace them. This excessivespending leads to
debtswhich causedepression.lf I wereyou, I'd cancel
my credit cards and try to face my real problems.I
stronglyrecommendseeinga therapistweekly.Try to
resistpressurefrom advertising.I'd adviseyou to find
new hobbiesand interests.Talk to peopleto fill your
emotionalemptiness.
GrammarCheck:Part1 (p. 111)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
. . .w e r e y o u , I w o u l d . . .
. . .u n l e s sy o u d o s o m e . . .
... I wouldn' thav e b e e n ...
... p r ov idedy ou wo rk ...
. . . h a d s o m e m o n e y ,l w o u l d . . .
... were not afraidof water ...
... h e not been r ea d i n g...
. . .l w e r e y o u , I w o u l d. . .
... provided(that)it stops ...
. . .w o u l d n ' th a v em a d e s o . . .
5. vi ol ent
ReadingTask:Part2 (p. 112-113)
Follow-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 111)
(T elicitscauses from Ss and writes them on the board.
Then Ss come up with possib/e solutionsand discuss
them).
3. news
4. education
8.A
9.D
1 0 .c
12. A
13. D
11.C
14. C
VocabularyExercises:Part2 (p. 114-115)
1. global - coveringor affectingthe whole world
appeal - to be liked by
entire - whole
tastes - preferences
full-lengthfilms - filmsof the usuallengthas opposed
to shorterprogrammes
respondents - people who have given answersto sth
domestically - withinthe countryin question
identified - singledout
confidence- afeelingor beliefthat one can firmlytrust
sb or sth
namely - in particular
globalisation - processof sth becomingworld-wide
media - meansof communicatingwith largenumbers
of people
options - choices
regional - local
omit - to leaveout
viewers - peoplewatchingsth, usu on TV
surveys - acts of questioningpeopleto gather
statistics
tempting - attracting
status - the positionof somethingin relationto others
2. f .
2.
3.
4.
implication
undermined
support
restricted
5.
6.
7.
8.
respondent 9. taken into
concept
account
schedul e
10. tempt
govern
3. (Ss shou/d memorise fhese text-related cottocations
and expressions.T checks in the nexf /esson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
violent
to make
cultural
part in
current
home-produced
to take
B.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
cl ean bi l l
l ong
ful l -l ength
t h et i m e
to strengthen
officer
officials
69
Unit5: Part2
4 . a ) 1. c hannel
b) 1. commentator
2. newscaster
5. 1. d
2.h
3.e
4.9
5.i
6.j
3. station
2. canal
3. announcer
4. forecaster
7.a
8.b
I. c
10. f
(Suggested titles)
series - The Professionals
talk show - Meet fhe Stars
sitcom - Married with Children
drama - Play for Today
film - YoungGuns
documentary - Tomorrow's World
western - Gun Fight at the OK Coral
cartoon - Bugs BunnY
soap opera - Dynasty
quiz show - CatchPhrase
6. Radio: disc jockey, newsflash,station,short wave,
advertisements,
PlaYs,listeners
Television: newsflash,black and white,colour,
plays,viewers
channel,videojockey,advertisements,
Newspaper: editorial,column, black and white, colour, obituaries,crosswords,classified,ads, advertisements.readers
7. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
media
s c hedule
c hannels
programmes
aerial
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
satellite
broadcast
set
viewers
remotecontrol
Follow-upActivities:Part2 (p. 115)
(T helps Ss understand the diagram and discuss its
meaning fhen Ss complete and contrasf fhe viewing
figures. Before Ss wrife the report, T should refer them
to p. 126inthe S's book, and presenttheoryon reports'
AlsoT hetpsSs e/icitrng the sub-headingsbefore Ss are
assigned the report as written HlW.)
A significantnumber of people aged 26-50watch
sport on TV. This is illustratedby the fact that it is
watched by 50% of peopleaged 26-50.
Similarlya significantnumberof people aged 2-25
watch sport on TV.This is demonstratedby the factthat
it is watched by 45% of people aged 2'25.
A significantnumber of people 26-50watch soap
operason W. This is exemplifiedby the fact that they
arewatchedby halfof all peopleaged 26-50.However,
a minorityof people aged 2-25 watch soap operas on
TV. This is indicatedby the fact that they are watched
by only three out of ten peopleaged 2-25.
A substantialnumberof peopleaged 26-50watch
on TV.This is demonstratedby the
lightentertainment
factthatit is watchedby 60%of peopleaged 26-50.On
the otherhand only a smallproportionof peopleaged
2-25watchlightentertainmenton TV.This is illustrated
by the fact that it is watched by only a quarter of all
people aged 2-25.
70
By far the largestproportionof peopleaged 26-50
watch news and current affairs programmes on TV.
This is shown by the fact that they are watched by
sevenout of ten peopleaged 26-50.In contrast,only
a small number of people aged 2-25 watch news and
currentaffairsprogrammeson TV.This is illustratedby
ol people
the fact that they are watched by only 15o/o
aged 2-25.
A smallnumberof peopleaged 26-50watchdocumentarieson W. This is demonstratedby the factthat
documentaries arewatched by 25%ofpeople aged 2650. However,an evensmallernumberof peopleaged
2-25 watch quiz shows on TV. This is indicatedby the
fact that quiz showsare watchedby merelyone in ten
peopleaged 2-25.
A very small number of people aged 26-50watch
cartoons on TV. This is illustrated by the fact that
cartoonsare watchedby only one in ten peopleaged
26-50.However,a largeproportionof peopleaged 225 watch cartoonson TV. This is demonstratedby the
fact that the cartoons are watched by 60% of people
aged 2-25.
A significantnumber of people aged 26-50watch
musicvideoson TV.This is illustratedby the fact that
music videos are watched by 40"/"of people aged 2650. However, a large majority of people aged 2-25
watch musicvideoson TV.This is indicatedby the fact
that music videos are watched by seven out of ten
peopleaged 2-25.
Suggested rePort
To: Mr S mi th
From: Ned Rivers
Subject:Types of TV programmespeople prefer
lntroduction
This reportwas writtento analysethe resultsof a recent
surveyconcerning the types of TV p rogrammes people
prefer. In this survey two groups of people aged
between2 and 25, and 26 and 50, were questioned
about whether or not they watch certain types of TV
programmes.
Generally popular Programmes
The most popular programmesin both age groups
questionedare films.This is demonstratedby the fact
that films are watched by 80% of peopleaged 26-50,
and 70"/"of people aged 2-26. Similarlyour survey
displayedthat aroundfive in ten peoplefrom both age
groups enjoyedwatchingsports on TV. I also found
that a large majorityof people aged 2-25watch music
videoson TV. This is illustratedby the fact that music
videosare watchedby sevenout of ten peoplein this
age group. Musi cvi deosare al so qui te popul ar ,althoughto a lesserextent,with peopleaged 26-50.This
is shown by the fact that music videos are watched by
40"/oof this age group.
Programmes popular only with certain age groups
The survey also unearthed some significantdifferences of opinion betweenthe two age groups questioned.Whilea largeproportionof peopleaged 26-50
Unit5: Part3
watched news and currentaffairsprogrammesonly a
small number of those aged 2-25 enjoyedsuch broadcasts.This is illustratedby the fact that 70% of people
aged 26-50, but merely 15o/oof those aged 2-25,
regularlywatch news and currentaffairsprogrammes
on TV. The survey showed a similarsituationin the
case of soap operas and light entertainment programmes. Slightlydifferenthowever,was the case of
cartoons;lfound that only one in ten peopleaged 2650 watched cartoons while 60% of those aged 2-25
watched them regularly.
Generally unpopular programmes
Both documentariesand quiz shows provedto be the
mostunpopulartypesof programmesamongbothage
groups.In the caseof documentaries,
this is illustrated
by the fact that they are watched by 2|o/oof peopfe
aged 26-50,and 15% of people aged 2-25.Similarly,
quiz shows are watched by only j\o/o ol people aged
26-50and merelyone in ten peopleaged 2-25.
Gonclusion
The viewingtrends reflectedin the surveysuggestthat
the viewingfigureswere generallyquitepositive.However,the need for some slight adjustmentswas indicated.Firstlythe popularityof films,sports,and music
videos on TV suggests that perhaps we should increase the number of these types of programmes
shown.ln contrast,the unpopularityof quizshowsand
documentariesillustratesthat the number of these
programmesshould be reduced.Alternatively,efforts
could be made to increasetheir appeal to viewers.
Finally,althoughlittlecan be done to make cartoons
more popularwith peopleaged 26-50,effortscould be
made to make soap operas,light entertainmentand
newsand currentaffairsprogrammesmore interesting
for youngerviewers.
GrammarCheck:Part2 (p.115)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
. . .y o u h a d n ' tf a i l e d. . .
... we c ould go on h o l i d a y...
. . .w o u l d c o m e o u t . . .
. . .I h a d b e e n. . .
... had not been late for ...
... I c ould c om e, b u t ...
... we had gone t o s e e ...
... we had arrivedearlier...
Unit5-Part3
Warm-up
Activities:
Part3 (p. 116)
.
(Suggested answer): I think the articleis about the
weather,how it affectsour world and the problems it
can cause.
(Asanalternative,f canaskSs questionsonthe pictures
eg Why is the earth burning? Why is the Earth crying?
What'sgoing on? etc.)
.
(Suggested answers): I'm not sure what the greenhouse effectis, but I know a greenhouseis a building
which keepsthe heat of the sun inside,so maybe it's
what happens when heat is kept in by pollution and
can'tescape.Globalwarmingmustbe partof the same
effect.lf heat can't escape,the earth gets warmer and
warmerand so the climatechanges.
1.
2.
3.
4.
chaos
fact
mi l der
droughts
5.
6.
7.
8.
gases
heater
E ngl and
lakes
9. stomach
10. heal th
ReadingTask:Part3 (p. 110-117)
15. B
16. G
17.A
18. H
21.D
19. I
20. C
VocabularyExercises:Part3 (p. 118-119)
1. cynics - peoplewho doubt sth is true
panel - group of people chosen to take part in sth
undeniable - sth that cannot be disputedor denied
foresee - to see or know that sth is going to happen in
the future
record - the best or most extremeof sth
harvests - the times of the year when the crops are
brought in
stabilising - fixingor stopping
poles - north and south ends of the earth's axis
extremes - conditionswhich are as differentas possible from each other
droughts - periodsof no rainfalland thereforeshortage
of water
continents - the seven large land massesof the earth
vapour - tiny drops of v,,ater,liquid or gas in the air
regulate - to control
greenhouse gases - gases which cause global
warming (eg carbon dioxide)
vast - extremelybig
tilting - tipping to one side
algae - simple,smallplantsthat grow in or nearwater
reservoirs - man-made or natural lakes for storing
water
purification - process of cleaning sth
intestine-related - having to do with the digestive
system
2 . 1. severity
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
intensify
emi ssi ons
equator
Desertification
monsoon
coastal
3 . 1. drought 3. smoke
2. show er 4. chi l l y
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
odd
watercourse
innovative
ovenvhel med
freak
tidal wave
sol ar
5. overcast
6. l i ghtni ng
71
. 5: Part 3
4. under the weather - not well or not cheedul
make heavy weather of - to make unnecessary
problemsfor oneselfwhen doing sth
weather the storm - to deal successfullywith a
difficultsituation
a storm in a teacup - unnecessaryamount of excitement or argumentabout an unimportantmatter
as right as rain - quite all right
come rain or shine - whateverhappens
for a rainy day - for a time of misfortune
chase rainbows - to spendtime thinkingaboutthings
that one cannot obtain
put the wind up - to cause somebodyto feel fear or
worry
Shewasfeelingunder the weatherso shedecidednot
to go to work.
He has a tendencyto make heavy weather of the most
trivialproblems.
Theirbusinessseemedto be failing,buttheymanaged
to weather the storm.
Allthe fuss she made about our not going to the party
was just a storm in a teacuP.
Susanwas ill lastweek but now she'sas right as rain.
l'll alwaysbe willingto help you come rain or shine.
You should always have some money put by for a
rainy day.
Insteadof chasing rainbows you should go out and
fi n d a job.
Havinghis flat broken into reallyput the wind up him
- now he's installedan alarm system.
5. (Ss shou/d memorise fhese text-relatedcollocations
and expressions.T checks in the nexf /esson)
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
heav ily
predictions
global
ur ban
target
geological
hard-bitten
to regulate
6 . a) 1.
2.
b ) 1.
2.
lost
stranded
dip
div e
3.
4.
3.
4.
d ra i n a g e
to face
mountainous
h i g h ti d e
b a n k ru p t
water
F l o o d B a rri e r
i n d u s tri a l
stray
missing
s u b m e rg e
sink
7 . (AfterSs have d one Ex 7, Tc hec ks the answerseIi c iting I
explaining the meaning of each distractor.)
hot weather - boiling,heatwave,sunshine,dry, warm,
drought,scorching,arid
cold weather - ice, freezing,sleet,chilly,snowdrift,
frost, snowflake,hail, hailstones,blizzard
misty weather- fog, smog, haze
draught,
windyweather- gust,breeze,gale,hurricane,
cyclone,blow
wet weather - rain,drizzle,storm, downpour,flood,
torrentialrain, monsoon,(clap of) thunder,(flashof)
l i ght ning,dam p, r a i n b o w ,s tri k e(l i g h tn i n g ),
cloudburst
72
9 . (Ss do the exercise.While T checks answers, helshe
elicitslexplainsthe meaning of each distractor.)
1.A
(Suggested answer)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
8. (Suggested answer)
In the place in the first pictureyou'd be likelyto find
sunshine and boiling temperatures,whereas in the
second place you'd find frost and snowdrifts.There
might be torrentialrain in the first place;on the other
hand, in the second place it's more likelythat there
would be a blizzard. ln the first place you would
probably feel a gentle breeze most days, but hurricanesare possible,of course.However,in the second
placeyou'd feelfreezinggustsof wind carryingsleetor
snowflakes.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2. c
3.D
4. C
5.D
A. harvest = to gathermature,usefulplants,
fruit etc for human use
B. pick = to collect (fruit,flowers etc)
C. produce = to grow in large quantities
D. stock : to keep a supply of
A. chaos = completedisorder
B. disorder = lack of organisation
C. mess - dirty, untidy state
D. havoc = widespreaddisorder
A. mist = a cloud of smallfine drops of water
hangingabovethe ground,not as thick as fog
B. vapour - gas in the form of steam,smoke
spreadabout in the air
C. steam : hot gas that water changes into
when boiled
D. fog = thickcloudoffinedropsabovelandorsea
A. outing = shorttrip for pleasure
B. outlet = means of releasingsb's energy,
feelingetc
C. emission = releaseof light,heat,gas etc
D. omission = act of leavingout
A. wild = not domesticated(e.g wild animals)
B. furious = extremelyangry
C. savage = extremelyviolent
D. strong = powerful
Follow-upActivities:Part3 (p. 119)
(Suggested answers)
The weathercan affectour mood in severalways. lf it
is sunnyfor example,we are more likelyto feel happy,
whereaspeopleoftenfeeldepressedwhen it is cloudy
or overcast.I prefersunnyweather,becausethen I can
sit outdoors.I don't like it to be too hot though,
becausethen you feeltiredallthe time,and don't want
to do anything.
(Ss go through the table after having read the text and
T explainsthe items/isted. This activi$ can then be
done rn c/ass or assigned as HIW)
Welcometo OurPlanetToday.Thiseveningthe subject
is global warming. Optimisticallyspeaking, global
warming will lead to milder winters,and record harvests. On the other hand, it will cause a rise in sea
levels,and certainislandswillbe submerged.Droughts
Unit 5: Part4
and desertification
will occur in hotterareas,while in
high areas,the rainfallwill becomefiercer.In England,
risingwater levelsmay cause the Thamesto overflow.
Stormswill becomemore violent,and the hot weather
will be perfectfor algae to reproducein, causing
healthproblems.So what can be done to preventit?
Firstly,governmentsneed to regulateemissionsof
greenhousegases, such as CO2. We need to camp a i gnf or ar educ t io ni n i n d u s tri a l e mi s s i o nTsh.i sc o ul d
be done by introducingalternativeenergy sources
such as solar,tidal and hydro-electricpower. Global
warmingis a problem,but I'm convincedthat if we act
now its impact can be reduced.
ReadingTask:Part4 (p. 120-121)
22,23.B, D (inanyorder)
24,25.C, D (inanyorder)
26. A
27. B
28. E
29,30. A, D (inanyorder)
31.E
32,33. B, E (inanyorder)
34. B
35. D
VocabularyExercises:Part4 (p. 1221
GrammarCheck:Part3 (p. 119)
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
have
b een
,/
hav e
has
7.
B.
9.
10.
11.
to
have
,/
to
,/
12.
13.
14.
15.
you
to
,/
had
Unit5-Part4
Warm-upActivities:Part4 (p. 120)
.
.
(Suggested answers)
Yes - | lovecamping,becauseit is a chanceto get
outdoorsfor a while.A campsiteshould havea shop,
where you can buy basic supplies,clean toiletsand
runningwater.A greatadvantageof campingis that it
is cheap.However,it can be a nightmarein cold rainy
weather.
(T draws the following spidergram on the board and
elicits relevant vocabularyfrom Ss.,)
pegs
tent
to pitch(atent)
torch
ca mp i n g
CA M PIN G
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
play
pony
April
minutes
clubs
6.
7.
B.
9.
10,
mallet
shower
noise levels
caravans
forest
rides
11.
12.
13.
14.
2. 1 .
2.
3.
4.
5.
the great outdoors
rucksack
tent
sleepingbag
ground mat
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
torch
site
pitch
pegs
stove
3 . (Ss shou/d memorise these text-related collocafions
and expressions.T checks in next /esson).
pole
rucksack
guy rope
1. nestling - being in a comfortableor shelteredlocation
caters for - provideswhat is needed or wanted
charges - cost, price
supervised - overseen,looked after
ground charge - fee paidfor the landwhereyou pitch
your tent
literally - actually,exactly
amusement arcade - building which containscoinoperatedgames machines
shower block - buildingon a camp-sitewhichcontains
showersfor holiday-makers'
use
reservations- advancearrangements,bookings
noise levels - amount of sound made
amenities - facilitiesthat make life easier
hard to beat - difficultto improveupon
sanctuary - shelter,place of protection
founders - people who begin or establishsth
meals
i n j u re d
dogs
donkeys
1. si tuated
2. to have
6.
7.
3 . amusement 8 .
4 . foot
9.
5 . play
10.
4. .
.
.
variety
pony
11. strict
12. included
to enjoy
extra
reservation
To go on a skiing holiday you need ski boots so
that you can ski properly.You also need a ski
jacket to keep you warm, and goggles to protect
your eyes from the sun.
To go on a camping holiday you need insect
repellent to protect yourselffrom mosquito bites.
You also need a camping stove so you can cook,
and a tent to sleep in.
To go on a safari holiday you need binoculars so
you can see the wildlife.You also need a map and
compass to avoidgettinglostand a camera to take
picturesof the animals,and a ieep to travelin.
73
Unit5: Part4
.
.
.
.
To go on a mountaineeringholiday you definitely
need climbingboots and a rope so you can climb
safely.You may also need a tent to sleep in and a
camping stove for preparinghot meals.A compass is necessaryso that you know which way to
go.
To go on a sailing holiday you need a life iacket
in caseyoucan'tswim.You alsoneedafishing rod
and hooks so you can catchfish,and a rope so you
can moor the boat or rescue anyone who falls
overboard.
To go on a fishing holiday you needa f ishing rod,
hooks and a net so you can catch fish. You also
need insect repellent to keep away mosquitoes
and a compass in case you get lost.
To go on a sightseeingholiday you need a guide
book so you can findyourway roundthe placeyou
are visiting.You also need a camera so you can
take picturesof the sightsand a pair of binoculars
so you can see distant places.
5 . (Suggested answer)
A campsiteis for peoplewho likethe outdoorlifeand
don't mind puttingup with a bit of discomfort.Hotels,
on the other hand, offer lots of luxuries.Stayingat a
campsiteis not as expensiveas staying in a hotel.
However,one needsto havespecialequipmentto go
camping.Another disadvantageof stayingin a camp-
site is that you have to make do with basic facilities
such as sharedtoiletsand showers.This has a positive
aspect,though since you get to know other campers
and make new friends.On the contrary, in a hotel
there is very littlechance of meetingthe other guests
unless you make an effortto do so, etc.
6. campsite = place for pitching tents and parking
caravans
self-catering apartment = accommodationwith
cooking facilities
youth hostel - very cheap shared accommodation
holiday camp = site with organised activities for
tourists
guesthouS€ = small,friendly hotel
time-share apartment = flat you buy a share in - you
can only use during a set period of time each year
hotel = place where people pay to stay in a room
(mealsare usu provided)
bed and breakfast = is small,oftenfamily-runhotel,
only offeringa room for the night and breakfast
(Sug g ested answer): My favouriteplaceto staywould
flat,as I liketo cook and wouldhave
be in a self-catering
the freedom to come and go as I pleased. fu1yleast
favouritewould be a time-shareapartment,because
theyareexpensiveand you onlybuythe righttousethe
apartmentfor two or so weeks a year which seems to
be a very bad deal to me.
Follow-upActivities:Part4 (p. 122')
(Suggestedanswers)
(T elicits from Ss informationconcerning each campsiteand writes it on the board, fhen Ss talk about the site they
would choose to go to.)
caravan/
tent
open
shop,
restaurant,
all modern
amenities
both
April-September
supervised
play area,
modern shower
bl ock,
electricity
tents
all year
verybasic
both
April-September
g a me s ,
spofts,walks,
ponyrides
ful l
supervision
of chi l dren,
tents,beddi ng,
meals provided
tent
June-August
h e l p i n gto h e a l no pets
sickanimals
allowed
basic
ameni ti es
activities
rules
A
Walesbottomof
Mount
Snowdon
ponytreks,
excursions
-
B
South coast
of England,
by Paignton
Beach
pubs,clubs, tents
only
discos,
amusement
arcade,beach
activities
c
Lake District
walking
D
near the New
Forest
E
74
facilities
situated
-
n o rs e
levels
m u s tb e
low
Allyearround
ExamFocus:Unit5
(Suggested answers)
1. Listen to these tvvofriends talking. Whydid the girt see
The Windermere Site sounds wonderfulto me. lt is
very basic,but it is cheap, and situatedin the middle
of a beautifularea.I would loveto go there,becauseI
enjoy walking,and I don't like noisy places.The site
hasstrictrulesaboutnoiselevels,so it'ssureto be very
peaceful.
The Shimmering Sands Site is situatedon the south
coast of England.One of its reallygood featuresis its
closenessto the beach.There'sa lot to do there:the
night-lifeis outstanding.Unfortunatelyit's for tents
only, but it's open all year round,and the facilitiesare
good. lt has electricityand a cleanshowerblock,and
there'seven a supervisedarea where you can leave
your children. All in all, it's a good campsite. We
especiallyenjoyed meeting all the differentpeople,
and I'd definitelygo there again.
ExamFocus- Useof English:Unit5 (p.123)
Part 4
1. ,/
2. us
3. ,/
4. behind
5.
6.
7.
8.
ou t
to
the
been
9.
10.
11 .
12.
/
of
it
,/
13. up
14. ./
15. much
Part 5
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
pollution
particularly
global
uninhabit able
agricultural
6.
7.
B.
L
10.
p o p u l a ti o n
Scientists
recommendations
governments
discussions
Prepositions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
w it h/ in
to
with
to
b y lat
for
u nder
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
und e r
on
in
by
in, o f
from
in
15.
16.
1 7.
18.
19.
20.
21.
w i th
to
into
i n / o u to f
in
to/with
to /b y
22. for
23. on
24. in
25. with
26. on
27. for
28. with
ExamFocus- Listening:Unit S (p. 124)
Part 1
1. C
2.A
3.C
4. A
5.C
6.8
7. C
8.A
Part 1
You'll hear people talking in eight different situations.
For questions 1 to 8, choose fhe besf answer, A, B
or C.
Barry?
A She wanted to talk to him.
B She wanted to borrow something.
C He had telephoned her.
Girl: Oh, Barry came here on Thursday night.
Boy: I thoughtyou didn't want to see him again.
Girl; Well- I'd spokento him a whileback.He'd stillgot
some books and files that he'd borrowedand I had
somethingsof histhatlsupposehewanted.Therewas
a messageon the answerphoneand he said he was
going to Englandon Thursdaynight,so I told him to
come overon his way through- with the airportso close
and all - and bringthe thingsand wait here.He was on
one of those middle-of{he-nightflights.We actually
had qui tea ni ce chat....
2. You hear this girl talking to her friend on the tetephone.
What do they decide to do for the evening?
A stayat home
B walk on the beach
C gotoapub
Girl; Yes - | do. I can'tthinkof anythingnicerrightnow
than a strollalong the cool sand, listeningto the
waves.. (pause) ... what - rain or just clouds?
(pause)...Mmm, stilla bit dubious.Tell you what,
everybodyhere's going out this evening- we would
have the place all to ourselvesand no fighting over
the television.... (pause)... lt wouldn'tbe boring if we
went and got a good film ... (pause)... Well,what
aboutgoingfor a drinkthen?Everybody'sgoingto the
Roverstonight... (pause)...Well,yes,and it's rentday
tomorrow.Look, a video won't breakthe bank, and a
bit of peace and quiet would be ... (pause)
... Right,any time afterseven.
3. You hear this conversation in a shop. What does fhe
woman decide to do about the lamp?
A take the money instead
B exchange it for something else
C keep it
Woman:ltwasa present,but I don't likethecolour-can
I change it?
Assistant.'Yes- butwe haven'tgot many left- onlywhat
you see on the shelf.
Woman: Oh - well I don't much like any of those. I
supposeyou would let me changeit wouldn'tyou?!Or
I could always have a refund?
Assistant.'Well- we can giveyou a creditnote - but you
have to spend it on somethingin this store.
Woman: Well, I could certainlyuse that lovely coffee
machineover there.Oh, but this was supposedto be
a present.Maybe if I could just change the shade it
would be all right.
75
ExamFocus:Unit5
4. You arein a hospitalwhen you hear this conversation.
Who is the doctor talking to?
A a parent
B a nurse
C anotherdoctor
Doctor: Hello,littleman! Mmm - he's lookinghappier
this evening,don't you think? Now, let's have a look
at these legs. Has he had his injection?
Female:Yes, he has.
Doctor: How did he get on?
Female:Well - he cried a bit. His ankle'sstillvery red'
Doctor: Mmm - don't worry - we'll give him something
for that. The bandagesare going to come off
tomorrow.Are You staYingtonight?
Female; Yes.
Doctor: So you can give him his supper.
Female:Yes - if that's alright.
Doctor: lt's better.I'm on call,so if theythinkhe needs
any help, it'll be me that comes.
Female:Thank You doctor.
5. Lisfen to this radio advertisement.what is being advertised?
A a home finance seruice
B an accommodation seruice
C a home imProvementseruice
Radiovoice: Need more rooms than you have?Looking for ways to raise that extra mortgage? Don't look
any furtherthan your own roof.Yes,thereyou'llfind all
the space you're looking for. Our interiordesigners
and craftsmenwill transform your loft into that extra
office,playroom,studioorgrannyflat.Maybeyouneed
extraincome?Then your loft could be that studioflat
bringingin much-neededrent.Now there'san investmenl wbrtn considering!Worried about the money?
our financialadvisorswill work out a comprehensive
paymentschemefor you. And remember- 907"of our
customersdon't start paying until the last workman
leaves.
6. Lrsfento this mother and daughtertalking.what is Lucy
looking for?
A hershoes
B her clothes
C her books
Lucy: Mummy - it's music and movementtomorrow
things?
mY
are
where
Mother:They'reall in your room, with your uniform'I
washedthem.
Lucy: They're not! Except my shoes - (giggle) bit
them.
wash
to
difficult
Mother:They'rethere,dear.Your leotard'swith your
shoes,your tights are - um - oh, they'rethere, Lucy!
Lucy: Oh, Mummy! l've found your addressbook!
Mother: What's it doing in there?
Lucy:I dunno - but Mummy- | needto pack my things
with my books! Where are theY?
Mother:l'm coming!There- what'sthat lot underyour
duvet?
76
7. Listen to this conversation.What has one of the
speakers forgotten to do?
A make a caKe
B buy a Pie
C buy acake
Sue; So where is it?
John: What? Oh, no! l'm so sorry ... it completely
sl i ppedmY mi nd.
Sue; Great. What are we supposed to do now? The
baker's shuts at two and it's - oh no, it's five past
already.She's going to be so disappointed"'
John: Well,you've got the candles,and I can pick up
an appl e P i e at the shoP ...
Sue: Oh, right, a pie with candles.lt's not quite the
same, is it?
John: Why don't you whip one up yourself?They'reso
much ni cerhomemade'
8. Listento this woman talking on the phone. Whatis she
complaining about?
A atap
B a light switch
C the kitchen sink
Woman:Well,it justwon't stop drippingyou know' l've
asked Bob to have a look but he's hopelessat those
things...lmean, electricsand all that stuffaroundthe
house.N o,no,the one i n the ki tchen' sfi ne - you know,
it runs when you turn it on and stops when you turn it
off likeit'ssupposedto. So d'youthinkyou couldcome
over and ...
ExamFocus- Speaking:Unit 5 (p. 125)
Parl2
(Suggested answers)
Pictures A and B
.
.
.
.
PictureB showstheearthbeingheldand protectedby
a pair of hands, while picture A shows the earth
exploding into flames. The pictures representthe
destructionof the earlhbecauseof globalwarmingand
the importanceof savingour planet.
l don' tthi nkenoughi s bei ngdonetoprotectthepl a net ,
becauseit is becomingmore and more pollutedand a
lot of damage is still being done to the environment'
We can reduce pollution by making sure that we
disposeof rubbishproperlyand by recyclingas much
as we can.
I think that the earthwill be less pollutedin fiftyyears'
time becausepeople are graduallybeginningto
realise how much damage has been done to the
environmentand that somethingmust be done
before it is too late.
Exam Focus: Unit S
Pictures C and D
Picture C is of a man savingmoney and picture D is
of a man in prison.Perhashe is in prisonbecausehe
got into debt.
I spendmostof my moneyon buyingclotheswhichare
fashionable,and magazinesabout things I'm
interestedin.
I spend quite a lot of money when I go shopping,
becauselfind it hardto stop myselfbuyingsomething
i f I l i k eit . lf I ' m s av ingu p fo r s o me th i n gth
, o u g h ,l w o n ' t
spend any money until I've saved up the amount I
n e e d.
I think it is importantto savemoneyso that you can be
surethat you will havesome if you need it in the future,
or for an emergency.
ExamFocus- Writing:Unit5 (p. 126)
The style in the first extract is formal. The vocabulary
used is not overlysimpleand the sentencestructureis
advanced.The style in the second extract is rather
less formal than in the first extract.Some colloquial
words (e.9. "blast,""ripped,")are used.
The first report could have been written by a government safety inspector, who wanted to assess the
standardsof this factory.The second reportseemsto
havebeen takenfrom a local newspaper;it was written
by a reporter,who wantedto reportwhat happened.
Present tenses are used in the first report and past
te n sesin t he s ec ond .
Suggestedmain headingfor the firstreport:Chemical
factory in Widfield.
1 . 1 . l a r gepr opor t ion
2 . A s m allnum ber
3 . p e r c ent
1.d
2.b
2. 1 . B 2 . C
4 . A s i g n i fi c a nnt u m b e r
5 . s u b s ta n ti a l
6 . mi n o ri ty
3.f
4.a
5.e
3.D
4.E
5.A
6.c
3. (Suggestedanswers)
1. ... the fact that the majorityof young peoplewear
jeans every day.
2. ... the fact that a significantnumber of people are
moving out of the city to the countryside.
3. ... the fact that 30 per cent of familiesown at least
two televisionsets.
4. ...the factthat a largeproportionof familieseat out
at leastfour times a week.
5. ... the fact that only 1S% of people go on holiday
during the winter months.
4. 1.
2.
3.
4.
This surveywas conductedto ...
This reportwas writtento analysethe resultsof ...
The resultsindicatethat ...
Touristswill be transportedto the hotel in the
a i r por tm ini- bus .
5. The food at the new restaurantis highly recom_
mended.
6. lt is suggestedthat you make reservationsbefore
going to the restaurant.
7. A map of the citycan be obtainedatthe information
centre.
8. Tickets can be purchased at the box office.
5. 1. F (Reportsare factualwriting.)
2.7
3. F (Factsand generalisations
are used in survey
reports.)
4.7
5. F (Witnessstatementsare usuallyless formal.)
6.7
7. T
8.7
9. F (Surveyreportsincludefacts as well.)
10. T
11. F (Newsreportsfollow a paragraphplan.)
12. F (Witnessstatementsdo not have headings or
sub-headi ngs.)
13. T
14. T
15. T
6. a) Facts
- 46% of men read horror books
- 53% of women surveyedread romances
- a minorityof both sexes read factual books
- onlytwo in ten men and one in ten women read
this type of book
- a third of women read mysterieswhile only a
quafterof men read them
- asignificantnumberofthem readmorethanfive
books a month
- sevenout of ten women read more than three
books a month while only 20% of men read
more than two
- the largest proportionof books are borrowed
from a library
Generalisations
- the most popular type of books for men is
thrillers,while for women it is romance
- the most enthusiasticreadersare those who
read romances.
- women read more than men
- book clubs are becomingmore popular
- thissurveyindicatesthat men and women have
differentreading tastes
- women also tend to read more than men
- neithermen nor women buy many of the books
they read
b) 1. ModelA
2. ModelA
3. ModelB
4. ModetA
5. ModetB
6. ModelA
7. ModetA
8. ModetA
9. Model B
77
ExamFocus;Unit5
Tenses used in ModelA are mainlypresenttenses
(simplepresent,presentcontinuous)'
Tenses used in Model B are past tenses (past
perfectcontinuous,simple past, past continuous)
. Model A comes from an employeeof a company'
Model B comes from a student.
. Model A containsonlYfacts.
. Model B containsdetailed descriptions'
. The writer'spurpose in Model A is to assessthe
possibilityof using BeaumontCateringfor an
annualawardsceremonydinner'
- The writer'spurposein Model B is to writea report
assessingthe good and bad pointsof a recent
school triP.
. Formal style is used in Model A, informal style in
M odel B .
. Linking words in Model A: in fact, although,
therefore,however,also, on the whole, although'
Linking words in Model B: although,becauseof,
however,finally, nevertheless,in fact
. Sub-headingsin Model B: feelingsbeforethe
school trip, the trip, accommodation,activities,
feelingsand recommendations'
7. .
Model A
ParagraPhPlan for Model A
Introduction: purposeand contentof report
paragraphs 2, 3: summaryof informationunder
suitablesub-headings
conclusion
conclusion: recommendationsigeneral
ParagraPhPlan for Model B
lntroduction: set the scene (nameof place,writer's
feelings)
parag[aphs2,3,4:detai l softri psummari si ngp osit ive
and negativeasPects
Conclulion: generalassessmentand recommendation
5.D
hypothesis: it must have been about 7 o'clock
evidence: ... becauseI heardthe church bell
ring
.
.
hypothesis: the drivermust have been drunk
evidence: he was swervingall over the road
.
hypothesis:he must havebeen going at least50
kph
evidence: he kept overtakingall the other cars
.
.
11.
hypothesis: I don't think the drivereven saw the
child
evidence: he didn't slow down
.
hypothesis: must have been the car hittingthe
boy
evidence: I heard a crash
.
.
hypothesis: I thought it was broken
evidence: the boy couldn't move his neck
.
Model B
78
4.A
'
.
.
Bad points
- it specialisesin Frenchcuisinewhich is not always
suitablefor lessformalfunctions
- the deliveryservicedoes not includetables and
chairsfor those using the air service
- theY do not offer a bar service
Bad Points
- journey was dreadful because of heavy traffic
- dormitorywith rows of iron beds
- exhaustingsailinglessons
- tastelesslunch
- worn out bY the end of two weeks
3,8
9. (Suggestedanswers hypotheses)
1. the burglarmay have been wearinggloves'
2. he could have been the one who shot the shopkeePer.
3. he could have been the one who fired the shots'
4. one of the waiterscould have stolen my wallet'
5. the burglarmust have broken in at that moment'
6. they may have committedthe crime'
7. the attackei'must have hit him.
B . he must have been dri nki ng'
Good Points
10.
- the catering business is entering its twenty-fifth
successfulYear
-itisab|etode|iverfoodtofunctionsbeinghe|din
Somersetand the Midlands
- the company offers a varied menu
- the deliveryservicewill bringtablesand chairs,etc
and everythingrequiredfor the meal
- waitersare suppliedfor the evening
Good Points
- activitieslike rock climbing,sailing,horse riding
- journeYhad fantasticscenery
- sailinglessonswere fun
- long exhilaratingwalk
- sat around a fire singingsongs
- very haPPYbY the end of two weeks
- tried various sports and other activities
2.E
8.1.c
Prisonstaffin Berkshirewere on full alertyesterday after riots broke out in Bracknellprison on
SaturdaYnight.
Thetroublebeganshortlyaftereighto'clockwhen
severalprisonerslockedthemselvesintothe canteen
after the evening meal had been served' Within
hours,the riotinghad spreadto othersectionsof the
prison,and by Sundaymorningprisonershad complete control of the prison. Prison wardens were
forced to retreatto the outer section of the prison
buildingand describedthe situationinsidethe prison
as "comPleteanarchY."
ExamFocus:UnitS
At daybreakon Mondaymorning,prisonersgatheredon the roofand, usinga loud hailer,saidthatlhey
would not surrenderuntildemandsfor bettercondi
tionsweremet.Theseincludeupgradedfacilitiesand
an end to overcrowding,a problem affectingan
increasingnumber of Britishprisons.
As riotingenters its third day, prison authorities
are still refusingto negotiatewith prisoners,saying
"Whileprisonersare stillin controlof the prisontnere
is no questionof any negotiationtakingpiace.We will
not be subjectedto this kind of blackmail.',
prisoners
seem equallydeterminedto stand their ground and
the situationlookssetto continueuntiltheirdemands
are met.
Topic of each paragraph
paragraph 1 - Riot at Bracknell
paragraph 2 - Anarchy as prisonersTake Control
paragraph 3 - the prisoners'Demands
paragraph 4 - Both Sides Take Tough Stand
Paragraph plan
Introduction:summaryof event(time,place,people
involved)
paragraphs 2, 3: descriptionof main eventsand
people involved (give detailedfacts)
Conclusion:comments,referenceto futuredevelop_
ments
12. a) Model A - news report
Model B - witness statement
b) Model A - Topic of each paragraph
paragraph 1 - supertankerran aground,
Scotlandearly hours of yesterdaymorning
paragraph 2 - oil began leaking,storagecom_
par t m entr ippe do p e n , o i l s p i l l 1 2 mi l e sw i d e ,
caused t12 milliondamage,coastguardarrives
4 am, work made difficultby bad weather.
Final paragraph - next 24 hours criticalperiod,
Greenpeacespokesmancomments about
damage and prevention.
Model B - Topic of each paragraph
paragraph 1 - rough sea, watchingequipment,
3 am s hip hit s o m e th i n g .
paragraph 2 - ship in deep waters, perhaps
incorrectreadings,watercoming on board,Captain at his side,containersripped open, Captain
contacts Coastguard.
paragraph 3 - alarms sounded, crew got into
lifeboats,coastguardrescues,more vesselswere
called.
M o d e lA - P a r a g r a p h p l a n
Introduction- summary of event (time, place,
people involved)
paragraph 2 - descriptionof main event,people
involved,detailedfacts
Conclusion - comments, referenceto future
developments
ModelB-Paragraphplan
Introduction-set the scene (time,place,people
involvedin incident)
paragraph 2 - descriptionof main event, people
involved,hypothesisand evidence
Conclusion - final resultsof the incident
c) 1. ModelA
2. ModelB
3. ModelB
4. ModetA
5. ModelA
6. ModetB
7. Model B
13. (Suggested answers)
- ScoobyDoo Fun Fair,Scarseville
Heading
Paragraph 1 - lntroduction
- Location
Paragraph2
- Price
Paragraph3
- Entertainmentfacilities
Paragraph4
- Conclusion
Paragraph5
14. Model 2
Residentsof Hanworth,E. Sussex were warned
not to leave their homes lastnightas the huntfor an
escaped convict from nearby Beddston prison con_
ti nued.
The prisoner, a convicted murderer, escaped
fromthe prisonearlyyesterdaymorningwhilehe was
being transferredto Lewesfor trial. Using a knife he
had concealedin his trousers,the man threatened
the police officersguarding him and tied them up
before he escaped in the direction of Hanworth.
Police immediately alerted the residents of Han_
worth, who were advisedto stay in their houses and
lock their doors. Shops and the local
schoolclosedat midday,and willremaincloseduntil
the convictis caught.A descriptionof the convicthas
beeni ssuedby pol i ce.H e i s i n hi s mi dthi rti es,5' 11 ",
with dark brown hair, brown eyes and a beard.
PhilipChilton,officerin charge of the search,
yesterday warned the public not to approach the
man under any circumstances,saying "He is ex_
tremelydangerous.Any member of the public who
thinksthey have seen him should contacttheir local
police departmentimmediatelyand should not at_
tempt to approachhim."
Poticeare confidentthat the man will be caught
within the next twenty-fourhours.
Witness Statement (Suggested answer)
I was in the kitchenmaking dinnerwhen I heard
a noisecomingfrom the yard outside,so lturned off
the grill and waited quietly.
79
ExamFocus:Unit5
Passive Relaxation
The survey revealed that the category of passive
relaxation(includingTV watching,reading,attending
sportseventsand concerts,and listeningto music)is
the most popularway of spendingone's leisuretime.
While older wealthy people tend to read more than
seniormembersof the lower-incomegroups (67%as
opposedto 36%),peopleundertwenty read littleand
watch a lot of TV, regardlessof theireconomicstatus:
ol respondentsunderage twentywatchedat least
82o/o
ten hours of TV Per week.
I peaked through my net curtains,and saw a man
. e k e p tl o o k i n ga ro u ndso
g oingt hr oughm y ru b b i s hH
I think he didn't want to be seen. He was tall, about
5 ' 11" , about 35 y e a rs o l d , w i th d a rk b ro w n h ai r.
Because of the strange way he was acting and
becausehe matchedthe descriptionsI had heardon
the radio I knew immediatelythat it was him. He was
the prisonerwho had escapedfrom Beddston
Prison.So I got up quicklyand wentto callthe police'
Aftertellingthe sergeanton duty what I had seen he
advisedme to lock my doors and windowsand wait
for the policeto arrive.I mustadmit I was a bit scared,
so I ran upstairsand hid underthe bed!
The policecamevery quickly,but the convicthad
alreadydisappeared.
15. 1. surveyreport
2. witnessstatement
3. surveyrePort
How This lnformation Can Be Applied
It is clearfrom the above informationthat peoplewho
are well off: a) read more; b) engage in more sports;
and c) engage in more hobbies. Leisure Leisure's
if it is targetcirculationwill likelyincreasesubstantially
marketedto wealthyyoung and middle-agedpeople
(forsports)and to wealthyolder people (forhobbies).
Sporting goods and hobby supply manufacturers
shouldbe aggressivelyencouragedto take out advertising space in our magazine.Finally,salespersons
would be wiseto highlightour "indoorgames"features
when trying to get older people to take out new
subscri pti ons.
4 . a s s e s s i n gg o o d and
bad points
5. survey rePort
1.
Paragraph Plan (surveYrePort)
paragraph 1 - state purpose and content of report
paragraphs 2, 3, 4 - summaryof informationunder
s uit ables ub- he a d i n g s
Final paragraph - generalconclusion
.
formal stylewith sub-headingsand subjector main
h eading
To: James Klein,Editor,Leisure Leisure magazine
From: RalphWiddicomb,reporterand researcher
Re: LeisureSurvey
Date:September1996
2.
Paragraph plan (witness statement)
lntroduction - set the scene
paragraph 2 - descriptionof event,includehypothesisand evidence
Conclusion - final resultsof incident
.
informalstylewithoutsub-headings
I was mowing my lawn, just minding my own
businesswhen I saw a man tryingto park his car on
the street.He could have been drunk as he seemed
to be havingtrouble Parking.
A few minuteslaterI hearda loud crashand saw
that the man had reversedintoanothercar. I think he
becameangry,as he got out of his car and began
kickingthe car he'd hit.Anotherman,who must have
been the owner of the car, came runningalong the
street.He was shoutingand screamingso he must
have been very upset.He pushedthe drunk man
away from his car and they startedshouting at each
other.The drunk one punchedthe other man and
they began fighting.
Eventually,lcalledthe policeand we pulledthem
aPart.
lntroduction
B et weenJ uly a n d A u g u s to f th i s y e a r,1 2 0 0p e opl e
were surveyedby telephoneas to how they spend
their leisuretime. Their activitieswere categorised
into four groups: sports,indoor games, passiverelaxation,and hobbies.Responseswere furtherbroken down into categoriesreflectingthe age and
wealthof the resPondents.
The Wealth Factor
The surveyshowedthat peopleearningover f30,000
per yearare much more likelyto participatein sporting
activities.40o/oof wealthy people ski, ride horses or
play tennis, while only 8% of people earning under
!12, 000 engage dre g u l a rl yi n s p o rts .T h e ri c h ,e speciallythose in middle-age,were also twice as likelyto
spend more than six hours per week on a hobby'
3.
Indoor Games: UniversalAPPeal
Respondentsof all ages and incomes repoftedthat
they enjoyed some type of indoor games (indoor
games includechess, draughts,other board games,
statedthattheyplayed
cards,dartsand billiards).65%
this type of game at least occasionally.Again, older
respondentswere more likelyto socialisein this way.
80
Paragraph plan (surveY rePort)
paragraph 1 - state purpose and content of report
paragraphs 2, 3 - summary of informationunder
sui tabl esub-headi ngs
Final paragraph - generalconclusion
Exam Focus: Unit S
.
formal style with sub-headingsand subjector main
h e ading
To: Fred Montague,Editor,The High School Times
From:XavierPiggott,studentreporter
Re: Eatinghabitssurvey
Date:October 1996
Introduction
ln Septemberof this year, every studentat Cooper
High School was given a questionnaireabout their
e a t ing habit s . O f a to ta l o f 1 8 3 2 s tu d e n ts ,1 1 09
responded.The questionsrelatedespeciallyto eati n g on s c hoolday s , i n c l u d i n gth e ty p e o f fo o d c o nsumed, when eaten,and where purchased.
A Popular Canteen
Cooper's canteen is a popular lunch-timeeating
spot. 63% of the respondentsreportedthat they ate
there at leastfour days per week. 20% bring a lunch
to school, 117oeatoffschoolgroundsat restaurants,
and 6% don't eat lunch at all.
Unhealthy Food Choices
While m os t s t ude n ts e a t h e a l th y l u n c h e s , th ei r
snackinghabitsare less wholesome.Of the 46% of
studentswho reportedsnacking between classes,
only 10%of these snack on fruit or vegetables.46%
enjoy chocolate bars or cakes, and 25o/"eat crisps.
87"do, however,eatyoghurtor drinkmilkas a snack.
No Time for Breakfast
Perhapsthe most surprisingresultof the survey is
how few students reported eating breakfast.Only
177oeata healthybreakfasteveryday beforeschool,
whileafurtherl07oeatverylittleor eatfoodwhichhas
littlenourishment,eg. a coffeeand a biscuit.
Conclusion Recommendation
The survey shows that Cooper High is in need of
some informationabout the importanceof a healthy
diet. A regularcolumn on diet and nutritionin The
High SchoolTimes would be usefuland worthwhile
for the students.
4.
Paragraph Plan (assessing good/bad points)
paragraph 1 - state purpose and content
paragraphs 2, 3, 4 - summaryof each point,giving
both positiveand negativeaspects
Final paragraph - generalassessmentand recommendation
.
formalstylewith sub-headingsand subjector main
h e a ding.
To: Messrs.Kaneand McDuff,Owners,powder
MountainSki Resort
From: LaurenceDawes
Re: Reporton resort'sservices,facilities
Date:January1996
Introduction
lwas engagedby you to investigatethe servicesand
the facilitiesof the resort.To researchthis report, I
bookeda one-weekstayat PowderMountain,saying
I was a businessmanon a "workingvacation,"and
told no one about why I was truly there.
Accommodation
My roomwas comfortablyfurnished
witha good bed,
a dresserand a writingtable.Thetelevision,however,
did not givea clearpicture,and althoughI requested
hotel staff to give me another one, the problem was
not attendedto forthreedays.Nonetheless,
the maid
servicewas excellent,my room was alwayscleaned
daily,and the maid was very politeand efficient.
Food
I ate most of my meals at the resort'srestaurant,the
"Alpen-essen".Both the food and the servicewere
excellent;I was particularlyimpressedby the wellstockedwine cellar.
When orderingroom seryice,however,lwas disappointed. The food took at least forty-fiveminutes to
arrive,and was alwayscold.
Bar serviceat the "Schusscafe",it should be said.
was superb.
Business Facilities
Therewas no placeto make photocopiesor send or
receivefaxes.Therewas no accessto computers,or
even to a typewriter.I could not make long distance
callsfrom my room.A businesstraveller,evenwhen
on a "workingvacation",needsaccessto thistype of
equipmentand service.
The Skiing
Every day of my stay at the resort, I skied. Although
it was quite crowdedat the weekend,queuesfor the
liftsneverexceededten minutes,even on the most
popul arruns.
On the other hand, skiing instructorswere hard to
find, and there were only four members of the ski
patrolvisibleon the slopes.Still,my rentedskis and
boots were of excellentquality,and the skiing was
unforgettable.
Conclusion
The Powder Mountain Ski Resort deserves high
marksfor its bar and restaurant,its maid service,and
the design of its rooms (not to mention its great
skiing!)
lmprovementsshouldbe made,however,to itsfacilitiesfor business,its room service,telephonesystem,
and attentionto guests'needs;the slopesshouldbe
betterpatrolled,and ski instructionshould be easier
to obtain.
81
Unit 6: Part 1
5.
ParagraphPlan (surveYrePort)
Introduction- statepurposeand content
under
paragraphs2, 3 - summaryof information
suitablesub-headings
Conclusion- generalconclusion
P unk U npopul ar
Only 7"/"of the respondentssaid that Punk Rock was
their preferredtype of music,althoughit is somewhat
more popularin London,and seemsto be undergoing
a revivalthere.Thrash,a very high-energy,hard rock
style is the top choice of 4"/"of those surveyed.
formal stylewith sub-headingsand subjector main
heading
R & B Remains High on List
23o/oraspondedthat Rhythmand Blues is their favourite music,demonstratingthat this sound has a lasting
appeal.1970'sretro,on the other hand, is a preferred
style of only 10o/oof the club and disco set.
To:
From:
Re:
Date:
Sarahvon Klensch,Editor,Boom Boom
music magazine
Ziggy Zool, researcher
Music PreferencesSurvey
August 1996
Purpose
This reportsets out the resultsof a surveycarriedout
betweenthe monthsof Mayand August1996.People
in clubs and discosaroundEuropewere askedwhat
kindsof musicthey enjoyedmost.Atotalof over2500
peopler es pon d e di n R o m e ,A th e n s ,Be rl i n ,L ondon
and Amsterdamnightspots.
The People's Choice
Technoand hiphopwould seemto be the kingsof the
dancefloor at present. Over 40"/"of those surveyed
statedthatthisverydanceablemusicis the best.Other
types of music which showed up in the resultswere
Reggae(8/"), Triphop (3"/"),and Jungle (4"/").
Suggested Action Based on Survey Results
Boom Boom magazine would be well advised to
increaseitscoverageof Technoand Hiphopartistsand
thei r songs. P ubl i ci si ngthe magazi nei n cl ubs and
discos could also increasecirculation.
Unit 6
VocabularyExercises:Part1 (p. 136'137)
Unit6-Part1
Warm-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 134)
.
(Suggestedanswer):ln two of the pictures,somethingis beingblownup andpeoplearebeinginjured.
The otherpictureis of a gas attack.The man in the
pictureis wearinga gas maskso as not to be
affectedby the fumes.
.
(Suggestedanswer)
woulddeter
SA: I thinkthatharsherpunishment
crimes.
fromcommitting
terrorists
is anothersolution.lf
SB: Yes.Bettersurveillance
therewas moresecurityat airports,then
terroristswouldn'tattemptan attack.
SA: That'sright.I wouldneveragreeto meetthe
demandsas thiswouldencourage
terrorists'
moreterrorism. etc
.
Warm-upListeningActivity
1. T
2.T
3.T
4.F
5.T
6.F
7.r
ReadingTask:Part1 (p. 134-135)
1. A 2.E
82
3.8
4.H
5.F
6.C
1. smal l -scal e- l i mi ted
to access - to obtain
blow up - make sth explode
reactor - central part of nuclear power station
minimal - very little
radioactive - containingatoms that give off radiation
breeze - light wind
fatal - causing death
exposed - put into contact with sth
pulmonary - of the lungs
deadly - extremelydangerous
spokesman - personwho speakson behalfof a
company,government etc
evacuate - to clear a buildingor area becauseof
danger
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
core
devastating
i ssue
intimidated
entrustedwith
i mpl ausi bl e
7.
f.
9.
10.
11.
12.
surveillance
i mpact
prospect
contamination
potenti al l y
ensued
Unit6: Part2
3. (Ss shou/d memorise fhese text-relatedcollocations
and expressions.T checks in the nert lesson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
d et ailed
m inim al
p owers t at ion
to wit hs t and
airborne
to m inim is e
s ign
4 . 1 . hijac k
2 . k illed
8.
9.
10.
11 .
12.
13.
14.
.
1. assassination
2. chemicalattack
3. biologicalwarfare
to re s u l t
a n th ra x
deadly
i n te n s e
to focus
to g e t
s u rv e i l l a n c e
I was standingat the frontof the crowd,outsidethe
conferencebuilding, hoping to see a famous face.
SuddenlyI saw the presidentstridingquicklyup to the
podi umset up underneaththe huge arch of the main
entrance.The presidentbegan speaking,surrounded
by hi s bodyguards.
Severalfilmcrewsrushedup the wide marblesteps
to fi l m hi s hi stori cspeech,but suddenl ythe sound o f
gunfire drowned out all other noises.Two gunmen,
hiddenamongstthecameramen,riddledthe president
and those standingnearbywith bullets.
Afterthat, all hell broke lose.The gunmen rushed
towardsme, wavingtheirguns at the crowd. I realised
that everyone else was moving aside or throwing
themselvesto the ground. The terroristsrushed into
the gap in the crowd,passingon eithersideof me, and
beforeany policearrivedthey were long gone.
I don't thinkthat I'veeverbeen so scaredin my life,
and I doubt I ever will be again.
3. p u ri fi c a ti o n 5 . g u n
4. p a c i fi s t
6 . fi tl
6. 1.
2.
3.
4.
2.d
ris e
measures
adopt ed
i m pos e
3.e
5.
6.
7.
B.
4.a
5.f
c i ti z e n
sentences
d e te rmi n e d
commit
6.c
9 . p o s s i b i l i ty
1 0 . s u rv e i l l a n ce
measures against terrorism: tmpose strict government control, longer prison sentencesfor convicted
terrorists,increasesecurityand surveillancein public
places
7. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
cons t ant ly
assassination
sophisticated
tec hnologic al
developments
8 . 1 . fear
2. Horrorof horrors
3. terror
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Grammarcheck:Part 1 (p. 132)
undetectable
explosives
growth
poisonous
h o rri fy i n g
4 . d re a d
5 . fe a r
6. panic
4. bombi ng
5. ki dnappi ng
6. hi j acki ng
(Suggested answer)
5. (lf Ss have difficulg with any unknown words, T shoutd
explain these in Ss' native language if necessary).
1. b
(T refersSs fo Ex.5 if necessary.)
7 . a l a rm
8. panic
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1. The forms of terrorismmentionedin the text are
bombing, assassination,the poisoning of water
su pplies ,t he us e o f n u c l e a rw e a p o n s ,h i j a c k i n g,
the crashing of an aircraftinto a nuclear power
plant, biologicalwarfareand the use of chemical
weapons.
2. Peoplewronglyfear that terroristswill use nuclear
weaponsor poiso nw a te rs u p p l i e s .
3. The real thing to fear is that terroristswill take
advantage of already existing technology - for
e xam ple,by c r as h i n ga p l a n ei n to a n u c l e a rp l a nt
- and so cause destructionon a massivescale.
4. Surveillance
systemsare installed,staffaretraineo
to recognisesuspicioussmellsand acts,and places
likenuclearpowerplantsarewell-protected
so that
terroristacts will not be effective.
5 . l f we allow our s e l v e sto b e i n ti mi d a te dth
, e n th e
terroristshave achievedtheir goal by making us
feel insecureand mistrustfulof our own governm ent .
7.
L
9.
10.
11 .
had
is
been
being
does
12.
13.
14.
15.
shal l
,/
has
will
Unit6-Part2
Warm-upActivities:Part2 (p. 138)
Follow-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 197)
(Suggested answers)
been
will
being
was/eat
,/
.
(Suggested answers)
In the first picture,a man is undergoingacupuncture
treatment.This is a form of alternativehealingwhich
many peoplesay is very effective.The other pictureis
of a rnan doing some exercise.I think it might be for
healthreasons.In the third picturethere is a building
w hi ch l ooks l i ke i t coul d be i n C hi na.I thi nk that the
types of therapyare relatedto China.I think the text
might be about a Chineseform of therapeutichealing.
.
(Suggested answers)
Yes, I try to take regularexercise,becauseI think it is
very importantto keep yourselfhealthyand fit. Many
people who don't exercise often suffer from heart
problemsand otherhealthproblems.Exerciseisfun as
well, and it makes you feel good about yourself.
B3
Unit6: Part2
.
Warm-upListeningActivitY
1. oriental
2. postures
3. halfan hour
4. stress 7. obesity
5. energy 8. airstewardess
6. illness 9. prolong
ReadingTask: Part 2 (p. 138-139)
7 . A ( Ln 1- 2)
8 . B ( L n8 - 1 0 )
9. C (Ln13-15)
1 0 . B ( L n3 0 )
11 . C (L n 3 6 -3 7 )
12. C (Ln a0)
1 3 .B ( 1 n 4 6 )
5.
6.
7.
8.
meditative
si mP l Y
sui tabl e
corrective
7. 1.
2.
3.
4.
treatment
di fferent
vari ous
healthy
8. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
transpl ant,di agnosed
headache,runny,flu
spots,measl es,chi cken-P ox
mumps,symptoms
cure, fatal
rabi es
al l ergy,sneezi ng
VocabularyExercises:Part2 (p. 140'141)
9. 1. panti ng
1. shiver - to shake with fear (or cold)
gentle - not demandingor stressful
oriental - from the Far East
postures - set body Positions
circulation - blood flowinground the body
deficient - lackingin something
obesity - conditionof being extremelyoverweight
modifications - changes
swellings - painfullumps on the surfaceof the body
traces - signs or marks of something
motivation - the reasonfor wantingto do something
2. (Note:"suggesfedthatshe start..."sfarfis subiunctive)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
immunesystem
vigorous
miraculous
insomnia
stimulates
6. endorse
7. sap
8. Acupuncture
9, subsequently
10. ailments
3. (Ss shou/d memorise fhese brt-related collocations
and expressions.T checks in the next lesson).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
t o f eel
to build
conventional
t o pr olong
to stimulate
to alleviate
to cut
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
to achieve
to grow
to s tre n g th e n
m e d i ta ti v e
healthcare
to sound
chemotherapy,
4. conventionalmedicine:radiotherapy,
injections,steroidcreams,blood tests,tooth
extraction,X-ray,surgery,transplants
alternativemedicine: herbalism,aromatherapy,
meditation,homeopathy,acupuncture,yoga
5. 1. d
2.h
3.b
4. 1
5.f
6.c
6 . 1. deteriorate
2. diagnos is
84
7. k
8.a
9.i
10. e
11. g
12. j
3 . ta b l e t
4. specialist
5 . injection
6 . a m b u l ance
2. hi ccuP s
9. straightening
10. rebuilding
3. gasping
Follow-upActivities:Part2 (p. 141)
(Suggestedanswers)
I knowof acupuncture,whichinvolvesstickingneedles
intovariouspartsof the body to relievestress.Hypnotism and aromatherapyare also forms of alternative
medicine.I think that they definitelywork, but only if
you believein them enough to take them seriously.
Qigong is an excellentway of treatingdisease.lt
consistsof a system of meditativeexerciseswhich
involvestandingin variousposturesfor halfan hourper
day, and carryingout simple movementsand breathing exercises.Quigong reducesstress,improvescirculation,and helpsstrengthenthe immunesystem.So
far it has been used mainly to treat minor ailments,
asthma,i nsomni a,rheumati s mand
such as al l ergi es,
obesity.However,it has also been successfulin treating cancer.
I suffer from asthma,and as a resultI'm nearlyalways
out of breath.I've tried lots of differentforms of treatmentwithoutsuccess.So whenthe doctor suggested
Qigong, I thought l'd give it a try. I was amazedat the
results,and felt much better almost immediately.I
would recommend Qigong to anybody who has
healthproblems:it may sound improbable,but it really
works.
GrammarCheck:Part2 (p. 141)
2./
3. more
4. other
5. the
6, more
7.
B.
9.
10.
11.
/
like
as
more
does
12.
13.
14.
15.
and
to
same
many
Unit 6: Part3
Unit6-Part3
Warm-upActivities:Part3 (p. 142)
'
(Suggestedanswers)
Twoof the picturesshowhousesbuiltunderthe earth.Thethirdpictureis of a housebuiltin the openair.Thetext
maybe aboutvarioustypesof dwellings.
(Tdrawsa spidergramon the boardand elicitsfromSs varioustypesof dwetlingsas we1as their features.)
traditional
isolated
historical
private
DETACHED
HOUSE
private
garden
luxurious
exPensiveluxurious
spacious
spacious
expensiveto
maintain
modern
solitary
secure
cosy
DWELLING
reasonably
priced
no garden
norsy
l ow cei l i ngs
small rooms
ol d
traditional
thatched roof
low/highrent
lots of flats
SEMI-DETACHED
HOUSE
many floors
no garden
centrallylocated
family-sized
lack of
pnvacy
no individuality
garden
modern
Livingundergroundwould be quiet,but strange.Therewould be no sunlight,althoughtherecould be plentyof room.
I would considerit, but only if the house was comfortableand well-constructed,
otherwisedamp could be a real
p ro b l em .
They could be builtunderground,underthe sea or possiblyon platformsin the sea.They could also be builtin outer
spaceor on otherplanets.
Warm-upListeningActivity
1. overpopulation 3. 75/"
2. heat
4. evil
5. depression
6. sounds
ReadingTask:Part3 (p. 142-143)
14. E
15. I
16. H
17. B
18. F
19.A
2 0 .G
7. aromas
9. space
B. supermarkets 10. attractive
VocabularyExercises:Part3 (p. 144-145)
1. appeal to - to be attractiveto
overpopulation - state created by there being too
many people in an area
fragile - easilydamaged
marks - indicates
subterranean- the part of the earthwhich is underground
experienced - felt
B5
Unit6: Part3
depression - feelingof prolonged,extremesadness
mud-stone - a mixtureof clay and rock
submerged - put completelyunder or into sth
forcing - making sb do sth they don't want to do
short-term - of sth which only takes a shotl period
of time to happen
2. f .
2.
3.
4.
imposed
hostility
equate
combat
5.
6.
7.
8.
incarceration
shaft
cavern
excavate
9. rotating
10. dizzy
3. (Ssshou/d memorise fhese text-relatedcollocations or
expresslons.f checks in the nexf /esson.,)
1.
2.
3.
4.
high speed
t o dis t ur b
f inanc ial
low
4 . a ) 1.
2.
b) 1.
c) 1.
2.
f lat
tenant
barracks
s helt er
dweller s
5.
6.
7.
8.
to raise
fra g i l e
expands
long-term
3.
4.
2.
3.
4.
9.
10.
11.
12.
above
re g u l a ti ons
a s tu d Y
to mark
5 . o w n e rs
l a n d l o rd
p re m i s e s 6 . l o d g e rs
i n h a b i ta n ts 3 . re fu g e
re s i d e
housing
5 . (Ss do the Exerciseon their own. While T checks
themeaningsof each
answers,helsheelicitslexplains
distractor.)
1. B
2.A
3.c
4.D
5.8
6.B
7.4
6 . (T goes through the cues and explainsany unknown
words to Ss, then helshe asks Ss fo give sentences
comparing the two types of dwellings using linking
words. Then, Ss prepare their monologues on their
own. T asks some Ss fo report to the c/ass.)
(Suggested answer)
The first picture is of a castle,while the second
pictureis of some high-riseblocks of flats in a city.A
flat would have the advantagesof being close to the
city centre,near publictransport,and it would be
fittedwith modernconveniences.However,you would
not havea garden,and therewouldbe a lackof privacy.
It might also be very noisy and stressful.
Livingin a castlewould be nice. Becauseit would
be in the countryside,the lifestylewould be relaxed,
and the air would be much fresherthan in the city. A
castlewould probablyalsohavepicturesquegrounds.
The disadvantagesof livingin a castleare that it might
be lonelyand isolated.A castleis rathercold, damp,
and expensiveto maintain.lt could also be haunted!
86
7. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
. . .t a k e sa f t e r. . .
...took off from the runw aY...
...to be taken i n at ...
...w as taken aback ...
. . . p l a n n i n gt o t a k e u P . . .
. . .t o o k o v e r . . .
. . .t o o k t o h e r . . .
Follow-upActivities:Part3 (p. 145)
(T elicitsinformationfrom Ss and fillsin the table on the
board. Then, Ss /ook at the table and talk about living
underground.)
Advantages: cheap to heat, doesn't harm environment, less noisy,savesspace,citiesmore attractive
Disadvantages:associatedwith evil,people get
depressedand stressed
Solutions: rotating prismsreflectsunlightdown shafts,
"spacecreationsystems"which mix light,sounds,
breezesand aromasfrom outsideworld
(Suggestedanswer)
On one hand l i vi ng undergroundi s a good i d ea.
Undergroundhouses are cheaper to heat and less
noisy. Buildingundergrounddoesn't affectthe environment.On the other hand people"fear"the subterranean and get depressedif they stay there for too
long. Despitethis fact there are solutions.Let's take
into account the fact that sunlightcan be reflected
underground,and sounds and smel l scan be re cr eated,Morespacei s needed,so bui l di ngundergro und
may be the sol uti on.
(Suggestedanswers)
Transport - overhead railways,private helicopters,
fewer cars, use of more environmentally-friendly
vehiclesetc.
Food - food tablets,peoplewon't eat meat etc.
Education- robotsinsteadof teachers,freeeducation
for everyone,more specialisededucation,learning
through computers,pupils won't write anything on
papersi ncethey' l lbe usi ngthei rcomputers, et c
Fami l y- smal l erfami l i es,chi l dren' supbri ngi ngfi n anetc
ciallysupportedby the state,
GrammarGheck:Part3 (P. 145)
2.a
3.a
4.a
s./
6.A
7. an
B. ./
9. an
10.,/
1 1 .a
12.,/
1 3 .a
1 4 .a
1 5 ./
Unit6: Part4
Unit6-Part4
Warm-upActivities:Part4 (p. 140)
.
(Suggestedanswers)
(T drawsthe followingspidergramon the boardand eticitsfrom Ss wordsrelevantto thetheme"ships"./
port
quay
fishingboat
harbour
steamboat
ferryboat
yacht
dock
hovercraft
jetty
cruiser
anchorage
captain
fish
sailor
sink
engrneer
navigator
float
capsrze
crurse
tie-up
oar
rudder
propeller
mast
E Q U IPME N T
radar
anchor
radio
You could find all sorts of things on a sunkenship such as coins,jewellery,armour,guns, cannons,any type of
cargo,and even dead bodies.
(Suggestedanswer): Thereare picturesof ships sunk or capsized.There'salso the pictureof a submarine.Maybe the captainmade a mistake,or therewere rocks or icebergsand the ships hit them. Bad weatherusuallycauses
shipwreckstoo.
(Suggested answer): The Titanicwas a big ship. lt sank on its maiden voyage because it hit an iceberg. Lots of
rich people were on it and hardlyanyone survived.
Warm-up Listening Activity
1. May
2. 1,200
3. Americans
4. 1912
5. survived
6. jewels
ReadingTask:Part4 (p. 146-147)
21,22.A, C (inanyorder)
23,24.B, D (inanyorder)
25.D
26.B
27.C
28. B
29,30.A, E (inanyorder)
31,32.A, B (inanyorder)
33,34,35.A, D, E (inanyorder)
7. submarine
8. 84
g. 800
10. gol d coi ns
11. 1963
12. 8,500
VocabularyExercises:part 4 (p. 149)
1. outrage- extremeanger
torpedoed- attackedwithundenarater
missiles
unarmed- withoutweapons
- directedfroma distance
remote-controlled
maidenvoyage- firstvoyage
maritime- of the sea
submersible- a craftthatcan go undenrvater
artifacts- man-madearchaeological
treasures
detonators- deviceusedto set off bombs
fate - futurewhichcannotbe controlled
obliteration- totaldestruction
naval- havingto do witharmedseaforces
flagship- the bestand mostpowerful
shipin a fleet
fleet- groupof ships
87
ExamFocus;Unit6
Luckily,I got into a lifeboat,but many people
didn't.We driftedfor hours on the cold watersof the
Atlantic.Sharkswere around us' I was scared' Still,I
believed I would be saved and kept praying. We
decidedto let off a flareto attractattentionand we were
lucky to be spotted by a ship. When we saw it approaching us we couldn't believe it was true. Even
when we got on the ship'sdeck we hardlybelievedwe
had been rescued.
I could nevergo on a boat again now: I still have
nightmaresabout it all the time. I don't think I will ever
be able to swim again either.
consignment - load of goods for delivery
hoard - collectionof valuablethings
loot - money or valuableitems obtainedby sb
incomprehensible- impossibleto understand
sprung a leak - developeda hole where water, etc
can enter
imploded - fell violentlyinwardsunder pressure
2.1.e
2. b
3.h
7. g
B.l
9.c
4. m
5.a
6.k
1 0 .f
11.d
12. j
13.i
3. (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise these textrelated collocationsand expressions.f checks in the
nexf /esson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B,
9.
10.
11.
12.
unprovoked
to seton
disaster
heavy
to runon to
deep
sea
major
crew
to c h e c k
to experience
maiden
5. sergeant
4 . 1 . m anager
2. runway
3. yacht
4. attic
5. 1.
2.
3.
4.
sinking
life-jackets
drowned
survivors
5.
6.
7.
8.
fl a re
adrift
spotted
rescueteam
9 . e me rgency
rations
10. wreck
6. 1.
2.
3.
4.
embark
anc hor
port
en route
5.
6.
7.
8.
destination
radar
lifeboats
crew
9. signal
1 0 . s e a s i ck
Follow-upActivities:Part4 (p. 148)
(Suggestedanswers):I'd liketo diveto a sunkenship
to find treasure,but you might find dead bodiestoo!
S t ill,I t hink it wo u l d b e a th ri l l i n ge x p e ri e n c e .
(Suggested answer)
Your name:
Age:
Ship's name: Titanic
D at e: 10 J uly 19 1 2(i n fo rma ti osnu p p l i e db y T )
Destination:New York City
What happened: hit an iceberg- three hourslaterthe
ship had disappeared.
How I survived: got in a lifeboat- we driftedfor hours
- rescuedby ship.
How I feel now: nightmares- can't go on a boat.
I remember that fateful day as though it were
yesterday.lt was 10 July, 1912.We were headingfor
New York City and having a really nice time when
suddenlywe hearda strangesound.The boat had hit
an ic eber g. W ep a n i c k e da n d s ta rte dru n n i n gup and
down the deck tryingto saveourselves.The boat sank
in less than three hours.
88
.
(Note: T refersSs to p.50 S's Book for relevanttheory
on factual reports)
ExamFocus- Useof English:Unit6 (p.149)
Part 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
up
7.
w i th
B.
out
what/whatever 9.
10.
have
who
are
for
bY
onl Y /sol e
11'
12.
13.
14'
15.
was
bei n g
on
taken
bee n
Part3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
... are out of fashi on...
... approveof her staY i ng...
. . . i n c a s ey o u n e e d . . .
... spend C hri stmasby hersel f...
... slowly did the trafficmove ...
...w as made to w ai t ...
... enj oyedoursel ves...
. . .p u t u P w i t hs u c h . . .
. . . I w e r ey o u , l w o u l d . . .
. . .d o e s n ' tm i n d b e i n ga s k e d. . .
Prepositions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
on
in
in
on
w i th
6.
7.
8.
9.
10,
of
on
to
on
from
11.
12.
13.
14.
on
from
on
with/to
ExamFocus- Listening:Unit6 (p. 150)
Part 2
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
sees their picture
they/theirfaces change
t h e m i s s i n gc h i l d
other familymembers
family features/characteristics
on the computerscreen
a young chi l d/baby
the naturalprocess
o l d e rc h i l d
hai rstyl e
ExamFocus:Unit6
Part 2
You will hear a computer artist giving a tatk about
pictures of missing people. For questions9 to 1g,
c omp Iete the notes whic h summarise what the sp eaker
says.
Speaker,'One of the most difficultjobs for the police is
lookingfor people.Once they havefollowedup allthe
informationthey have,thereis reallyonlyone thing left.
Pictures.By showingpicturesto the public,they hope
that someone will report the missing person. Now,
people can go missingfor years and then be found,
often as a result of someone seeing their picture
somewhere.But in the caseof missingchildrenthings
arevery different.You see,parentsalmostalwayshave
re centphot ogr aphso f th e i rc h i l d .B u t c h i l d re na g e ...
and a pictureof a two-year-oldis not much use when
the child is still missingyears later.But now there is a
processof producingimagesof childrenas theywould
probably lookyearsaftertheyhavegone missing.This
is how it works.
Computerartistsreceivea photographwhichclearly
shows the featuresof the child,taken as recentlyas
possiblebeforehe or she disappeared.photographs
are also neededof the rest of the family- the parents,
and any brothersor sisters.The computerartiststhen
examine the photographslookingfor familylikenesses
- featuressuch as eyes,nose, bone structures,characteristics which are inherited.They put the child's
photographinto a computer,and it prints it onto the
screen.The screenis dividedintogrids or squares,so
that they can focus on smallpartsof the picture.They
then changethe picture- stretchit, enlargeand move
tiny partsin the sameway that the child'sface ages as
the child grows.
The nextthing is to add those specialcharacteristics that were found in the other photographsof the
family.As you've probablyseen, it's difficultto see a
family likenessin a baby, but much easierin an
older child - or, of course,an adult.All these developments happen naturallyas the child grows.The
computercan performthe sameprocesson the screen
and producean accuratepictureof the olderchild.The
pictureis shownin publicplaces,in newspapers,or on
te l e v is ion.
It is a reliableprocess and there are more successeseveryyear.Somethingthat does make things
more difficultis the way the child might be wearinghis
or her hair.Stylesmake such a differenceto a face and a very short style,for example,can make a child
much more difficultto recognise.But for the most
part,childrenfound throughthis processlook remarka b l y sim ilart o t heirc o m p u te ri m a g e .
ExamFocus- Speaking:UnitO (p. 151)
Part 3
(Suggestedanswers)
SA; For a broken leg, I'd recommenda plastercast.
This isn't the sort of thing that can be cured by alternativemedicine.
SB.'Yes.You mightneedan anaestheticforthepainas
well.Forbackache,I'd recommendyoga,becauseit's
very relaxing,and good for your postureand blood
ci rcul ati on.
SA; Acupuncture is good for allergies, and so is
Qi gong.I don' t thi nk conventi onal
medi ci nehel ps
these at all.
SB; For asthma, you can use an inhaler,which is
conventional.
You couldalsouseherbalremedies,
and
breathingexercises,such as yoga.
SA; For Insomnia you could drink soothing herbal
teas, such as camomiletea.
SB; Yes. You could also take sleepingtablets,or do
relaxationexercises,such as meditation.
SA; Forflu you needto take lotsof vitaminC and drink
lots of liquids.There is no other treatment.
SB;Yes.Forstress lwould recommendmeditation,as
it is supposedto be very relaxing.
SA; Aromatherapywould be the best alternativemedicine for someonewith headaches.lt would also
help somebodywith a cough.
SB; Yes. Conventionalmedicinesfor those would be
cough-syrupand aspirins.
Part 4
(Suggested
answers)
SA; One advantageof alternativetherapiesis that they
are a completelynaturalway to treat illnesseswithout usi ngdrugs.
SB; Yes, but they can be very expensivecompared to
just going to see your doctor.
SA; That'strue, but lthink that most peopleare willing
to pay extrawhen it comes to their health.
SB.'Yes,you're right,and I think it's worth it.
SA..I think I would like to try an alternativemethod of
treatmentbecause I've heard so much about things
like acupunctureand yoga.
SB.'Yes,I would too. I'm very curiousto see for myself
if these therapiesreallywork.
SA,'I've heard of homeopathicmedicine,shiatsuand
heal i ngusi ngthe hands.
SB.' Yes, I've heard of those and also hypnotherapy
and hydrotherapy.
SA; I thinkthat alternative
therapieswill becomemore
widely used in the future becausepeoplewill startto
believein them more than they do now.
SB,'I agree, I think that it will be proved that they work
just as well as conventionaltreatmentsfor most illNCSSES.
89
ExamFocus;Unit6
ExamFocus- Writing:Unit6 (P.152)
The second extractuses more formal language.
whereas
The secondarticleincludesimpersonalstyle,
the first includes personal style, (eg. you have of
cour s e,hav ey ou e v e r ...).
Both articlesare about the OlympicGames.
The words in the headlinesare not included in the
extracts.
The first extract must be taken from a light-hearted
newspaperlmagazine(school / or local newspaperi
magazine)
The second extract must be taken from a serious
newspaper/magazine.
1. 1. b
2.e
3.a
4.d
5.c
Extension activity
(After completing Ex 1 T should ask Ss to look at the
headlines and judging from their level of formality,
decide whether the article would be formal or /ess
formal.)
a. formal
b. lessformal
c. lessformal
d. formal
e. lessformal
2. 1. D formal style;techniquesused: lt startswith a
problemwhich needs a solution(firstparagraph),it summarisesopinion(lastparagraph);
it uses "providing solutions"paragraph plan
from p. 100 in the S's book; suggestedtitles:
Recycling:Stepping-Stoneto Saving Earthor
ProtectOur Environment- Recycle!
2 . B f or m als t y l e ;te c h n i q u euss e d :s ta tea fi rm opi nion (firstparagraph),statea personalopinion
(last paragraph); use "expressingopinions"
paragraphplan from p. 100 in the S's book;
suggestedtitles:Jobs for the Handicappedor
Give the HandicaPPeda Break.
3. F formalstyle;techniquesused: startwith a quotation (firstparagraph),state a personal
opinion (last paragraph);use "discursiveessays" paragraphplan from p. 100 in the S's
book;suggestedtitles:Hunting- ViciousSport?
or ls K illin ga SP o rt?
4. A formalstyle;techniquesused:startwith rhetorical question(firstparagraph),gives opinion
(lastparagraph);use "expressingopinions"
paragraphplan from p. 100 in the S's book;
suggestedtitles:Too Much LeisureTime?
or Need for LeisureTime - Just an Excuse?
lessformalstyle;techniquesused:addressthe
C
5.
reader directly (firstparagraph),end with a
quotation(lastparagraph);use "advantages/
disadvantages"paragraphplan from p. 100
in the S's book; suggestedtitles:Women on
the Riseor CapableWomen.
6. E lessformalstyle;techniquesused: make reference to a strangescene (firstparagraph),
state a personalopinion (lastparagraph)use
" pr ov idin gs o l u ti o n s "fro m p . 1 0 0 i n th e S ' s
90
a MatchWillNeverbe
titles:Watching
book;suggested
Sport?
Spectator
Dangerous
the Sameor Football:
3. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
to makecontrastingpoints
However;
A majoradvantageof; to list advantages
to add morepointson a topic
Moreover;
To sumup;to conclude
to makecontrastingpoints
Despite;
ParagraphPlan
Paragraph1: statetoPic
Paragraph2: advantages
Paragraph3: disadvantages
withoutusingpersonalwords
opinion
Finalparagraph:
or expressions.
4. ParagraphPlan
Paragraph1: statetoPic
for
Paragraph2: arguments
against
Paragraph3: arguments
withoutusingpersonalwords
opinion
Finalparagraph:
or expressions.
(Suggestedanswer)
Firstparagraph:
Mostpeoplehavebecomesousedto owninga carthat
they cannotimaginewhat lifewouldbe likewithout
the damagingeffects
one.Yet,whenone considers
it becomesquestionthe
environment,
have
on
cars
or
ablewhetherwe shouldconsiderthema necessity
a harmfulluxury.
Last paragraph:
carsarewithoutdoubt
intoaccount,
Takingeverything
andthismeans
wayof travelling
the mostconvenient
that,despitethe harmfuleffectthey can haveon the
theyarelikelyto
andthecostsinvolved,
environment,
is
remainpopularuntil a more attractivealternative
available,
5. Should the Sport of Hunting be Completely
Banned?
The sport of huntingis a topic which animalrights
activists and hunters have been debating for many
years.The former stressthe crueltyof killinganimals
for sport,whereasthe latterarguethat it does not have
any negativeeffectson the naturalenvironment.
In the first place,a total ban on huntingwould not
be beneficial,as hunters'groups and clubs actually
protectendangeredspeciesby financiallysupporting
the preservationof wetlands.
Moreover,legallyallowinghuntingduring particular times of the year preventsthe overpopulationof
certainspecies.lt alsogivesthe animalsthe chanceto
breed and let their offspringreachadulthood,thus
restrictingthe threatof extinction.
Besides,the naturalfood chain is also protected
and controlledbyallowingcertainanimalstobe hunted
and killedby others.
ExamFocus:Unit6
Opponentsof this view stronglyargueagainstthis
activity,questioningwhether it is a sport at all. They
opposeit on the groundsthat it is an aggressive,cruel,
pointlessactivity;it may have been vital for man,s
survivalmany yearsago, they argue,but now such a
need does not exist.
All things considered, before deciding to completelyban hunting,one must take into account the
positiveaspects of organised,controlledand legal
hunting.In additionto the pleasurehuntersenjoywhen
tracking game in the great outdoors,conscientious
huntingcould actuallybe doing naturesome good.
6 . co rre c t or der : 1. C, 2 . B, 3 . A, 4 . D
(Suggested answers)
1.
2.
3.
4.
DriversTrapped in TrafficNightmare
Coach Crash ClaimsBritishHolidaymakers
FuriousFarmersBlock Roads in Protest
Two Drown in BoatingTragedy
Paragraph Plan
1. B
Paragraph 1: summaryof event
Main body: descriptionof main event(s),
and people involved
Final paragraph: comments
2. D
Paragraph 1: summaryof event
Main body: descriptionof main event(s),
and people involved
Final paragraph: comments
3. A
Paragraph 1: summaryof event
Main body: descriptionof main event(s),
and people involved
Final paragraph: comment,referenceto
futuredevelopments
4. C
Paragraph 1: summaryof event
Main body: descriptionof main event(s),
and people involved
Final paragraph: comment,referenceto
futuredevelopments
paragraph 1: statesname and locationof place,and
reasonsfor choosingit
paragraphs 2-3: describes particulardetails of the
place and explainshow to spend free time there
Finalparagraph:expressesfeelingsand finalthoughts
about the place and gives a recommendation
7. Purpose of each Paragraph:
Paragraph1: statesthe nameand locationof the place
and the reasonsfor choosingit.
Paragraphs 2-3: describes particulardetails of the
place,such as sightsto see and givesthe readerideas
of how to spend one's free time there.
Final paragraph:concludesthe essayby expressing
feelingsand finalthoughtsabout the place.
Words used to describe the place: breathtaking
sight, canals lap gently; fragrant aroma of roasting
b a n anas ;dogs bar k ;b i rd ss i n g ; s n a k e sh i s s
8. (Before doing Ex. I T should refer Ss fo relevant theory
on p. 152 in fhe S's Book.)
(Suggested answers)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Fire Departmentto Give Tips to Kids
Refugeesto Get Aid
Man Sues FactoryOver Pollution
ThirstyNewtoniansSuffer
AuthoritiesSearchfor MissingCaptain
Blast lnvestigated
Woman Dead Due to Neglect
Storm DrownsSailor
TreasuresTaken in MuseumTheft
Reques ft or K ids
9. (Tshould point outto Ss thaf when writing a newsarticle,
the last paragraph includes comments from peopte
involved in the incident, andlor references to future
developments.Examplesof dramatic language can be
found rn /ess serious newspapersand magazines.ln
fhis case, the writer includes both facts and hislher
personal feelings. Therefore,emotional vocabulary is
used.)
r '1.B
2.D
3.A
4.C
Style used in each:
1. formal
3. lessformal
2. formal
4. lessformal
1. seriousnewspaperlmagazine
2. seriousnewspaper
lmagazine
3. lessseriousnewspaper/magazine
(local/school
newspaper
or magazine)
4. lessseriousnewspaper/magazine
3,4 + includedramaticlanguage(angryfarmers,
deadlocked
negotiations,
blackcloudof
sadness,
etc.)
1, 2 + includeformallanguage(facingtrafficjam,
up to eightmileslong,delayswereunavoidable,authorities
haverefusedto say,bus
was not fittedwith safetyfeatures,etc.)
10. 1. before
2. first
3. W hi l e
4. immediately
5. by the time
6. Meanwhile
Extension Activity
(AfterSscomplete Exercise10, T can askSs aboutthe
styleand the paragraph plan of the articte. The styteis
formalsrnce it does not include examples of dramatic language and an advanced levet of vocabutaryis
used, e.g. was evacuated,one injury was reported,
the alarm was raised,routine maintenancecheck.
etc.)
91
ExamFocus: Unit 6
11 . M odelB c ould be i n c l u d e di n a s c h o o l /l o c anl e wsp a peror m agaz i n e Mo
, d e lA i s m o re fo rm a l ;
Model A reportsonlYthe facts.
12. 1. T
2.7
3.7
4. F
5.7
6. F
(An afticlemay starl with a quotation.)
(Thefinalparagraph
of a newsreportincludes
referenceto futuredevelopmentsas well as
commentsor quotesfrom the PeoPle
involved.)
7, T
1 3 . 1 . P ar agr aphP l a n
(Su g g e s ti o n s /So l u ti o nsto
p ro b l e m)
Paragraph 1: statethe Problem
Paragraph 2: suggestion1 and reason
Paragraph 3: suggestion2 and reason
Paragraph 4: suggestion3 and reason
Final paragraph:writer'sopinion based on
points alreadymentioned
Fight the Flames
Every year we see the destructionof countless
forestsand theirwildlifeas a resultof forestfireswhich
could have and should have been prevented.However, year after year forests continue to go up in
flames adding to the problemsof widescaledeforestation and the greenhouse effect. Fortunately
though,thereare severalsolutionswhich could lead
to a huge reductionin the number of forestfires.
Oddlyenough,the peoplewho usuallystartforest
fires don't even mean to. They do this by dropping
cigarettesor leavingcamp fires unattendedwithout
t he c o n s e q u e n c e sF. o rth i s p ro b l e mw e
c ons ider ing
should startby tryingto raisepublicawareness.For
examplethe forestrycommissioncould put up more
s ignswar ningpe o p l eo f th e d a n g e rso f s mo k i ngor
lightingfiresin forestsand placeheavyfineson those
. i mi l a rl yth e g ovwho do not obey th e s ew a rn i n g s S
e r nm entc ould fu n d a d v e rti s i n gc a m p a i g n su r gi ng
peopleto protecttheircountry'sforests.Furthermore
schoolscouldteachchildrenfrom an earlyage about
the damage caused bY forestfires.
Anothersuggestionis to increasethe punishment
for arsonists.This would hopefully result in their
thinkingtwice beforedeliberatelysettingfireto trees.
Finallythe governmentshouldincreasefundingto
the fire service.Consequentlyspecialwatercarrying
aeroplanescould be boughtto transpoftlargeloads
of waterto forestfireswhereit can be quicklydeposited.
By putting into effect these solutionswe stand a
good chanceof helpingnot only to save our forests
but alsoto reducethe amountof carbondioxidein the
atmosphereand as a consequencelay the way for a
polIution-freefuture.
92
2. Paragraph plan (for and against article)
Paragraph 1: statetoPic
Paragraph 2: advantages
Paragraph 3: disadvantages
Fi nal paragraph:expressopi ni onw i thoutusi ng
personalwords or exPressions.
A Worthwhile Challenge
How many of you have browsedthroughthe "employmentabroad" section of the newspaperwithout
wonderingwhat it would be like to work in another
country?Surelynot many. Howeverit is most important for anyonewho is seriouslycontemplatingsuch a
move to consider not only the advantages,but the
stressfactorsas well.
Workingabroadis a greateducationalexperience.
It is the bestway to get to knowthe peopleand culture,
of a country,Traditionsand customswill be learned
and evenpractisedif you staylong enough.In addition
to this, you will have the opportunityto familiarise
yourselfwith the new cuisine,music and entertainment, not to mentionthe fact that if you are interested
in history,you can use your freetime to see the sights
and visit museums. Lastly,practisingthe language
daily is the best way to becomefluent.
On the other hand, being a strangeramong strangerscan be quitestressfulforsome.Tryingto get used
to the currency,languageand culture,can be rather
confusing at first.Furthermore,people'sattitudesabout
certainbeliefsor habitsmay seem strangeto you.You
must be carefulso as notto findyourselfin an awkward
position.Also,you may insultor be insultedby certain
gestureswhich vary from cultureto culture.
Allthingsconsideredhowever,livingabroadoffers
a uniqueexperienceand opportunityto experiencea
differentway of lifeand learnthingswhich you simply
could not learnjust by readinga book or the advertismentsin a newspaper.
3. Paragraph plan (express opinion)
Paragraph 1: stateyour opinion clearly
P aragraph2: fi rstpoi ntsupporti ngyour opi ni on
P aragraph3: secondpoi nt supporti ngyour opi nion
Final paragraph: restateyour opinion
Stay in School
A shockinglyhigh percentageof young peopleare
leavingschool beforecompletingeven their secondary education.Thisthreatensto reducethe numberof
qualifiedworkers,which will only harm the economy.
Somethingmust be done to encourageour youth to
stay in school,and out of trouble.
In the first place, students must be taught the
realitiesof the modernjob marketwhilethey are stillin
school.Once they learnabout the possibilityof being
unemployedthat awaits them, perhapsthey will remai n i n school .
should be
Secondly,unemployedschool-leavers
giventhe option to participatein government-run
representa huge
trainingprogrammes.School-leavers
amount of potentiallabour;this workforceshould be
used to its full caPacitY.
Unit 7: Part 1
In conclusion,it appearsthat unlessgovernments,schooladministrators
and industrywork togetherto solvethe
problemof the increasingnumberof earlyschool-leavers,
steadyeconomicgrowthwill not continue.Whileusingthe
programmessuggestedhere would be costly,doing nothingwould be costlierin the long run.
Unit 7
UnitT-Partl
Warm-up Activities: Part 1 (p. 1Sg)
.
.
.
(Suggested answers): I think it must be pollution
caused by technology,such as plasticfrom computers, old microchips,etc.
(Suggested answers): Pollutionis caused by cars
and factories,and people dropping litter. lt is also
caused by oil tankersspillingoil into the sea.
(Suggested answers)
rubbish - environment- computer - biodegradabletechnology- modern - recycle,etc.
.
Warm-up Listening Activity
1.
2.
3.
4.
rec y c ling
out of date
fi v e
electrical
5.
6.
7.
L
to x i c
casings
buy
construction
9. TV
10.30
ReadingTask: Part 1 (p. 158-159)
1.8
2.1
3.A
4.E
5,H
6.F
7.C
VocabularyExercises:Part1 (p. 160-161)
(Note: the firstpicture on p. 160is of a scrap-heapand
the second is the recycling symbol.)
1. gadgets - deviceswith a particularpurpose
o b l i g ingly - helpf ull y
scrap-heap - place where rubbishis dumped
confined - restricted
appliances - items of equipmentusuallyused in the
house
insulation - materialfor sealingsth to preventescape
of electricity,heat, etc
disposal - act of getting rid of sth
governed - controlled
uphill struggle - difficultand slow effort
*
component - part of sth
bafflingly - confusingly
casings - outer coverings
bromines - a type of chernical
leased - rented
monitor - watch and check
shipped - transported
municipal - havingto do with a town or city
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
turnover
alleviate
flameretardant
plummeted
lax
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
i mpl ausi bl e
incinerate
transient
discard
dumped
3 . (Ss should memorise fhese text-related collocations
and expressions.T checks in the next lesson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
shorl
to follow
to go
expectancy
hi gh{ech
4. 1 . e
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
2.c
5 . 1. di sregard
2. pol l uti on
average
toxic
uphi l l
to come
long
3.d
11.
12.
13.
14.
faul t
strict
to run
muni ci pal
4.a
3. redo
4. irrelevant
5.b
5. garbage
6. (Ss read the text of Ex. 6 once, before attempting to fitt
in the blanks.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
7. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
waste
recyclingcentre
di spose
i nfl uence
boycott
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
aerosol
ozone-friendly
unleaded
exhaust
publ i ctransport
sci enti sts
recently
gl obal
Environmental
i mmedi atel y
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
potentially
urgent
seri ousl y
completely
governments
8. (T goes through the pictureswith Ss and identifiesthe
Upe of pollution shown. Then, f gefs Ss to discuss
the serious p rob Iems caused by these typ es of po ttution
and the suggesfed so/ufions.Finally,Ss work in pairs.
f asks some pairs to report to the c/ass.,)
(Suggestedanswer)
Pollution caused by exhaust fumes
SA; This problemcan be solved by fittingall cars
with catalyticconvertersso that they burn only
unl eadedfuel .
SB; Yes,and the cars that are too old to be converted
shouldbetakenoffthe roadsbecausetheycause
the most pollution,etc.
93
Unit 7: Part2
worse,when plasticssuch as those used in computer
casings are burnt, they produce dioxins which are
toxic.These plasticsare almostimpossibleto recycle
as well.Thereare solutionsto theseproblems,suchas
using less plastic in the constructionof hightech
items. Manufacturersshould maintainresponsibility
for their productsand take them back to be recycled.
In addition, we should try to make sure that the
products we buy are environmentallyfriendly and
recyclable.
Industrial pollution
SA; I thinkthatthe governmentshoulddo something
to stop factoriesgiving off smoke and other
fumes into the atmosphereas they pollutethe
environment.
SB; That's a good idea, becauseheavy industries
do cause a lot of air pollutionwith all the fumes
they give off, etc.
Rubbis h
SA; This is a big problembecausea lot of people
just throw their litteron the streetsinstead
of puttingit in the bin.
SB; Yes, peoplewho do this should be fined to stop
t hem f r om d o i n g i t a g a i n .A l s o ,m o re ru b b i sh
bins should be put on the streetsso that there
is alwayssomewhereto throw your rubbish,etc.
Sea pollution
SA; Thistype of pollutionis causedby both individus u m p i n gth e i rru bbi sh
alsand v ari o u si n d u s tri e d
in the sea insteadof botheringto disposeof it
properly.
SB; Yes, and the sea is becomingmore and more
polluted.Peopleneed to be made to realisethe
damagethey'recausingso that they stop, etc.
9. 1. down/away 3. out
4. back
2. off
5. on
6. off
GrammarCheck:Part1 (P.161)
2. that
3. ,/
4. what
5./
6. that
Warm-upActivities:Parl2 (P. 162)
.
.
(Suggested answer)
I think thatthe couplewantedto movethereto get away
from the mainlandand the stressof modern life,and
have a completechange of lifestyle.
.
Warm-up Listening ActivitY
(Suggested answer)
.
(T elicits problemsand so/utionsand writesthem on the
board, then helshe invitesSs fo talk about them. T first
invitesa good S to talk, then asks other Ss as well')
Solutions
. use less plastic
. thousandsof components ' repair- don't throwaway
' h i re - d o n ' t b u y
u s ed
. intelligentconstruction. 100 differentplastics
manufacturersmust
in computercasings
. plasticcasingscan't be
disposeof waste
. buy recyclableproducts
recycledor burnt
Problems
. wasteis oftentoxic
(Suggested answer)
Technologyis a good thing, but it has broughtwith it
a lot of problems.Forexample,a lot of plasticsbecome
toxic wastewhen they are thrown away.ln addition,it
costsa lot of moneyto recyclehigh-techwaste,which
puts a lot of companiesoff doing it, To make matters
94
(Suggested answer)
N o, I w oul d not l i keto l i veon a smal li sl and,because
I thi nk I w oul d get bored.A l so,I w oul dn' tl i kethe f act
that on a small island,everybodyalwaysknows what
everyoneel sei s doi ng.On the otherhand,i t w ouldbe
very peacefuland relaxing.
7. out
8. up
There are recyclingbins for paper, and no cars are
allowedin the city centre.
There are fines for dropping litter,and f o r d u m p i n g
rubbish in the countryside.
Thereshouldbe no vehiclesovera certainage allowed
in townsand cities,and busesshouldbe replacedwith
tr ainsor t r am s ,w h i c h c a u s el e s s p o l l u ti o n .
not
be
that
do
UnitT-Part2
Follow-upActivities:Part 1 (p. 161)
.
12.
13.
14.
15.
7. i t
8. ,/
f.it
10. did
11. /
The Sirrssold theircottage in Yorkshireto moveto the
Scottish island of Graemsay.The family viewed the
propertyin December.The dealwasastonishing- the
estate comprised a post office, six houses and a
privatesandy beach. On the first trip, the Sirrs met
many of the island's inhabitants and were given a
warm welcome, The move has brought new challengesto the family.Rob and Jill havestarteda sheep
farm.The onl ythi ngthey mi ssi s goi ngto the ci nem a.
The chi l drenare the onl y pupi l sat the schooland
take advantageof the school'smodern facilities.The
fami l yconsi derthemsel vesl ucky.
Suggestedtitle: "Leavingthe Rat Race."
ReadingTask:Part2 (P.162'163)
8.
9.
10.
11.
B ( L n1 )
D (Ln13-15)
C (Ln 22-23)
A (Ln21-24)
12.D
13. D (Ln26-27)
14. C (Ln38-40)
Unit 7: Part2
VocabularyExercises:Part2 (p.164-165)
port in the country is rather poor compared to the
city.Thereare lots of schoolsand hospitalsin the city.
In contrast,there are few schoolsand hospitalsin the
country. Life in the country is rather monotonous
compared to stressfulcity life, etc.
1. hustle and brrstle- energetic,excitedactivity
modest - averagein size,reasonable
initially - at first
estate - area of land and property owned by one
person
to view - to look round
illusions - mistakenbeliefs
thrilled - very happy, delighted
adjust - get used to (a new way of life)
company - companionship
envious - jealous
benefits - advantages
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
i nhabit ant 5.
bid
O.
remote
7.
content
B.
deal
renovate
resources
prompted
9. (Tgoesthroughthe cueswifhss, thenSs work in closed
pairs.T checks round the c/ass then helsheasks so/ne
pairs to repoft to the c/ass./
(Suggested answer)
SA.' A lot of young people are leavingtheir villages
becausethey cannotfind jobs, so the govern_
ment should try to encouragenew businesses
to set up branchesin areasoutsidetowns and
cities.
S8; Yes,and a lot of young peopleare leavingsimply
becausethere'snothingfor them to do where
they live.To stop this, leisurecentres,cinemas
etc need to be built in ruralareas.
SA.' Another reason is the fact that there aren,t
enough medicalfacilitiesin remoteareas.
SB; That's right. Hospitalsand clinicsneed to be
builtso that peopledon't haveto come to towns
and cities for treatmentetc.
L comprises
1 0 . c o n c e rn e d
3. (ss shou/d memorise these text-related coltocafions
and expressrbns.T checks in the next lesson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
hus t le
best
to bring
busy
m oder n
4 . 1 . delus ion
2. illusion
3. mirage
6.
7.
B.
9.
10 .
illusions
to have
to receive
warm
seasonal
11. to start
1 2 . to th i n k
1 3 . to c o n s i der
Follow-upActivities:part 2 (p. 165)
4" h a l l u c i n a ti o n
5. prize
6. reward
7. benefit
8. award
.
SA; There is such a varietyof entertainmentin the
city you know.
SB; Yes, but there are plansto build leisurecentres
here.And don't forgetthe crime rate is really
high in the city.
SA; I don't disagree,but people in the city are more
open-minded.I can't stand being watchedall
the time, etc.
(Note; mirage - optical illusion whichis caused by hot
air conditions)
5. 1. valley
2. acre
6. 1 .
2.
3.
4.
3. cottage
4. gate
5. busfle
. . .w o r k e do u t . . .
... has been wor k i n go n a ...
... has m ade m e w o rk u p ...
... ev er y t hingwill w o rk o u t i n ...
7 . City; polluted,crowded,noisy,lively,dirty,entertaining, busy, modern,stressful
Country:scenic,relaxed,quiet,peaceful,picturesque,
healthy,natural,slow, remote
Suggested reasons; A city is polluted becauseof the
many cars and factories.The country is picturesque
becauseof the nice surroundings.
(This can be done as a competition game. One team
gives adjectives and the other team gives reasons.)
e.g. TeamA 57; Cifies are pottuted.
Team B 52: Theyare poltuted because there
are so many cars, etc.
8. (Suggested answers)
Althoughpeoplelivingin the city teada hecticlifestyle,
it is easyto find a job. Unfortunately
there is not much
varietyof jobs in the country.The crime ratein the city
is high comparedto that of the country.publictrans-
(Suggested answers)
.
(T elicits good and bad points and writes them on the
board. Ss, fhen, work on their own for a couple of
minutes looking at the table. f asks some Ss fo report
to the c/ass.)
Good Points
Bad Points
- estate was cheap
- no cinemas,etc
- islandis beautiful
- no other children
- friendlyislanders
- could get lonely/bored
- Sirrshave a home
busi ness
- familyis closertogether
- more attentionat school
- modernschool
(Suggested answer)
At first I felt nervousabout movingto the island,but I
loveit now.I missmyfriendsa lot,but on the otherhand
it's peacefulhere, and my friendscan still come and
visit me during the holidays.What I like best about
livingon the islandis the factthatwe'rerightbesidethe
sea.The islandis reallybeautiful.I enjoy swimminga
lot. One bad point about livingon the islandis that
95
Unit 7: Part3
there is no cinema,but the sacrificeis worth it, to live
in such a beautifulPlace.
.
(Before Ss are assigned the third Follow-UpActivi$ as
writtenHlW, Tshould referthem to argumentativeessay
writing and make a plan with them which will then be
used by Ss to write their composition. Ss can use the
notes in Ex. 8 as well.)
Suggested plan
Paragraph 1: state problem
Paragraph 2: first suggestionand reason
(eg. pollution)
Paragraph 3: second suggestionand reason (e.9.
hectic lifestyle)
Final par agr aph :s u m m a ri s eo p i n i o n
GrammarCheck:Part2 (P.165)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
. . . h a s h a d h i s d o g t r a i n e d. . .
. . . got his nose b ro k e n...
. . . had her s on ' s p i c tu reta k e n ...
. . .w i l l h a v e. . .
. . . will hav e hi s c a r re s p ra y e d...
. . . is hav inghe r h a i r d y e d ...
. . . got her bag s to l e n...
. . . had our P la n tsw a te re d...
. . . c an hav et h i s d o n e ...
. . . h a d t h e i rh o u s eb r o k e n. . .
Part3 (P.166)
Activities:
Warm-up
.
(Suggested answer): Yes, there are many gardens
like this in my country. I would expect to find exotic
plantsand flowersthere.
.
(Suggested answer): Plantsand flowersare used to
make medicinesand perfumes.Theyare beautifuland
make us feelgood. Plantsalso produceoxygenwhich
we need to breathe.
Warm-up Listening ActivitY
research
500
to
rarest
orchids
s m uggle
ticket
labourers
plants
96
2. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
top-dressi ng
combat
speci es
dyi ng out
smuggle
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
4. 1.
2.
3,
4.
5.
pl antresearch
care
long
fi nanci al
del i cate
weather
17.C
18. I
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
bl ooms
cultivates
prune
interrelate
conserve
19. H
20. E
21. B
7.
B.
9.
10.
11.
12.
endangered
to be kept
threat
hi gh-pow ered
life-saving
pleasure
seed / is not a structuralpaft of a tree
tul i p/ i s not a tree
redwood/ is not a flower
spade / the othersare growing mediums
branch/ the othershaveto do with flowers
5. a) 1. shell
2. skin
ReadingTask:Part3 (P.166-167)
15.G
16.A
1. botanical - havingto do with plants
maintenancemen - men who take care of a place
digging - moving earth using a spade
flowerbeds - parts of a garden where flowers are
planted
ultimately - in the end
instrumental - imPortant,vital
rarest - the leastcommon
expertise - specialisedknowledge
plant hunters - peoplewho travelin orderto find new
speciesor varietiesof Plants
artificially - in a way that is not natural
rainforest - thick forest in regionsreceivinga great
amount of rainfall
specimens - plants or animal tissue taken as an
exampleof a grouP or tYPe
gatekeeper - sb who guards the entranceto a park,
grounds etc
labourers - people doing physicalwork
prestige - high status
3. (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise fhese texfrelated collocationsand expressions.f checks in the
nexf /esson.)
UnitT-Part3
.
VocabularyExercises:Part3 (p. 168-169)
5. peel
3. ri nd
4. peel i ngs
b) 1 . to pl ough
2 . to rake
3. to hoe
4. to dig
5. to prune
6. to mow
c) 1 . spade
2 . clippers
3. saw
4. trowel
5. hose
6. 1.
2.
3,
4.
5.
6.
beauti ful
useful
(i n)val uabl e
found
cancerous
researchers
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
experimental
variety
medi ci nal
producti on
endangered
survival
Unit 7: Part4
7. 1. organically
2. conventional
8. 1.
2'
3.
4.
3. sprayed
4. herbicide
as fresh as a daisy
a bed of roses
thorn in my side
p us hingup t he d a i s i e s
9. a. petal
b. stamen
5.
6.
7.
B.
s. rake
6. nature
7. prey
8. pesticides
throughthe grapevine
lead you up the garden path
coming up roses
l i k ea w e e d
c. bud
d. leaf
g. fertilisers
10. pruning
g. gildingthe lily
10. beat aroundthe bush
e. stem
Follow-upActivities:Part3 (p. 169)
.
(Suggestedanswer)
plant,species,flowering,
botanical,
orchids,cultivate,
flowerbeds,
leaves,pruning,tree,blooms,etc
.
(Suggestedanswer)
To be skilledat growingplantsand flowers.
'
(T writesthe four nameson the board, elicitsrelevantinformationfrom Ss and writesit on the board.Ss then work
in closedpairslookingat the notes.T checksroundthe c/ass,then helsheaskssome pairsto reportto the c/ass.)
NAME:
SarahWilson
MatthewFord
ElainePorter
Jackie Howard
PRES E NT
ACTIVITY:
studentat Kew
trainingfor Diploma
in Horticulture
scientificofficer
worked at Kew since
h e w a s 17
works in Jodrell
Laboratory
gatekeeper
and ticketofficer
at Kew
DAILY
WORK:
.
.
.
.
startswork 7:50 am
waters flowers
sweeps up leaves
prunestrees
o
o
. conducts research
partof teamworking
to helpendangered
on plants trying
plants
to find a cure
workingon Plymouth
Pear for HIV and AIDS
. stands by
the entrance
and sells
tickets
(Suggestedanswer)
SA:
SB:
SA:
SB:
What'syourname?
My nameis SarahWilson.
Andwhatdo you do?
I workat KewGardens.lt's a tiringjob: I haveto waterthe flowers,prunethe trees,and sweepup leaves.
It'spartof my coursereally.I'm trainingfor the KewDiplomain Horticulture.
Grammar Check: Part 3 (p. 169)
2. ourselves 5. ./
,/
3.
6. myself
4' myself
7. ,/
8. ,/
9. ,/
10. himself
Unit 7: Parl 4
,
Warm-upActivities:Part4 (p. 170)
(suggested
answers)
A Man on the Moon may be aboutspacetraveland
astronauts.
RareBeastscouldbeaboutexoticor strangeanimals.
The Sixth Extinctioncould be about endangered
animalsor dinosaurs.
The Greatestmustbe aboutpeoplewho arethe best
at something,
maybesport.
.
(Suggestedanswer):I likedetective
stories.lt'sfun
tryingto workout whothe murdereris.
.
Warm-upListeningActivity
1. athrete
2. clothes
3. group
4. moon
5. good
6. earth
ReadingTask:Part4 (p. 170-171),..':
22.A
'rZ!^=E'F (inanyorder'
26.
27.
29.
29.
F
B
D
C
30. E
31. i
33. C
g4lg1.A, B (in any
order)
97
ExamFocus:Unit7
VocabularyExercises:Part4 (p. 1721
1 . spark off - to cause sth to start
compiled - put togetherfrom other sources
prime - top quality
master - expert
feature - outstandingasPect
assessment - judgement
favour - to prefer
countless - very many
sth
enlightening - informative/explaining
domesticated - bred to live with humans
roamed - wandered
evolved - developed over time
extinct - (of a species)havingdied out completely
endangered - in danger of becomingextinct
immaculate - very neat and tidy
primate - group of animalscomprisingapes and
hum ans
hair-grooming - cleaningof hair
thought-provoking- havingthe qualityof makingyou
th ink
gripping - very interesting
legacy - knowledgeand experiencefor the future
acclaimed - highly praised
graphic - very detailedand lifelike
uplifting - making one feel happier
devastating - extremelydestructive
mundane - boring
2 . (Ss shou/d be encouraged to memorise these texf
Follow-upActivities:Part4 (p. 1721
(T elicitsfrom Ss all relevantvocabularyand writesit on
the board. Then helshe explains the purpose of fhis
activity and lets Ss work in closed pairs. HelShe then
asks some Ss fo reportto the c/ass. Thisactivitycan be
assigned as HIW).
.
Adjectives: well-written,informative,highly entertaining,enlightening,beautifullyillustrated,wonderentertaining,
fully original,thought-provoking,
fascinating,acclaimedauthor,excellent,depressing,
outrageouslyevil,graphic,uplifting,clear (explanations),interesting(facts),mundane (offerings)
Verb phrases: spark off discussions,favour,details
the history,illustratesthe link, containsa thorough
examination,exploresthe origins,is based on,
regarding,clearlypoints out, providesclear explanation, stand out against
(Suggested answer)
I really would recommend The Greafesf by Daley
Thompson; it's extremelywell written, and very informative.Daleyhas made a list of allthe top-ranking
athletessince 1900,and the book sparkedoff many
discussionsbetweenme and my friendsabout which
ones we favouredmost. In general,I found it highly
informativeand enlightening.
ExamFocus- Useof English:Unit7 (p.173)
relatedcollocations and expressions.f checks in the
nexf /esson.)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
pr im at e
to hold
points-rating
to wreck
domesticated
3. 1 . d
2. t
3.e
4. i
h e a rt
brain
evil
mass
social
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
5. a
6.9
11.
12.
13.
14.
h u ma n
sParksoff
acclaimed
breeds
9.c
10. h
Mission:FCE2 is atextbook. MickeyMouse is a cartoon
strip etc
im aginat iv e
suspense
thought-provoking
ex c it ing
s pine- c hilli n g
predictable
5. a)
b)
c)
d)
1.
1.
1.
1.
98
binding
contents
pr ologue
publisher
2.
2.
2.
2.
7.
8.
L
10.
11.
12.
convincing
well worth
original
g ra p h i c
e n te rta i n i n g
mundane
paperback
chapters
epilogue
author
1. D
2.C
3.D
4.A
5.8
6.8
7. A
8.C
9.
10.
11.
12.
D
D
B
C
13. A
14. D
15. A
Prepositions
7. j
8.b
(Suggested titles)
4. f .
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Part 1
3.
3.
3.
3.
hardback
index
foreword
editor
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
with
of
w i th
to
w i th
for
i nto
on
to
about
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
at/by/with
on
with
of
in
on
forlabout
of
under
from
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
on
in
with
for
to
in
at
on
ExamFocus:Unit 7
Exam Focus - Listening - Unit 7 (p.174-17s1
Part 3
19. C
20. B
21. A
22. D
23. E
Part 3
You will hear five people talking about leaving school.
For questions 19-23decide which of the stafements
A-F appliesfo each speaker. Use the lettersonly once.
Thereis one extra letterwhich you do not need to use.
Speaker 1; I was prettyaverageat school and I didn't
mind the idea of leaving,it'sjust that I driftedfrom job
to job. The subjectsat school didn't seem to relateto
real life - or at least, I could've done with someone
sh o wingm e t he c on n e c ti o nI. tri e dq u i tea fe w th i n g s
b e fo r elf ound what l w a n te d to d o . I s u p p o s ep e o p l e
would say that it was valuableexperience- but it didn't
seem like that to me.
Speaker2; TheywerealwaystelIing me thatschooldays
were the best in your life and I was alwaysthinking,
"Well, if this is supposed to be rne best, whatever's
next?"Then when the day came to say goodbyeto all
that, I seemedto grow taller!lt was definitelywhat I'd
been hopingfor. I neverwantedto be top of the class
at school, but aftenrrardsI changed completely. I
suppose I wasn't reallycut out for school.
Speaker3; The lastday at schoolfor me was simplya
door to walk through, and on the other side was
somethingeven more challenging.lt was satisfying
becauseI got what I wanted- exams,and so on. I did
well, and I knew I'd go on and get more. I left the
b u i l dingbut not t hes ys te m- l w i l l a l w a y sc a rryw i thm e
what I learntthere.
Speaker4.'I was good at school- passednineGCSE's
- but we neededanotherincomeso off I wentat sixteen
to be a clerk in the local buildingsociety.Therewere
others that stayed on even thougn they were doing
b a d l yand I k ept t hin k i n g ," Wh y th e m a n d n o t me ? " I
mean I wantedto help out at home, but underneathI
fe l t I was t ak inga wr o n g tu rn i n g ,
Speaker 5; I couldn'twait! | knew life couldn't be the
way they said it vrasat school- you know - all confined
to the pagesof textbooks,doing what they told you. lt
seemedto me to be a completewaste of time. Then
w h e n I got out t her e- e a rn i n ga l i v i n g ,h a v i n ga s a y i n
things - well - | can't say that thingswere brilliantafter
th a t,but it s eem edm o rel i k eth e w a yth i n g ss h o u l db e.
Part4
24. F
25. T
26. F
27. T
28. F
29. F
30. T
Part 4
You will hear part of a local radio programme in which
a hospital administrator,Janine Robertson,talksabout
psychiatric hospitals.Answer questions 24 to 30 by
writingT (fortrue)and F (forfalse)inthe boxesprovided.
Presenter.'Wehave heardthe news that the psychiatric departmentat EdgemontonHospitalis to close.
Today, Jani ne R obertson, chi ef admi ni stratorof
EdgemontonHospital,has come alongto speakto us.
N ow Jani ne,w hy i s thi s happeni ng?
Janine: Well,as you know, Edgemonton- like many
other hospitals- has always had its own psychiatric
department.A hospitalwithina hospital,so to speak.
But it has been the present government'spolicy to
close these departmentsand hospitals,and we are
now seeing patientswith nnentalillnessbeing placed
i n communi tycare.
Presenter; What's caused this change?
Janine: Well,it's an accumufationof variousthoughts
and ideas,and it's reallymore to do with the breakthroughsin scienceand trends in societythroughout
this century than in new ideas. Medicineseems to
followfashions.Look,for example,at the variousterms
that have been used throughoutthe historyof psychiatric institutions.The Victorians,when they started
them up, calledthem "asylums"- placesof refugefor
peoplewho were too sick to cope with life.This word
collected the stigma of the real conditions which,
unfortunately,resultedin closed places with people
heldinsidefor up to sixtyyears.The patientswereseen
as outcastsand nobody expectedto see them return
to normal life"The change of the name to "hospital"
reflectsthe differentlight in which the patientswere
seen by the medicalprofession- they were ill,needing
medicalcareto cure them.And this coincideswith the
breakthroughsin medicalscience.Some forty years
ago, new drugs were produced to supposedlycure
mental disorders- so if anti-depressants
could stop
bad moods, and tranquilliserscalm down a patient
who was out of control,therewas no needto seekhelp
in a mental- or psychiatricinstitution.A bit like an
anti bi oti ccuri ngpneumoni a,or some otheri nfecti on.
Presenter,'Well, surely it's preferableto be livingat
home taking medicationthan being stuck in hospital?
Janine:Indeed.But a mentalpatientneedsmorethan
pi l l s. l f pi l l s coul d do the j ob, then mental i l l ness
would'vebeen eradicated.And these hospitalsdon't
only help their patients.They have also done a valuablejob in protectingthe community.Thereare people
who truly cannot controlthemselvesand so are dangerous.Patientswho might commit criminalacts but
j ustverysi ck.P eopl ew ho don' t
arenotreal l ycri mi nal s,
need prisonsor punishmentbut expert and sympathetic care whateverthey have done, or might do. As
a resultof the new policies,thesepeopleare beingsent
i ntothe communi ty,havi ngto copew i ththei ri l l nesses
and all the relatedprcblems.
Presenter.' Well, you have explained how we have
reachedthe positionof questioningpsychiatrichospitals.But what is it that has broughton this latestwave
of closures?
Janine: Well, that brings us to the final point in the
process. The suggestionthat we could do without
these places has given the governmentthe opportunityto make cuts - as it has in so many othersectors
- and so save the taxpayermoney. Like most budget
99
ExamFocus:Unit7
cuts, this has had some unfortunateresults,but with
, e w a y i t i s , I s u p p o s ei t can' t
the ec onom ics it u a ti o nth
be avoided.
ExamFocus- Speaking:Unit7 (p.176-'177)
Part 2
(Suggested answers)
Pictures A and B
PictureA is of a bottlewitha messageon it to keepour
b eac hesc lean,a n d p i c tu re B i s o f c h i l d re np l a n ti ng
trees.They both have an environmentaltheme.
I try to help the environmentby puttingall the paper I
throw away in a bin for recycling,and by not throwing
litter on the street,because I think that keeping the
environmentclean is important.
We can make sure that we don't litterthe countryside
and sea by not throwingrubbishaway carelessly,and
we can tryto buy recycledproductssuchas paper.We
can also recyclemany other things we use.
I'm optimisticabout the futureof our planetbecauseI
think that it's not too late to staft educatingpeople
about how to protectthe planetand reducepollution.
i s a l ot
Pe oplear es lowlyb e g i n n i n gto re a l i s e th a tth e re
they can do to cleanup the planetand make it a clean,
pleasantplaceto live.
Pictures C and D
Picture C shows a girl watching TV and picture D
shows a girl reading. Both pictures show different
activities.They can imply how children spend their
time at home and what they preferdoing.
I preferto watchTV becauseit is more interestingthan
readinga book. There is alwayssomethingto watch.
It keeps me entertained.
Ithink t hatbot hr e a d i n ga n dw a tc h i n gte l e v i s i o cnan be
beneficialto young people because they are both
sourcesof information.Reading,though,is betterthan
televisionin someways becauseit helpsyou seeother
people's ideas and their personalway of expressing
them s elv es ,
To encourageyoung people to read more, schools
s h e rec h i l d re nc a n b o rro wb o oks
shouldhav elibr a ri ew
a nd t ak e t hem ho m e to re a d .A l s o , b o o k s s h o u l dbe
made more colourfuland interestingso that young
peoplewould choose to read them insteadof having
to be made to do so.
Part3
SB.'Yes,that'sa good idea.And becauseof that lthink
the pond shculd be put at pointF so that it wouldn'tbe
too close to the climbingframe becausethe children
coul d fal l i n i t.
SA; I agree,and a pond in the middle of the garden
w oul d l ook ni ce as w el l .
SB; I thinkthat a picnic table should be put at pointA
becausei t' s cl oseto the di ni ngroom and the ki tchen
so it would be easy to servefood.
SA; Yes, and there would also be a nice view of the
gardenfrom the patio.As for the flower beds, they
should be put somewhere they can be seen and
admi redfrom the house,l i ke poi nt B .
SB; That'sa good idea.And they would be closeto the
garden shed at point C as well, which would be
convenientfor gettingtools out.
SA; Lastof all, lthink the vegetablegarden shouldbe
put at point D, which is the largestspace available.
SB.'Yes,and if it was there it wouldn't be closeto
the shed as w el l .
Part 4
(Suggested answers)
SA; The benefitsof having a garden are that you have
a placewhereyou can go and sitoutsidein the summer
to cool off, and somewhereoutsidethe house where
childrencan play.
SB; Also, it is a placewhere you have a chanceto do
some gardeningand even grow your own vegetables
insteadof havingto buy them.
SA; My pedectgardenwould havea swimmingpool in
it and a patio where I could sunbathe.
S8; Yes,so would mine.I'd also liketo havea basketbal l or a tenni scourt.
SA; I would sit out by the pool and sunbathe,and just
generallyrelax.
S B ; I' d spend a l ot of ti me sw i mmi ngi n the pool a nd
playingbasketballor tenniswith my friends.
ExamFocus- Writing:Unit7 (p. 178)
Reviews
(Suggested answers)
-
(Suggested answers)
SA; I would put a climbing frame at point E because
it's at the furthestend of the garden,away from the
h ous e.T his m ea n sth a t c h i l d re np l a y i n go n i t c oul d
makeas much noiseas theywantedwithoutdisturbing
their parentssittingon the patio.
100
-
l t' s a sci encefi cti onfi l m.
c mes.
| thi nk i t' s set i n prehi stori ti
The maincharactersare probablythepeoplein the
photograph,perhapsscientists.
| think the plot is about scientiststrying to study
di nosaurs.
A short descriptionof a film could be found in a
reviewin a newspaperor magazine.
A well-written,interestingscript or a good plot
makes a film/bookenjoyable.
My favouritefilm is Batman Returns.My favourite
book is Jane Eyre.
Exam Focus; Unit 7
-
| would recommendBatman Returnsbecauseit is
action-packed,the script is well-writtenand the
acting is excellent.I would recommendJane Eyre
becauseit's entertainingreading,thoughtprovoking,and has an interestingplot.
1. Topic of each paragraph
Para 1.
Para2.
Para3.
Para4.
background
main points of plot
generalcomments
recommendation
a. The film is set in Scofland.
b. lt is a historicalfilm.
c. The starsof the film are Mel Gibson and patrick
McGoohan.
d. The plot is aboutWilliamWallace,a man who leads
the Scotsin theirfightagainstthe English.Afterhis
wifeis murderedby an EnglishLord,Wallaceunites
thev illagerand
s t h e yd ri v eo u tth eEn g l i s hs o l d i e rs.
His popularitygrows and soon the EnglishKing,
Edward,sends his daughterto negotiatewith
Wallace.
e . Yes ,t he f ilm is hig h l yre c o m m e n d e d .
2. Lord of the Flies
Paragraphsin the correctorder are:
1. Lord of the Fliesis set ...
2 . The t ale begins. . .
3. The book is very well written...
4 . l t h o r o u g h l yr e c o m m e n d. . .
3. Phrases used in book reviews:
a dull read,the author has attemptedto discover...
Phrases used in film reviews:
the scriptis well-written,
it is brilliantlydirected,a mustsee,the starringrole is playedby, the film is set in, the
special effectsare impressive,a strong cast including...
4. (Suggested answer)
Missionlmpossibleis an adventurefilm,set in postCold WarEurope.lt is directedby Briande palmaand
starsTom Cruise,who playsthe roleof a secretagent.
Tom Cruisestarsas EthanHunt,a man who sees
his close colleaguesbeing murderedone by one. He
has reasonto believethat there is a traitorinvolved.
Unfortunately,
he is blamedfor the murders.Then,our
hero,with the help of two agents,triesto discover
who the traitoris.
The film has some spectacularspecialeffectsand
stunts.Tom Cruiseuses extraordinarydevices,such
as explodingchewing-gumto dealwiththe dangershe
faces.The camerawork is excellent.There'senough
actionto keepthe plotgoingwithoutthe needfor many
love scenes like in other spy films.
I highly recommendthis film, especiallyto those
who enjoy espionagestoriesand secretmissions.As
soon as you hear the familiartune of Missionlmpossib/e you'll be set to enjoy this rivetingand entertai ni ngfi l m.
Tenses used: PresentSimple
Purpose of each paragraph:
1. statewhere book is set and kind of story (backg ro und)
2. main points of plot
3. generalcomments
4. recommendation
101
Revisionof WritingTechniques
Revisionof WritingTechniques
(T is advisedto photocopy the following questionsor make transparenciesand revise theory on writing
with hislher Ss.)
Decide which of the following statementsare True and which are False.
A. DescriptiveCompositions
1. ln descriptivecompositionseach paragraphshouldstartwith a topic sentence.
2. To describea personyou shoulddescribephysicalappearance,personalityand behaviour.
3. To describea placefor a seriousmagazineyou shoulduse informallanguage.
4. Each paragraphin descriptivecompositionsconsistsof one sentence.
5, Shortforms are acceptablein informalwriting.
6. Each paragraphshould starta new topic.
detailedinformationis not necessary.
7. Whenwritinginstructions
8. To describean objectyou shouldincludeparticulardetailsand specialfeatures.
9. The lmperativeis not usedwhen writinginstructions.
10. The PassiveVoiceis neverusedto describeevents.
withoutjustification.
11. When describingpeopleyou shouldtalk about personalitycharacteristics
12. Descriptionsof objectscan be includedin a reportto a lost propertyoffice.
13. To describea placeyou can use your senseswhilegivingdetailsof it.
14. The final paragraphof a descriptionof a place includesparticulardetailsof it.
15. When describingfestivalsyou can use your sensesto describethe atmosphere.
B. NarrativeCompositions
1. Pasttensesare used in a narrative.
2. A story is alwayswrittenin the second person.
3. A factualreportis normallyinformalwriting.
4. A factualreportincludesfacts.
5. The use of lndirectSpeechenlivensthe narrationof a story.
6. Chattydescriptionsare acceptablein stories.
7. Factualreportsare writtenin colloquialEnglish.
8. Linkingwords are importantwhilewritinga story.
9. Shortforms are only acceptablein quoteswhen writinga story.
10. The writercan includehis personalfeelingsin firstpersonnarrations.
11. A story cannot move back or forwardin time.
12. A factualreportis a combinationof feelingsand facts.
13. An interestingplot is essentialin a story.
14. Sequencewords are not used in narratives.
15. When writinga third personnarrativethe writeris not directlyinvolvedin the story.
102
Revisionof Writing Techniques
C. Informal - Formal - Transactional Letters
1. Colloquial
Englishcanbe usedin formalletters.
2. lf you knowthe nameof the recipient
you sign"Yourssincerely".
3. Formallettersincludefactsand strongemotional
feelings.
4. In an informalletteryou canendwith"Yours,John".
5. Lettersof complaintarenormallywrittenin an informalstyle.
6. In transactional
lettersallfactualinformation
shouldbe includedthe samewayas it hasbeen
givenin the rubric.
- Descriptive
7. Narrative
letterscan be eitherformalor informal.
8. Lettersof application
includenarrative
techniques.
9. In formalletterswhenwe knowthe nameof the recipient
we addresshimas "DearJohn',.
10. "Yoursfaithfully"
is usedin someformalletters.
11. Shortformsareusedin informalletters.
12. Complexsentencestructures
arenot permitted
in formalletters.
13. ln informalletterspronounscannotbe omitted.
14. ldiomscan be usedin informalletters.
15. fn formallettersparagraphs
shoulddevelopone specifictopic.
D. Argumentativeessays
1. Argumentative
essaysarealwayswrittenin a formalstyle.
2. To justifyyourpointof viewexamples
and reasonsarenot necessary.
3. Quotations
shouldbe avoided.
4. Strongfeelingsmakean argumentative
essaymoreinteresting.
5. Overgeneralisations
shouldnot be usedin argumentative
essays.
6. Linkingwordsarenot normally
used.
7. Shortformscan be usedin quotations.
8. Thereadercannotbe addressed
directly.
9. Thelastparagraph
shouldnot givethe readersomething
to consider.
questioncan be usedeitherin thefirstor the lastparagraph
10. A rhetorical
of an argumentative
essay.
11. Whengivingarguments
for or againsta topicyou shouldnot be objective.
12. Eachpointis introduced
in a newparagraph.
13. Whenwritingan opinionessayyourpersonal
opinionshouldbe includedin the mainbody.
14. Theothersideof the argumentshouldnot be presented.
15. In argumentative
essaysyou can makereference
to othersources.
E. Reports
1. Reportsarewrittenin a formalstyle.
2. Newsreportsarewrittenwithsub-headings.
3. ThePassive
Voiceis avoidedin reports.
4. Witnessstatements
arealwaysformal.
5. Sub-headings
arenot necessary
in surveyreports.
6. Present
tensesareusedin surveyreports.
7. Figuresincludedin a reportshouldbe recordedin theformof percentages
or proportions.
8. Factsare not usedin newsreports.
9. Quotations
areusedin surveyreports.
goodand badpointsyoushouldsoundemotional.
10. Whileassessing
11. Witnessstatements
arewrittenin chronological
order.
12. Newsreportscanemploynarrative
techniques.
13. Formallanguageis usedin surveyreports.
14. Witnessstatements
includeonlyhypotheses.
15. Alltypesof reportsshouldhavea mainheading.
103
Revisionof WritingTechniques
F. Articles
1. Articlescan be eitherformal or informal.
2. An impersonalstyle is not used in formalarticles.
3. The style used in popularnewspaperscan be informal.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Newspaperarticlesdo not have a headline.
In the first paragraphyou can't make referenceto a strangeScene.
The last paragraphof an articleneversummarisesthe article.
The articlecan start with a quotation.
techniquesare not used in articles.
8. Narrative/Descriptive
9. In formal articlesyou can addressthe readerdirectly.
10. Stylecan vary within an article.
G. Reviews
1. Reviewsdo not includethe writer'sviewpoint.
2. Reviewsare writtenin a formal style.
3. Each new topic is introducedin a new paragraph.
4. The type of film or book should alwaysbe mentioned.
5. The writer'srecommendationshould not be justified.
6. The Presenttense is used in the descriptionof the plot.
KEY
A.1.T
2.T
3.F
4.F
5.T
6.T
7. F
8.T
9.F
10.F
11.F
12.T
13.T
14. F
15.7
B. 1.T
2.F
3.F
4.T
5.F
6.T
7. F
I.T
9.F
10.T
11.F
12.F
13.T
14. F
15.7
c.1.F
2.T
3.F
4.T
5.F
6.F
7.T
LF
9.F
10.T
11.T
12.F
13.F
14. T
15.7
D.1.T
2.F
3.F
4.F
5.T
6.F
7.T
8.F
9.F
10.T
11.F
12.T
13.F
14. F
15.7
E. 1. T
2.F
3. F
4.F
5. F
6.T
7. T
8.F
9. F
10.F
11. T
12.T
13. T
14. F
15. F(witnessstatementsdon't)
F.1.T
2. F
3.T
4.F
5.F
6.F
7. T
8.F
9.F
10.F
G. 1.F
2. F
3.T
4. T
5.F
104
6. T
Revision Secfion
Revision Section (p
A. MultipleChoiceeuestions
1. B
2. C
3.A
4. D
5.D
6.C
7. C
8.D
9.A
10. D
'11.D
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
A
D
D
B
A
C
D
A
c
21. B
22. C
23. B
24. D
25. C
26. A
27. C
28. A
29. D
30. B
31.8
32. B
33. B
34. B
35. A
36. B
37. C
38. D
39. A
40. c
41. C
42. B
43.A
44. D
45. B
46. A
47. B
48. C
49. A
50. c
51.8
52. D
53. C
54. D
55. B
56. B
57. C
58. B
59. A
60. D
61.D
62. D
63.A
64.D
65.D
66.8
67. D
68.C
69.A
70. C
71. D
72. C
73. C
74. A
75. A
76. C
77. C
78. B
79. A
80. B
81. D
82. A
83. C
84C
85. B
86. B
87. B
88. C
89. B
90. D
91. A
92. D
93. B
94. B
95. D
96. D
97. B
98. C
99. D
100. B
B. Key-WordTransformationSentences
1 . . . .m u s tn o t b e u s e d . . .
2 . ... is not old enou g hto ...
3 . . . .w o u l d l i k et o . . .
4 . ... is no c hanc eof ...
5 . ... is not f ar f r om ...
6 . ... is not war m / ho te n o u g h ...
7 . ... if lwas s uppos e dto ...
8 . . . . I w e r ey o u , I w o u l d . . .
9 . ... I would r at hern o t ...
1 0 . . . .w i l lt a k e p l a c e. . .
1 1 . . . .i s n o t a s g o o d a s . . .
1 2 . ... wis h I c ould c om e ...
1 3 . . . . i s s a i dt o b e . . .
1 4 . ... Y ok o if s he had tri e d ...
1 5 . . . .a s m a l la m o u n to f . . .
1 6 . ... tur nedit down . ..
1 7 . ... need not hav eca n c e l l e d...
1 8 . . . .y o u s h o u l dt a k e . . .
1 9 . ... w is h I had not u p s e t ...
2 0 . ... a m not r es pons i b l e
fo r p ro v i d i n g...
2 1 . ... a ny oneint er es te di n h e l p i n g...
2 2 . ... s aid t o hav e be e n b u i l t ...
2 3 . ... w ould not hav e b e e n ...
24. ... is not (too)far from ...
2 5 . ... been good at . . .
26. ... accused Mat of havingdestroyedi
destroying...
2 7 . ... i n t ot aldis agr e e me n t...
2 8 . ... w as t he only pe rs o nw h o ...
29. ... too busy to attend ...
30. ... one of the fastest...
31. ... eventhough she behaves...
32. ... is hardlyanythingleft in ...
33. ... to find the solutionto ...
34. ... to have/getthe roof repaired...
35. ... have not visitedElizabeth...
36. ... w i l l onl y be acceptedi f ...
3 7 . . . .g o o d t o g e t . . .
38. ... the subj ectI l i kedmost ...
39. ... w as the fi rstti me ...
40. ... di d nothi ngbut quarrel...
4 1 . . . .w o u l dl i k et o k n o w . . .
42. ... that thereare ...
43. ... pays (any)attentionto ...
44. ... might have forgotten...
45. ... efficientat organising...
46. ... suggestedgoi ng on ...
47. ... w as Mi chael ' sfi rstvi si t...
48. ... not as many supermarkets...
49. ... mi stookme for ...
50. ... bei ng unabl eto pl ay ...
5 1 . . . . i f w e h a d n o t g i v e n. . .
52. ... have been marri edsi nce ...
53. ... good at draw i ng...
54. ... had a di scussi onabout ...
55. ... put up w i th hi s/hi m...
56. ... di d not l et us sl eep ...
57. ... i n case i t i s col d ...
58. ... ages si nceGl ori aw ent/hasbeen ...
59. ... had betternot stay up ...
60. ... was too difficultfor ...
6 1 . . . .d o n o t b e l o n gt o m e . . .
62. ... more fluentlythan anybody ...
63. ... has been w ri ti ng...
64. ... w as not deep enough ...
65. ... w hy he had nevertri ed ...
66. ... di d not succeedi n fi ndi ng...
6 7 . . . . h a s b e e n r e d u c e db y . . .
68. ... advi sedA nn to cal l ...
69. ... put me throughto ...
7 0 . . . .j u s t i n t i m e f o r . . .
7 1 . . . .w a s n o p o i n ti n m e . . .
72. ... i s/w i l lbe i mpossi bl efor ...
73. ... if Stevehad not helped ...
74. ... hi msel fto be ...
75. ... l et vi si torsuse ...
76. ... i f I had i nvi tedD oreen...
77. ... w as put off ...
7 8 . . . . i f s h e c o u l dl e n d h i m . . .
79. ... guest had fun ...
80. ... w i l l no doubt become...
8 1 . . . .w a s t o o s l o w . . .
82. ... strengthgave out ...
83. ... too far away for me ...
84. ... apartfrom John...
85. ...took to her new teacher...
86. ... enoughmoneyto get by ...
8 7 . . . .w i s h I c o u l d g o . . .
88. ... i n the habi tof cutti ng...
105
RevisionSection
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
add more points: What is more; another major
moreover;in additionto;
reason,also;furthermore;
besides;apartfrom this; not to mentionthe fact
that, etc.
introduceconflictingviewpoints:lt is arguedthat;
people argue that; opponents of this view say;
there are peoplewho oPPose;etc.
8 . Yes.
9 . Yes, in the main body ParagraPhs.
. . . c ut down on Yo u rfo o d ...
. . . alway sbe co u n te do n ...
. . . r u n s h o r to f m o n e Y. . .
. . .t ur n t he v olu m ed o w n ...
. . . didn' t need to g o ...
. . . behindbar s d o e s n ' ta l w a y s...
... have alreadygrown out of ...
. . . br oughtout a b o o k ...
. . . will t ak e pla c e ...
. . .p u t y o u u P f o r . . .
. . . was br ough tro u n d ...
. . . gr ow up an d s ta rtta k i n g ...
C. ErrorCorrectionTexts
1. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
,/
in
it
t he
more
2. 1. upon
2 . y our
3. ,/
4 . t hev
5.,/'
6. of
7 . s o me
8.a
9. ,/
1 0 . ,/
11. if
12. /
13. it
14. by
15. /
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
got
,/
both
have
with
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
,/
very
while
/
th a t
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
about
/
can
mo re
must
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
'/
one
being
to
/
Last paragraPh:
. statea PersonaloPinion
. give the readersomethingto consider
. summarisethe comPosition
. end with a quotationor a rhetoricalquestion
11. A.C.E
(Suggestedanswer)
Are Computers a Blessing or a Gurse?
3. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
have
to
,/
they
,/
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
,/
had
,/
however
for
4. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
the
,/
been
,/
for
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
should
/
fo r
mo re
to
D. CompositionDiscussion
A. 1 . A n opinionarti c l e .
2. Readersof the magazine.
3. Para 1: stateoPinion
Paras 2 & 3: 1st and 2nd argumentsand reasons
Para 4: other side of argumentand reason(s)
Final para: restateopinion using differentwords
4. Formalstylebecauseit is an opinionarticlewritten
for a magazine.
5. Yes.
6. (Suggested answers)
I believ e,I n m y o p i n i o n ,I th i n k ,l n my v i e w ,
I stronglybelieve,etc.
7. (Suggested answers)
list points: In the first place;first of all; to start
with: etc.
106
10. (Suggested answers)
First paragraph:
. Statean oPinion
. make referenceto a strangescene or situation
. addressthe readerdirectlY
. start with a quotation or rhetoricalquestion
. startwith a problemthat needs a solution
Can you remembera time when you did not
have a computer and had to do everythingby
hand? In my opinion,there is no doubt that computershave made many people'sliveseasier.
First of all, as far as educationis concerned,
computershaveprovedto be an efficienttoolin the
learningprocess.For instance,childrenfind certain school subjects,such as Maths,easierto do
w hen usi nga comP uter.
In addition,computersare extremelyvaluable
in one's workplace.Storingand processinginformation nowadays can be done in a matter of
minutes.As a result,time spent on paperworkand
filing has been greatlYreduced.
On the other hand, some people argue that
many problemshavebeencausedbythe wide use
of computersin theworkplace.Forinstance,unemployment rates in many parts of the world have
skyrocketeddue to the fact that computers have
taken the place of humans.
To sum up, it seems that computers play an
importantrole in our lives.lt is inevitablethat there
will be disadvantages,yet the benefitsgained by
havinga comPuterare invaluable.
B . 1. My pen fri end.
2. Informalstyle.
3. To give suggestions.
4.c
5. (Ss'ownanswers)
6.A,C,D,F,G
7. A, B, D, F, G, H
Revision Section
(Suggested answer)
Dear Anna,
Thank you for your letter.Of course,I'd be
happy to make a few suggestions.
Firstof all,your sistershould definitelyvisitthe
EiffelTower. No visit to paris would be complete
without seeing this beautifulmonument.Another
greatideaisfor herto spendthe day at NotreDame.
lf I were her, I would also take a walk along the left
Bank. lt's full of wonderfulcafesand bistros.
Parishas such amazingfood. lwould definitely
suggest trying Frenchonion soup. lt's absolutely
d elic ious .A noth e r g re a t d i s h i s s n a i l s i n g a r l i c
butter.I know it soundsunappetisingbut it reallyis
out of this world!
W ell,I hope I' v e b e e n o f s o m e h e l p .
Writesoon and tell me your news.
Love,
Jean
C. 1 .
2.
3.
4.
A nar r at iv e.
Readersof the magazineand my teacher.
Thir d per s on.
Para 1: set the scene (who - where - when)
Para 2: beforethe main event(s)
Paras 3 & 4: the main event(s)
Final para: end the story
5.8
6. "Terrified
and stillshakingtheycould hardlybelieve
they were alive."
7.A,D,E,G,H
8. Pasttenses becauseit is about an eventthat
happenedin the past.
9 . Fir s t ,t hen, nex t ,a s s o o n a s , me a n w h i l e ,
i m m ediat ely
(Suggested answer)
It was a cold and gloomy afternoon.Arthurand
John were standingbeforethe old wooden door of
the abandonedcastle."Areyou sureyou wantto do
this?" John asked Arthur. Arthur swallowedand
nodded.
They pushed the heavy door open and nervously walked into the great hall. Cobwebs hung
from the tall ceiling and thick dust covered the
ancientfurniture.Theyturnedon theirtorchesand
slowlywalked acrossthe hall.
Suddenly,they heard a deafeningnoise.The
castle shook and shudderedand pieces of brick
and wood fellto the floor.The boys screamedand
ran under a huge table for safety. The castle
seemed to be collapsingbefore their very eyes.
"C om eon! Let ' sg e t o u t o f h e re !"J o h n y e l l e d T
. hey
quickly ran acrossthe hall and out the door.
One hour later,as afirefighterhandedthem two
cups of steaminghot tea, he said, "You boys are
l uc k y .Didn' ty ou k n o w th ec a s tl ew a ss c h e d u l e dto
be demolishedtoday?" Arthur and John looked
back at the remainsof the castle.Terrifiedand still
shaking,they could hardlybelievethey were alive,
D. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
B.
9.
10.
A compositionprovidingsolutionsto problems.
My teacher.
Formalstyle.
ln the first paragraph.
2nd and 3rd paragraphs.
Y es.
The main body paragraphs.
AandC
Y es.
Yes, in the first andlor tinal paragraphs.
(Suggested answer)
Everybody can help to preserve the natural
environment in their own town lcity.
Whetherone livesin a smalltownor a largecity,
it is up to us to take responsibility
to preserveour
natural environment.As individuals,what is our
role in helpingto keep our environmentclean?
Firstly,the easiestway for one to playtheir part
in keepingthe environmentclean is to recycle.lt
only takes a few minutesa day for rubbishto be
sorted,separatedand placed in recyclingbins. lf
peoplewere to do this on a regularbasis,it would
help reducethe amount of indisposablewaste on
our pl anet.
Secondly,unlesswe all take responsibilityfor
our actions,the environmentwill sufferbecauseof
our carelessness.
Therefore,peoplewho litterand
who are indifferentto the well-beingof the environment should be heavilyfined.
All things considered,it seems that if we all
treated our planet with respect and consideration
then we would be doing our best to help preserve
our envi ronment.
E. 1. Letterto the editor.
2. To correct the errorsthat were written in a newspaper report.
3. The editorand the readersof the newspaper.
4. Formalstyle.
5. Yes.
6. Salutation
Para 1: reason(s)for writing
Paras2&3: development
Final para: closingremarks
N ame
7. P asttenses
8. In the final paragraph.
L Dear Sir/Madam,Yours Faithfully+ my full name
(Suggested answer)
Dear Sir/Madam.
I am writingthis letterto commenton an article
which appearedin your newspaper.To my mind,
the article concerningthe GladstoneAnnual Art
Exhibition,contained some misleadinginformati on.
Firstly,your article stated that the event was
"dull".By my standards,any exhibitionwhich is
attended by over 10,000visitors,is anything but
107
RevisionSecfion
but not least, the club's juice bar offers freshlysqueezedfruitjuicesand deliciousvegetablejuices.
E qui pment
The equipmentprovidedbythe club is state-of-theart,Treadmills,exercisebicycles,dumb-bellsand
weights are availablefor all those interestedin
getting fit and following a training programme.
However, the trainers are hardly ever there to
instructyou, which is a drawbackthat should be
taken into consideration.
Openi ng H ours
In practice,the club is open everyday form 9 am to
9 prn.Thereforeit is convenientfor teenagerswho
go to school . In addi ti on,the cl ub i s open on
Saturdaysfrom 10 am to 5 pm which are very
flexiblehours for people who work.
Subscription Fees
The fact of the matteris that fees at CentralFitness
Club are quite expensive.However,thereare special prices for young people under the age of
sixteen.as well as a 10% discountfor those who
subscribefor a year.
Recommendation
To sum up, I would recommendCentral Fitness
Clubfor peopleof all ages.Eventhoughthe feesto
join are quite expensive,it is a well-organisedand
modern venue for fitnessfans.
"dull".Moreover,contraryto your statementthat
the opening hours were affected by "technical
problems",the exhibitionwas, in fact, open from
10 am to 8 pm everyday as scheduled,exceptfor
the first week. In addition,all works of art were
indeed done by local artists.Your informationon
this point was false as was the issue regarding
prices. Your article said there were no special
prices when, in actuality,children and students
receivedspecialratesat the weekend.
To conclude, I feel strongly that this event
s houlddef init e l yb e h e l da g a i nn e x ty e a r.Al l i n al l .
I believe it is, and will continue to be, a worthy
contributorto culturein our town.
Yours faithfully,
J u d y S m i th
F. 1. An assessmentreport.
2. To assessthe suitabilityof a newly-openedsports
centrefor people of all ages.
3 . M y bos s .
4. Formalstyle.
5.A,D,E,G
6. Para 1: state purposeand contentof your report
P ar as2, 3 & 4 : s u mma ri s ee a c h p o i n t,g i v i n gb oth
positiveand negativeaspects
Final para: generalassessmentand recommendation
7.B,C,E,F
8. The final paragraph.
9. Yes, becauseassessmentreportsshould be
objective
1 0 . P r es entt ens e s
1 1 . ( S ugges t eda n s w e rs )
Express reality: The fact of the matter is that;
Actually;In practice;etc.
Make contrasting points: However;Although;
Des pit e;B ut ; W h i l e ;E v e nth o u g h ;e tc .
Expressthe difference between appearanceand
reality: lt may seem; On the sudace;Apparently;
etc.
G onc lude:O n th e w h o l e ;In c o n c l u s i o n ;
To sum up; etc.
(Suggested answer)
T o:
From:
Subject:
Date:
M r B. J o h n s o n ,M a n a g e r
FrancisSmythe,AssistantManager
CentralFitnessClub
25th November,20..
lntroduction
The purposeof thisreportis to assessthe suitability
of CentralFitnessClub for people of all ages.
Facilities
The club's facilitiesnot only cater for adults, but
als o f or y oun g e r c h i l d re n .F o r e x a mp l e ,y oung
peoplewillenjoythe musicplayedduringaerobics'
classes.Moreover,the club has got one of the best
weightliftingrooms one could possiblyfind. Last
108
To compl ai nabout a hol i dayyou w ent on.
The managerof S unshi neTours.
No.
Formalstyle.
A strongtone becausel'm askingfor my money
back.
6. Salutation
Para 1: reason(s)for writing
Paras 2 & 3'.complaintswith justifications
Final para: closingremarks
N ame
7. Y es.
8.8
9.A,C,D,G
G. 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(Suggested answer)
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writingto expressmy strongdissatisfaction
with the one-weekholidayI spent at the Highfield
hotelfrom July 1st.
To begin with, I was disgustedby the lack of
facilities.Contrary to what your brochure stated,
the rooms were not air-conditioned,despite the
unbearable heat. Also, the swimming pool remained empty for the whole week, without any
explanation.This was unacceptableas the beach
was over five kilometresaway.
Furthermore,I was surprisedby the poor services offered by this five-starhotel. To begin with,
there was no room servicewhich was extremely
What is rnore,the liftwas alwaysout
inconvenient.
of order and as my room was on the sixthfloor, I
RevisionSectlon
found this to be completelyoutrageous.I was also
appalled by the unhelpful attitude of the staff,
particularlythe hotel guide. She insistedon being
paid despite the fact that the excursionshad alreadybeen includedin the totalcost of the holiday.
I believethat I am entitledto a refundfor the
inconvenienceI have suffered.I look forward to
hearingfrom you soon otherwiseI shall be forced
to take the matter further.
Yoursfaithfully,
Angela Rogers
H. 1. A transactionalletteraskingfor information.
2. To ask for more informationregardinga trip I have
w on t o Dublin.
3 . Megan Wilson,the competitionorganiser.
4 . N o.
5 . Formalstyle.
6 . Salutation
Para 1: reason(s)for writing
Paras2&3: development
Final para: closingremarks
Nam e
7. That I have chosenthe appropriatestyle.
That I have includedall the factualinformation
providedin the rubric,using my own words.
That I have checked that each paragraphhas a
topic.
B. B
9 . Opening Remarks: C
Closing Remarks: A
10.A,B
(Suggested answer)
Dear M s W ils on,
I am writingto expressmy gratitudefor having
chosen me as the winner.I would also liketo take
this opportunityto ask you a few questionsregardi n g t he t r ip t o Du b l i n .
Firstof all, I would appreciateit if you could tell
m e m or e about o u r a rri v a li n D u b l i n .W o u l d i t b e
possible for somebody to meet us at the train
station?lf not, could you pleasesuggestthe best
way to get to the hotel?
Moreover,could you pleaselet me know if all
mealsare includedin the offer?Finally,I would be
gratefulif you could inform me whether it wili be
necessaryfor us to dress formallyin order to see
"Riverdance".
Thank you in advancefor your kind co-operation. I am lookingfonvardto hearingfrom you at
your earliestconvenience.
Yourssincerely,
AliceMallone
E. SpeakingTests
Part 1
(Part 1 /asfs about four minutes and has to do with
socialisingand giving personalinformation.Ss should be
able to talk about themselvesfor tvvominutes.)
Part 2
(Part 2 /asfsaboutfour minutesand focuseson exchanging
personal and factual information based on given visual
prompts. Ss'are given two colour photographs each and
they have to talk about them in relation to themselves
without being interrupted and helped by the T. Theyare also
asked to comment on each other's pictures.)
Part 3
(ln Part 3 Ss are examined in pairs. Theyare given visual
promptswhich generate adiscussion andtheytalkwith one
another.Ss /ook carefullyatthevisual promptsconcentrating on relevant details. The conversation should not be
dominated by one student. Ss have to talk only about the
task the interuiewerhasgiven them. Thispart /astsabouf 3
minutes.)
Parl4
(ln Part 4 Ss talk with one anotherabout mattersrelated to
the theme of Part 3. Ss should listen to their partner's
answers and respond accordingly. lt is important to rememberthatwhen one partneris speakinghelshe should
not be interruptedbythe other.Part4 lastsabout 4 minutes.)
SpeakingTest 1
Parts1&2 (Suggested
answers)
Picture A shows a female vet with her patient,a cat.
Picture B shows a pilot standingnear an aeroplane.
Being a pilot is a dangerousjob where he/she must
work as part of a team whereas being a vet is not very
dangerousand the personworks alone.
A vet needs qualitiesof understandingand compassiontowardsanimals.Avetalsoneedstobe gentleand
caring.On the other hand, a pilot needsan adventurous spi ri t and must be si ngl e-mi ndedw i th great
powersof concentration.Both of them, however,need
to be cal m i n thei rj ob.
I would reallylike to be a vet as I love animals.
Peoplechooseto do dangerousjobs becausethey like
taking risks and they want somethingchallengingin
thei r l i ves.
PictureC showselephantsand zebrasdrinkingwater.
They are eitheron a naturereserveor in an areawhere
wild animalsare freeto roam about.However,picture
D shows a whale in an aquariumand it is not free and
prcbablyjust entertainshuman beings.
109
RevisionSecfion
In m y opinion,t he m o s t s u i ta b l ee n v i ro n m e nits o ne
where the animalslive freelyand naturally.
lt is not cruelto keep a domesticpet in an appropriate
environment.lt is cruel,however,to keep an exoticor
wild animalcaged up away from its naturalhabitat'
Governmentscould help by enforcinglawsand heavy
punishmentson those who kill or exportendangered
species.Perhapsthe bestway would be to re-educate
people about the need for animalson our planet'
.
.
.
Part 3 (Suggested answers)
SA: I would liketo attendthe discussionson space and
the environment.What about You?
SB: I would preferto go to the ones about cooking and
flower arranging.Why do you think space and the
environmentwould be so interesting?
SA: Well,we need to learnmore about the placewhere
we live,the extinctionof certainspeciesand alsohow
we can explorespace to help improveour planet'
What is so interestingabout the discussionson
flower arrangingand cooking?
SB: I think these are very creativesubjectsand I would
like to learn more about them as I am a creative
person.
SA: W ell,it look slik eth e d i s c u s s i o n cs o v e ra w i d e ra nge
of interestsfor everyone,don't they?
SB: I agr ee.W e c ou l d l e a rna l o t a b o u tth i n g sw e d on' t
know as well.
Part 4 (Suggested answers)
.
SA: I thinkthatwe learnhowto co-operatewithothers'
SB: I agree,but we also learnmany otherskillswhich
will help us when we startwork, such as creativity
and lear nin gto th i n k i n a l o g i c a lw a y .
SA: Yes, school does prepareus for life'
.
SA: I would make sure that all children learn about
t ec hnologYa n d c o m Pu ti n g .
SB: Yes, we need those but I wouldn't change subjects like history or geography - | think we still
need to learnsuch things.
SA: I agree,but I would changethe teachers!
.
SA: I don't think uniformshould be compulsory,after
all we have a rightto choose what to wear'
SB: I don't agree. Uniforms are smart and make
everyoneequal.Also, you don't have to decide
what to wear everYdaY.
SA: Well,we alreadywear a kind of uniform,as most
of us chooseto wear jeans to school.
.
SA: I believe it is still importantto learn other languagesas there are still many peoplewho don't
speak or have the chanceto learn English'
S B : I agr ee.lf e v e ry o n ei n th e w o rl d l e a rn sEngl i sh,
then there will be no differencesamong all the
c ount r iesan d w e w i l l a l l e n d u p th e s a me .
110
SpeakingTest2
answers)
Parts1&2 (Suggested
Picture A showsa very attractivehoteland swimming
pool which is probablyextremelycrowdedespecially
in the summer months whereas picture B shows a
si mpl ehousesomew hereon a mountai n,The house
seems to be in a remoteand quiet area.
. I w oul dpreferto spendmy ti me i n the mountai nhouse
as it would be peacefuland I would be able to go for
long walks and not meet other people.
. This type of hotel usually provides its guests with
such as a disco or barbecuearoundthe
entertainment
pool. Apart from these activities,you would also be
able to explorethe localarea.The house may be near
a ri verw hereyou coul dgo fi shi ngor j ustw al k among
the trees.
. An enjoyableholidayis one wherethe weatheris warm
and sunny.A l so,there shoul d be many thi ngsto do
and placesto visit.The importantthing,however,is to
have good comPanY.
. Picture C shows the inside of a theatre where you
could go to see a play,balletor operawhereaspicture
D shows a group of boys singing and dancing on
stage.
. At the theatrethe audiencejust sit and watch and do
not takepart in any way,whereasat a concert,likethis,
the audi encedo not si t dow n. P eopl ej oi n i n w i th t he
si ngi ngand movearoundto the musi cw hi chI believe
shows how much they are enjoyingthemselves'
. I would preferto attenda theatreto see a good playas
I don' t l i ke l argecrow dsof noi sypeopl e.
. Y es,I do bel i evetheyare.chi l drenl i keto i mi tatetheir
heroesand si ncetheseareusual l yseeni nvi ol entf ilm s,
it often results in children doing something violent
themsel ves.
.
Part 3 (Suggested answers)
SA: lthinkthata parkwouldbe a good ideaand everyone
would benefitfrom it. What do you think?
S B : I don' tagree.I bel i evethata shoppi ngcentrewould
be more usefulfor everyoneof all ages.
SA: Yes, it would be more useful,but a park would give
pleasureto everyone.Having all the trees around
would improvethe qualityof the air we breathe'
S B : Y es, but i n w i nter,peopl ew on' t be abl e to go and
enjoy a park.A shoppingcentrecan be used all the
year. lt will also give jobs to a lot of people.
SA: That'strue,but I disagreeabout not enjoyinga park
in the winter.Peopleliketo walk no matterwhat the
w eatheri s l i ke.l t hel pspeopl erel axfrom thei rbusy
l i ves.
SB: Well,I believethat many peoplecan relaxby looking
in shop windows.At least,that's what I do!
Revision Secfion
Part 4 (Suggested answers)
'
.
.
.
.
sA: I think it's betterto iive in the city becauselife is
more exciting.
SB: I don't agree.Life in the countryis healthierand
there is alwayssomethingto do.
SA: Yes,but in the citytherearejobs for most people.
Also, there are more facilitieslike hospitalsand
better schools.
'
'
SA: I think that my area would improveif there were
more placesfor young people to go to such as
youth centres.
SB: I believethat a park would be a good ideaso that
we could see some trees, insteadof ugly build_
ings.
SA: Yes, but young people can't spend all their time
sittingin a park.
SB: Why should young people have all the benefits?
Older people need their livesimprovedas well.
SA: I'm sure that people would understand more
about the environmentif televisionshowed more
programmesand documentariesabout the envi_
ronment.
SB: Yes, but we alreadyshow these things and still
people don't take any notice.What about more
adveftisingin magazinesand newspapers?
SA: That might be a better idea as people wouldn't
be able to avoid seeingthem. When they watch
such things on television,many people change
ch annels .
SA: I don't know whetherthe planetwill be betteror
worse, but I think it will be worse.
SB: I agree.Therewon't be manytreesor animalsleft
and peoplewill be even more interestedin them_
selves.
SA: l think t her ewillb e s o m a n y p e o p l eo n th e p l a n et
that life will be very unpleasant.
SB: Yes and thereprobablywon't be enoughfood for
us all.
.
.
I think that less money should be spent on space
explorationand more money used to help the people
who live on Earth where we have many problems.
Moneycould be spent helpingthe lessfortunateof our
w orl d.
Picture c shows an attractivetown with tall buildings
and some greenery,whereaspicture D showsan ugly
town with blocks of flats.lt appearsto be a verv dull
place.
I would obviouslyliketo livein the more attractivetown
where I think life could be quite pleasant.
I believethat towns generallyneed more parks and
leisureor sports facilities.Trafficshould be banned
from city centresand publictransportought to be free
for everyone.Many big citieswould also benefitfrom
havingan undergroundrailway.
I would loveto livein anothercountrywhereI would be
ableto experiencea differentcultureand climateto that
of my own country. lt would give me the chance to
broadenmy knowledgeand gain a differentpictureof
the world.
Part 3 (Suggested answers)
SA: I think that boots would be very necessary in the
jungle in caseyou treadon somethinglikea poison_
ous snake. Do you agree?
SB: Yes. I do and I think that insect repellentis really
necessary.The jungle is full of mosquitoes and
poisonousflies.What else do you think we should
take with us?
SA: Well, I think that some sort of light is necessary.
SB: Why? We wouldn'tbe walkingat night and besides
the light will attract insects.
SA: Yes, I agree,but maybe there'san emergencyand
we need to see what we're doing!
SB: Yes, you're right. So what about taking a camera?
Don't you think we shouldtake photosof the things
we see?
SA: Absolutely.A camera is really necessary.
Part 4 (Suggested answers)
SpeakingTest 3
.
SA: I wouldn't like to go on such an expeditionbecause I think it would be dangerous.
SB: Why would it be dangerous?lf you are carefuland
take medicinebeforeyou leavethen you wouldn't
get sick.
SA: Well, l'd preferto lie on a beach in a hot, sunny
country!
.
SA: Some people reallylike to do dangeroussports
such as sky-diving or potholing. This is their
adventure.
SB: Yes, and others like to experienceadventureby
travellingaround the world.
S A : That' s true because experi enci ngadventure
doesn'tmean you haveto do somethingdangerous.
Parts 1 & 2 (Suggestedanswers)
.
Picture A shows an old-fashionedtrain whereas
picture B shows a hot-airballoon.A trip by balloon
would give a bird'seye view of the land and a balloon
can fly over placesthat a train may not be able to travel
through.Also,travellingby balloonis far more dangero u s.
. I would preferto travelby trainas I believeit would
be
more comfortableto watch the world while sitting
down.
. I believethat all countrieswill be linkedby high-speed
trains.Furthermore,people will travel by supersonic
p l a n e s.
111
RevisionSection
.
SA: I don' t t hink p e o p l ew i l l b e ta k i n g h o l i d a y sthen
becausethey will be too busy to do so.
SB : I don' t agr ee .I th i n k th a t p e o p l ew i l l h a v e m ore
free time and will want even more holidaysthan
they have now.
SA: Well, there won't be many places for people to
visit,so that'swhy they won't be havingholidays'
.
SA: I reallybelievewe will have to live in underwater
cities in the future, becausethere won't be any
placeslefton earthto build houses.
SB: I agree. But beforewe build underwatercities,I
t hink peoplew i l l b e l i v i n go n th e mo o n .
SA: I disagree.I believewe willexploitEarthbeforewe
start going to live in sPace.
SpeakingTest 4 Parts 1 &2 (Suggested answers)
.
b y s p e a ki ng
Pi c t ur eA s hows t w og i rl sc o m m u n i c a ti n g
to each other face to face whereaspicture B shows a
woman talkingto someoneon the phone'
. I prefertospeakfaceto facewith peopleas it is a more
personal way of communication.Fufthermore,it is
difficultto hide emotions when speaking directlyto
someonein this waY.
. People communicateby e-mail,fax and by written
mes s ageson t he i r mo b i l ePh o n e s .
. I believethat sendinglettersis almostoutdatedthese
days becausetechnologyallows us to communicate
faster,which seems to be very important'However,
writing and sending lettersshould never become a
thing of past as lettersare a very personaland unique
way of communicating.
. Picture C shows a man mountaineeringwhereas
picture D showsa man and a woman in a boat,fishing'
There is a strong contrastbetweenthese hobbiesas
one is very activeand dangerouswhereasthe otheris
not.
. I would preferto go fishingas I don't like dangerous
sports.Fishingseemsto be a more productivehobby
as you don't just feel pleasurewhen you catch a fish,
but you also get to eat it too,
. Leisure activitiesplay a big role in our lives. Most
peoplework very hard in their livesand need to relax
in their spare time by doing somethingthey enjoy'
. I thinkthatto some extenttheyare,but that is not to say
that a person who has a quiet nature will not do
something dangerous or adventurous.Also many
outgoing people feel a need to do something less
active in their free time. lt just depends on the indiv idual.
112
Part 3 (Suggested answers)
SA: One of the bestwaysof losingweightis by dietingbut
by doing it properly, not just by not eating and
starvingyourself.What do you think?
SB: Yes, I agree.But dietingalone isn't alwaysenough'
Usuallypeopleneed to exercise.So I would recommend a health farm to someone who wants to lose
w ei ght.
SA: I disagree.Dietingtakestime and most peoplecan't
afford to stay at a health farm for more than a few
days.How much weightcan you lose in a few days?
SB: Well, if people see they can lose weight,they may
feelencouragedto stickto a dietwhenthey leavethe
healthfarm.
SA: Maybe you have a good point there.
Paft 4 (Suggested answers)
. SA: I believe it is very importantfor people to eat
properlyand look afterthemselves.
SB: I agree because if you look after yourself by
havinga healthylifestyleyou will enjoy lifemore'
SA: Yes, and you won't get sick all the time. That's
why people need to exerciseand have a healthy
di et.
.
SA: I think magazinesinfluencemany people,especiallygirls,about the way they look.
SB: But boysare alsoinfluenced.Anyway,young girls
alwayswant to look like the models they see in
magazines.That'swhy they starvethemselves.
maybethereshouldbe some biggermodels
Yes,
SA:
in advertisingso that people don't alwaysthink
that being thin is beautiful.
.
SA: I think it is wrongto be a victimof fashion,but with
so much televisionand magazineinfluence,most
peopl ecan' t hel Pi t.
SB: Yes, this happens to young girls who feel they
may be laughedat by theirfriendsif they don't try
to keep up with the latestfashions'
SA: So, no matter how individualwe are as people,
sometimes it's difficultto stay that way'
.
SA: I always judge people by their appearancealthough I know thi s i s w rong'
SB: I alwaysjudge peopleby theirbehaviourbecause
I wouldn't speak to someone who is badly-behaved no matterif the person has a good appearance or not.
SA: That'sa good waYto think.
TEST1 A
Mission:FCE 2
TEST 1 A (Units1 - 2)
(Time:80 minutes)
SectionA
Youaregoingto reada newspaper
articleaboutexploring
the oceans.Choosethe mostsuitable
headingfromthe list (A-H)for eachpart (1-6)of the article.Thereis one extraheadingwhich
you do not needto use.Thereis an exampleat the beginning(o).
A
B
Know your own planet.
Robot close-ups.
C
D
E
A very specialship.
F
G
H
Solo exploration.
We'll neverget there.
Livingunder water.
Solutionto a problem.
The ocean floor on TV.
Exploringthe Depthsof the Ocean
D
Doctor Bob Ballardis an aquanautan explorerof the world's seas and
oceans. He has visitedthe bottom of
oceans in a mini-submarineand explored such things as the Titanicand
the German battleship the Bismark.
Most recentlyhe has discoveredthe
shipLusitanra,
whichsankoffthe coast
of l re l a n din 1915.B allardh a s m a d e
these visitsalone since he joined the
Deep Submergence Laboratory in
19 6 7 .
But making these visitswas very difficu l t.Th e m ini- s ubm ar inewsh i c ho n l y
seat one man take over two hours to
reachthe sea-bed,and then can only
stay therefor three hours. Becauseof
these problems, Ballard has developed two robot submarines which
send him information24 hoursa day.
These robots are known as the ArgoJasonsystem.TheArgois loweredby
cablefrom a ship on the surfaceof the
ocean and can followthe floor of the
ocean,sendingback new information
whichenablesBallardand histeamto
make maps.
The Jason,however,is smallerand is
a true robot. lt can move completely
independently
acrossthe oceanfloor.
Although it was still attachedto the
surface ship, it actuallywent inside
the Titanic.Jason hastwo controlsystems. lt can be directedfrom the surfaceship,or it can be programmedby
computerbeforeit goes down. Either
way, it is smallenoughto get withina
centimetreof its target.
At one time,the qualityof the pictures
Jason sent back to the ship was not
verygood. Newtechnology,however,
hasenabledJasonto sendbackclear,
full colour televisionpicturesto the
sudaceship.An operatorcan sit in the
ship, surrounded by television
screens,and see everythingJason is
filming. Ballardsays it is almost the
same as being in the submarinehimself.At hishomebytheseain America,
Ballardhas builtan electroniccentre.
By using satellitelinks he can send
other robots,just like Jason, to various undenrvater
spotsalloverthe world
- withoutever leavinghis house!
ture. But man had alreadywalked on
the moon before it was even discovered underthe ocean.
Ballardalso dreams of people living
underthe sea i n the 21st century.H e
believesthat problems such as the
energyshortageand overcrowdingcan
be resolved by man making use of
parts of the ocean. He believes that
people think that Mars is a friendlier
place to live than under the sea, and
that many are afraidof the idea. But he
says that people have always been
afraid of the unknown, and that we
must rise above these fears.
6
The first step towards living under
water would be in something called
the flip-ship.lt floatsverticallyso that
the wallsbecomefloorsand ceilings.lt
is easy to move, but when it is placed
on itssideit is alsoa verystablevessel.
The waves just roll past and do not
cause any disturbanceto the ship. A
model of this ship has already been
tried out successfullyin America.
But Ballardsaysthat only a tiny part of
the ocean floor has been explored.
Forexample,the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge,a
huge underwatermountainrange, is
the earth's largest geographicalfea-
113
p.2
TEST1 A
Mission:FCE2
SectionB
word(s)from the list below.Usetheword(s)only once.
Fittin the appropriate
mentally
elf-like
to reduce
works
haYfever
carnival
prevention
anxiety
face
season
disturbed
7.
d.
I
10.
11.
live
to shake
to burst onto
crime
12.
13.
14.
15.
16,
of art
sufferers
the screen
hands
broadcast
Section C
Choosethe correct item.
j7. He watchesthe news everyday, so knows everythingabout (radical / current) issues.
teacherwho managesto (stimulatei manipulate)his students.
18. He's a very interesting
1g They havejust heardthe news (article/ bulletin)aboutthe earthquakein Crete'
ZA. Jane went to the boutiqueto buy a new (overall/ outfit) for the wedding.
Zj. When we destroythe rainforestmany animalsbecome(hapless/ harmless)victims.
22. lt is his great (prejudice/ perception)that makeshim such a good judge of character.
29. She'salwaysbeen a (disloyal/ rebellious)child and rarelylistensto her parents.
SectionD
word(s)fromthe list below:
Fittin the gapswith the appropriate
inspiration - trend - overwhelming - munched - compassion - flocked naive
. . . . . .y, o u c o u l dt e l l h e r a n y t h i n ga n d s h e ' d b e l i e v ey o u .
2 4 . S h e ' ss o . " .
. to the summersales;the shops were so busy!
25. Evervone
. . . . .o n t h e c a r r o t '
2 6 . T h e d o n k e yh a p p i l y. . . .
at the momentis to wear bright,cheerfulcolours.
2Z. The .
28. The sightof the injuredchildrenfilledher with
. for many of Monet'spaintings.
Zg. The beautifulFrenchcountrysidewas the
success;everyonesaid they enjoyedit.
30. The partywas a(n) .
SectionE
Choosethe coruectparticle(s).
3 1 . He borrowedmoneyfrom the bank to set in / up / off his own business.
32. She did so well in her singinglessonsthat her teachertold her to go into / up to / in for the national
singingcompetition.
33. He couldn'tmake out / up / for the stop sign in the fog and nearlyhad an accident.
34. The detectivelookedafter / through / up the papers,searchingfor anythingsuspicious.
35. His boss promisedto give him a day's holidayto make up for / over / out all the extrahours
he'cjbeenworking.
Section F
Fillin the correct preposition(s).
30. Jasonwas so envious
g7. lf you persist
38. lf you absolutelyinsist
114
. his neighbour'syachtthat he sank it!
. talking,I'm afraidyou'll haveto leavethe library!
. payingfor the tickets,be my guest'
TEST1 A
Mission:FCE2
39. Do you reallywant to spend so much money
4A. Tracy's mother has become very involved
p.3
. a bikini?
. amateurdramatics.
SectionG
Ghoosethe correctitem.
41. Computershavetaken away much of the
A) druCgery
B) labour
C) task
42. I asked for a bigger size becausethe jacket didn't
A) suit
B) match
C) fit
43- She .
A) peered
. involvedin boring officework.
D) job
. me.
D) go with
throughthe keyholeto see the presentthey were wrapping.
B) peeped
C) stared
D) gazed
44. The summercoursein French
A) contains
B) concludes
. conversation,
grammarand listeningclasses.
c) consists
D) comprises
45. The rock band havea club which iheir
. can writeto for information.
A) spectators
B) fans
C) audience
D) mob
SeetionH
Fill in the correct word derived from the words in botd.
46. Laurafinds her job as a nursequite
....and tiring.
47. He's neverbeen abroad beforeand felt very .
... about
t h e s c h o o lt r i p t o H o l l a n d .
48. My uncle Bob is an extremely..
.. man and has
traveiledali aroundthe world.
49. Despitehavinga good interview
......she didn't get the job.
50. The policefound
....evidencethat he had been in the
houseat the time of the murder,so they arrestedhim.
STRESS
ENTHUSE
ADVENTURE
REGRET
CONCLUDE
SectionI
Completethe sentencesusing the wordsin botd.Use two ta five words.
51. When she broke her leg she was unableto look afterherselfanclneededhelp.
care
W h e n s h e b r o k eh e r l e g s h e w a s u n a b i e. . . .
. . . . .h e r s e l af n d n e e d e dh e l p .
52. He found the antiquevasequiteby accidentwhen he was cleaningout the basement.
chance
He found the antiquevasequite
.....when he was cleaningout the basement.
53. I hatethe way he assumesthat his motherwill cook his mealsand wash his clothes.
granted
I h a t et h e w a y h e . . .
. . . . . .h. i s m o t h e rw i l l c o o k h i s m e a l sa n d w a s h h i s c l o t h e s .
54. Ben can't stop thinkingabout playingwith his computer.
obsessed
Ben .
with his computer.
55. The teacherdidn't let the studentsuse a dictionaryduringthe Englishexam.
allowed
The students.
." use a dictionaryduringthe Englishexam.
Section.i
Writean answer to one of the following questions.Writeyour answer in 120-180words in an
approp:riatestyle, giving the outline first.
1
Yourschoolmagazine
is runninga competition
forthe bestdescription
of a famousperson
youadmiremost.Writea descriptionon thissubject.
2
Youworkas a journalist
fora newspaper.
Writea newsreportaboutan armedrobbery
whichtookplacein the CentralNational
Bank.
115
Misslon;FCE 2
DATE:
NAME:
CI.ASS:
(Time:80 minutes)
TEST 1 A
(units1 -2)
SectionA
1[-l
6
5
2
SectionB
7.
10.
13.
8.
11 .
14.
9.
12.
15.
17.
19.
21.
18.
20.
22.
24.
26.
28.
25.
27.
29.
16.
SectionC
23.
SectionD
30'
SectionE
31.
32.
33.
34.
35'
97.
38.
39.
40'
42.
43.
44.
45'
SectionF
36.
SectionG
41.
SectionH
46.
48.
47.
49.
116
50.
Mission:FCE2
TEST1 A
SectionI
53
55
55
SectionJ (Writing)
117
TEST1 B
Mission:FCE2
TEST 1 B (Units1 -2l.
(Time:80 minutes)
Section A
in Spain.Choosethe
advertising
aboutsomeroadside
Youaregoingto reada newspaperarticle
mostsuitableheadingfromthe list(A-H)for eachpart(1-6)of the article.Thereis oneextra
headingwhichyou do not needto use.Thereis an exampleat the beginning(0)
A
The manufacturerssay that most Spaniardsobject to the removalof the bulls.
B
desirable.
None of the possibleoutcomesare particularly
C
The bullsare especiallyappreciatedby foreigntourists.
D
Spain'sfamousadvertisingbullsare soon to be banned.
E
managedto bypasspreviouslegislation.
The drinksmanufacturers
F
The bullsmay be savedas part of the region'sculturalheritage.
G
The companywill arguethat the bullsshouldbe saved.
H
Eachof the bullswill be consideredon its own individualmerit.
BullsBringSpanishOut Fighting
plaineda ministryspokesman.
But
"any eleunderthe new regulation
installation"
The black billboards,more than mentof an advertising
prohibited.
The
ministry
has
been
twelve metres high, have stood
ninetythe
that
each
of
stressed
above main roads for nearlyforty
looked
will
be
bulls
seven
surviving
yearsand havebecomepartof the
nationallandscape.But undernew at as a separatecase. But since
placedon hilltops,cliffsor
lawswhichcomeintoforcethisweek, mostare
all - apart from a
Spainlookslikelyto loseitsfamous mountain-sides,
go.
in
whichwill few urbanareas willhaveto
roadsidebullsilhouettes,
becomeillegalroadsideadvertising.
D
O r i g i n a l l yd e s i g n e dt o a d v e r t i s e
Veterano,
a popularSpanishdrink,
the bulls have been under threat
since 19BBwhen the government
visiblefrom
bannedall advertising
nationalhighwaysoutsidetowns
a n d c i t i e s .T h e d r i n k s c o m p a n y
paintedouta pictureofthedrinkand
its nameto leavea plainsilhouette
tookno action.
andthe government
"The decisionwas postponedbecause the law was unclearabout
withoutwriting,"exadvertisement
118
nearby Cadiz.The idea has been
discussed,but no action has yet
beentaken.
Thedecisionto removethe bullsis
the
likelyto causean outcry.In 19BB
poll
well-publicised
ran
a
company
in which75 per cent of Spaniards
objectedto theplanson thegrounds
that the bullswere "typicallySpandid not disturb,and
ish,aesthetic,
werenotthoughtof as advertising".
The producershave made it clear
that they will fight the decision.
"Clearlywe haveno legaldefence,
but we will try to save them," explaineda companyrepresentative, None of the availablealternatives
ClaireFilhol."We will try to show are happy ones. lf the company
that,especially
sincethe namewas d o e s n ' t r e m o v e t h e b u l l s w h e n
paintedoutsixyearsago,the bullis asked, it will be liablefor heavy
withany product."
fines.Equally,findingnew sitesfor
not identified
the bullswillbe costly,as eachbull
weighs50,000kg. lt is more likely
thatthe bullswillend up as collecthey may be,
Anotherpossibilityis that Andalu- tors' items.Preserved
s i a ' s r e g i o n a lg o v e r n m e n ct o u l d but they certainlywon't be free.
applyto listthe bullsas partof the
ManuelPrieto,the
culturalheritage.
bulls' creator,who is now recognisedas a leadingfigurein Spanish
design,was bornand studiedart in
TEST1 B
Mission:FCE2
p.2
Section B
Fillin the appropriateword(s) from the list. Use the word(s) onty once.
the key
remnants
to commit
life-long
7.
8. a(n)
9.
10.
11. to be
a matter
to collect
of life or death
friend
a cat
to success
disease
proneto
to tuneinto
12.
13.
14.
15. the
16.
snatches
to stroke
of conversation
the weatherforecast
acts of violence
of history
data
SectionC
Choosethe correctitem.
17. She didn't get a placeat universitybecauseshe was unableto (fulfil/ fill) all the requirements.
18. He'san (accessible/ approachable)manand peoplefeelcomfortablegoingto himfor helpand advice.
19. She had to (alternatelalter) her clothesto make them smallerwhen she lostweight.
20. The littlegirl dreamedof being a princessand wearinga beautiful(frilly / boxy) dress.
21. Her sister'swedding dress was made of silk and (embroidered/ woven) with a flower pattern.
22. The fire brigadewere calledto deal with the (flame lblaze); it took them six hours to put it out.
23. His fatherwas in a terrible(ragei misery)when his son was broughthome by the police.
SectionD
Fillin the gapswiththe appropriate
word(s)fromthe list below:
decent - dowdy - provoke -hostile - reverence - aspects - glamorise
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
She was very .
towards me and obviouslywanted me to leave.
The boy triedto ....
....Richardintofightingby throwinga stoneat him.
Advertisers
are accusedof tryingto ...
.....productslike cigarettesand alcohol.
When they releasedBob from prison he vowed that he'd lead a(n)
. life.
He feelsgreat
. towardsWilliamWallace,who foughtfor Scottlancl'sinrJependence
all his life.
Althoughhe is an honestman,thereare certain....
.....of his personalityI stronglydislike.
I felt rather.....
....in my grey dress,comparedto Triciain her goicJand whiteone.
SectionE
Fillin the correctparticte(s).
31. He promisedto lookinto I atler/ throughthe matterof the stolenmoney.
32. Thehungrytravellers
madeafterI tor / up the restaurant
at the top of the hill.
33. Thereis no dangerof the bombgoingup / aheadI ott as it hasbeendealtwithby the police.
34. Theyfinallymanaged
to putalltheirluggagein the carandsetfor I ottI up on theirjourney.
35. f wasworriedtherewouldn'tbe enoughfoodto go roundI ott lthrough,so I madesome
moresandwiches.
SectionF
Fillin the correctpreposition(s).
36. As a teenagershe was obsessed
losingweight.
37. The groom gazed
. his bride lovinglyas she enteredthe church.
38. Her constantencouragementaided him .
. his attemptto beat the world weightliftingrecord.
39. Simondisapproved..
.......the way his sisterlivedher life.
40. Outsidethe warehousetherewas a sign saying,"Beware..
......the dog!"
119
p.3
TEST1 B
Mission:FCE2
Section G
Choose the correct item.
41. He ...
A) stole
. . . . .m
. e of allmy money.
B) robbed
42. The teams ran onto the .
B) course
A) court
43. Do you haveto ...
A) crunch
C) mugged
D) raped
for the start of the footballchampionships.
D) pitch
C) rink
......into your apple so noisily?
B) lick
C) lap
D) suck
44. When he crashedhis car into the wall,he damagedthe front
D) boot
A) aerial
B) bumper
C) clutch
45. When he didn't botherto come to her party,he really
B) injured
A) wounded
C) hurt
. her feelings.
D) spoiled
Section H
Fill in the correct word derivedfrom the words in bold.
46. Winningthreegold medalsin the Olympicswas a
......achievement.
47. When he arguedwith the refereehe receiveda yellowcard for...........
behaviour.
48. Her Spanishimproved.
....aftershe spent her summerholidayin Madrid.
49. Many ThirdWorld countriessufferdiseaseslike cholerabecause
waste .....
.......systems.
of insufficient
pilot
passengers
The
to
the
for any
.,...causedby the delay.
50.
apologised
MASS
SPORT
SIGNIFICANT
DISPOSE
CONVENIENT
SectionI
Completethesentencesusingthe wordsin bold.Usetwoto fivewords.
51. Marytried not to get angry when her niece broke her favouritevase.
.. her niece broke her favouritevase.
lose
Mary tried not .
52. Waitersare servingdrinks beforethe concertbegins.
beforethe concert begins.
Drinks
being
prefer
know
the
truth,
if
it
was
to
even
bad news.
53. He said he would
He said he ...
....the truth,even if it was bad news.
rather
promised
and meet her later.
54. I assuredher that I would do what I had
. and meet her later.
keep
I assuredher that I would
55. The restaurantwhere we usuallygo for my birthdayhas closed down.
The restaurant
......for my birthdayhas closeddown.
which
Section J
Writean answerto one of the followingquestions.Writeyour answerin 120-180wordsin an
appropriatestyle,givingthe outlinefirst.
village
1 Yourschoolmagazine
is running
forthebestdescription
of a seaside
a competition
in yourcountry.
Writeyourdescription.
2
Youhavedecided
Thecompetition
rulessaythatthestorymustbegin
to entera shortstorycompetition.
with the words: "Havingreachedthe highestpointof theirroute,Markand Simondiscoveredsomething
unexpected."
Writeyourstoryfor the competition.
120
Mission:FCE2
NAME:
DATE:
CLASS:
(Time:80 minutes)
TEST 1 B
(Units1-21
SectionA
1[-l
z
5
SectionB
7.
10.
13.
8.
11.
14.
9.
12.
15.
17.
19.
21
18.
20.
22.
24.
26.
28.
25.
27.
29.
16.
SectionC
23.
SectionD
30.
SectionE
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
37.
38.
39.
40.
42.
43.
44.
45.
SectionF
36.
SectionG
41.
SectionH
46.
48.
47.
49.
50.
121
Mission:FCE2
p.2
TEST1 B
SectionI
51
52
51
52
53
54
54
55
55
SectionJ (Writing)
122
Mission:FCE2
TEST1 A
KEY
A.
1. G
B.
7. crime
8. to reduce
9. elf-like
c.
2. B
3.H
4.A
5.F
6.C
10. carnival
11. mentally
12. works
13. hayfever
14. to burstonto
15. to shake
16. live
17. current
18. stimulate
19. bulletin
20. outfit
21. hapless
22. perception
23. rebellious
D.
24. naive
25. flocked
26. munched
27. trend
28. compassion
29. inspiration
30. overwhelming
E.
3 1 . up
32. in tor
33. out
34. through
35. up for
F.
36. of
37. in
38. on
39. on
4 0 .i n
G.
41. A
42. C
43. B
44. D
45. B
H.
46. stressful
47. enthusiastic
5 1 . . . .t o t a k ec a r eo f . . .
52. ...by chance...
J.
48. adventurous
49. regrettably
50. conclusive
53. ...takesit for grantedthat ...
54. ... is obsessedwith playing...
(Suggested answers)
1.
Ever since I saw the film Terminator,Arnold Schwarzeneggerhas been my favouriteactor. In that film, as usual,
he played a very tough character.
He is quite tall and he is very well built,due to the years he spent as a body-builder.In fact, it was afterhe had
won an internationalbody-buildingchampionship,taking the "Mr Universe"title,that he became an actor.
Schwarzeneggeris, and always has been, very determinedto succeed in whateverhe does. He rose to the top
of the body-buildingworld.Then afterhis firstfilm, in which he playeda modern-dayHercules,he beganteaching
himselfEnglishto get betterroles.Sincethen, his hard work has paid off and he has starredin severalsmash hit
movies.
After his huge successesin these fields, he started his own business.With other Hollywoodstars he opened a
chain of celebrityrestaurants- PlanetHollywood- and new ones are opening all over the world.
Some have said that he has been too successful,but I think he has earned it through his determinationand
perseverance.
2.
Lastnight a daring robberytook place at the CentralNationalBank in Bond Street.Policespecialforces stormed
the bank at 5.30 pm to rescuethirty people who they thought were being held at gunpoint.
At 1.30 pm, six men walkedcasuallyintothe bank,pulledon masks,knockedout securitymen,disabledsecurity
camerasand ordered everyoneto lie on the floor. Stafftried to push panic buttons but the cunning gunmen had
alreadycut all telephonelines.
Staffweresubsequentlyorderedtoopenthesafeand
loadtenmillionpoundsworthofgold bullionintofourtransit
vans waitingin the basementvault,which normallyhandlesdeliveriesfrom securityvans.
Once the vans had leftthe bank,the remaininggunmenforcedthe bank manager,staffand customersinto the
now-emptyvaultand lockedthem up inside.Then the gunmenfled, callingthe policetwo hours laterand issuing
their demandsas if still insidethe bank. By the time the police stormedthe bank, the robberswere miles away.
ChiefInspectorBenn said in a statementissuedthis morning,"Thesecriminalsare going to be very difficultto
track, but we are confidentthat they will eventuallybe apprehended."
A reward is being offeredfor any informationleading to the arrest of anyone involvedin the robbery.
MarkingSchemefor Test 1 A
Section A: 6 itemsx 2 pointseachSection B: 10 itemsx 1 point each SectionC: 7 itemsx 2 pointseachSectionD: 7 itemsx 2 pointseachSectionE: 5 itemsx 1 point each -
12
10
14
14
5
SectionF:
SectionG:
SectionH:
Sectionl:
SectionJ:
5 itemsx
5 itemsx
5 itemsx
5 itemsx
(Writing)
pointeach = 5
pointeach _ 5
pointeach = 5
pointeach
5
25
T o t a l 1 0 0x 2 : 2 O , 0
123
Mission:FCE 2
KEY
TEST1 B
2. H
A.
1.E
B.
7. a matter
I. life-long
4. F
3.G
9. to stroke
10. the key
5.A
11. proneto
12. snatches
C.
17. fulfil
18. approachable
19. alter
20. frilly
D.
24. hostile
25. provoke
26. glamorise
27. decent
E.
31. into
32. tor
33. off
34. ott
F.
36. with
37. at
38. in
39. of
G.
41. B
H.
46. massive
l.
51. ...to losehertemperwhen ,..
52. ...are beingserved...
42. D
43. A
15. remnants
16. to collect
13. to tune into
14. to commit
21. embroidered
22. blaze
44. B
47. unsporting
6.8
23. rage
28. reverence
29. aspects
30. dowdy
35. round
40. of
45. C
48. significantly 49. disposal
53. ...wouldrather...
54. ... keepmy word ...
50. inconvenience
55. ...to whichwe usuallygo ...I
...whichwe usuallygo to ...
(Suggestedanswers)
1.
Lochalineis a picturesqueseasidevillagein Morvernon west coast of Scotland;you can take a tiny carferry acrossthe waterto the islandof Mull.
woodlandsandforestswhicharehometo hugenumbersof wildanimals
Theareaissurroundedby beautiful
includingospreysand red deer. Sealsare also attractedto the area,probablybecauseof the fish farms.
Lochaline
usedto befamousfor itspurewhitesand,tonnesof whichwasquarriedandshippedto Edinburgh
to be made into fire crystal.Now, however,the only real industryin the area is fish farmingand forestry.
The besttimeto visitLochalineis during"WestHighlandWeek",whichis a week-longyachtraceroundthe
set
islandsof the westcoast.You can easilyseethe yachtsas they racefrom Obanand manyrace-followers
down anchorin Lochaline'snaturalharbour.
lf you'regoingto Lochalinefor "WestHighlandWeek",I recommendstayingat the SwanHotelbecauseof
its fantasticviews of the bay.
J.
Both
Havingreachedthe highestpointof theirroute,Markand Simondiscoveredsomethingunexpected.
of them were alreadytired,and this was the finalstraw
They had been climbingtowardsthe peak for five days,and therewas a storm approaching.They knew
that they had to get off the mountainquickly.Belowthem, they saw that the quickest descentwas now
impossible.An avalanchehad lefttons of snow and rock acrosstheir path.
only happenduring
Simonmurmuredaccusinglyunderhis breath,"l thoughtyou saidthat avalanches
the rainyseason,Mark,"he said.
"Well,I guess nobodytold this one that the wet seasonis stillfour monthsaway,"came the angry reply.
"Anyway,let's not argue now, this is a big problem.We'vegot to work togethernow, Simon."
Two hours later,Simonsuddenlystoppeddead, "Look,we can crossthe chasm,the avalanchehas
filledit!"
"Yes,you'reright,"repliedMarkexcitedly."Andoncewe'reon the otherside,it'llonlytakeus six hoursto
get to basecamp." The two friendshurriedfonruard,
eagerto get home.
2.
MarkingSchemefor Test 1 B
Section A: 6 itemsx 2 pointseach =
Section B: 10 itemsx 1 point each =
SectionC: 7 itemsx 2 pointseach=
SectionD: 7 itemsx 2 pointseach:
Section E: 5 itemsx 1 point each -
12
10
14
14
5
Section F:
Section G:
SectionH:
Sectionl:
Section J:
5 itemsx
5 itemsx
5 itemsx
5 itemsx
(Writing)
point each
point each
point each
point each
_ 5
- 5
: 5
= 5
=25
Total 100x2:2A,O
124
Mission:FCE 2
TEST2 A
TEST2 A (Units3 - 4)
(Time:80 minutes)
SectionA
Youare goingto reada magazine
articleaboutcoral.Sixsentenceshavebeenremovedfrom
thearticle.Choosefromthe sentences
(A-H)the onewhichfitseachgap (1-G).Thereis oneextra
sentence
whichyou do not needto use.Thereis an exampleat the beginning(0)
Coral-Replacement
for HumanBone
Coral reefs have been called the rainforestsof the
oceans becauseof the rich diversityof fifethey support. 0 E]
The pfants in tropical rainforests
are well-knownfor their healingpowers.They have
givenup to halfof allthe medicinesin use in the world
today. Now it looksas if coral reefsmay havetheirown
medicaluse,not in providingdrugs,but in supplying
materialsfor mendingthe humanskeleton.
TheGreatBarrierReef,forexample,
runs
E
for nearly2,000kilometres
alongthe eastcoastof
Australia.
The buildersof the reefsare tiny marine
animalscalledpolyps.Whenpolypsdie,theirskeletonsbecomepartofthereef, formingthematerial
we
knowas coral.Coralcomesin a rangeof beautiful
colours,amongthemred,pinkand gold. 2 f]
However,in recentyears medicalscientistshave
foundcoraltobe usefulfor
bonereplacement
operations.Somecoralspecieshavea similarstructure
to
bone.Whenusedto treatan injury,it strengthens
the
boneand is eventually
absorbedintothe bodyonce
its roleis complete.Overthe pastfew years,thousandsof operations
usingcoralhavebeenperformed
in France. g f]
Medicalcoral is collectedfrom the reefsin the warm
seas around the South Pacificislands.These reefs
may provideanothersourceof bone replacementas
well. Mother-of-pearlis the materialfound on the
insideof certainshellssuchas thatof the oyster.Apart
from its beauty,it is a very tough substanceand can
easily be worked into differentshapes. Mother-ofpearl'sremarkablepropertieswereknownby ancient
civilisations. 4 t-]
Now French scientistshave shown that mother-ofpearlis not only capableof replacinga pieceof bone,
but actuallyof stimulatingbone re-growth.lt has been
used successfullyin dentalsurgeryto replacedamaged bone, therebypreventingtooth loss. S
E
Peopleare concernedthatthe collectionof coraland
mother-of-pearl
could damage marineecosystems.
But one day, artificialmother-of-pearl
could become
available.Scientistsin Americaare searchingfor the
geneswhich egple oystersto manufacturethis substance. 6 |
| For the near future,therefore,
we will continueto rely on the sea for these precious
materialsthat can heal our broken bones.
A
Now the techniqueis beingtriedout by doctorsin this countryas well.
B
Reefsand rain forestsmay be similarin anotherway, too.
C
Becauseof this, it has long been valuedfor its beautyand is often made into jewellery.
D
Bone consistsof a proteinsubstancesupportedby a net of microscopicblood vessels.
E
But it will be many years beforethis syntheticmother-of-pearl
is available,and
no one knows how to make artificialcoral.
F
coral reefsare the largestnaturalstructureson earth.
G
RecentlydiscoveredMayanskulls,dating back thousandsof years,containentiresets
of falseteeth made from mother-of-pearl.
H
The resultis healthygums and firmly-positioned
teeth.
125
p.2
TEST2 A
Mission FCE2
SectionB
word(s)fromthe tist.Usetheword(s)only once.
Filtin the appropriate
highlY
to charge
to foresee
well-stocked
7.
B.
9.
10.
1 1 . i-i"pn",;
inflatable
survival
the message
techniques
regarded
.
:l ::"0:nsibiritY
a sense
to beat
to sPread
circuits
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
a fee
the record
plasticitems
the future
fridge
Section G
Choose the correct item1T. The new architecthas createdseveral(contemporary/ temporary) designs.
1g. Americansare worriedabout rising(emigrationi immigration)levelsintotheircountry.
turnedinto (boom / bang) towns as thousandsof prospectors
1g. Duringthe Gold Rush,many villag-es
flooded the area.
20. Alchemiststriedfor centuriesto (converti converse)lead into gold.
21. The fugitivemanagedto (outbid / outsmart)his pursuersby disguisinghimselfas a monk.
ZZ. The coachtriedto (instil/ install)a senseof purposeintothe dispiritedteam.
23. As soon as lunch was over, my fatherwent for his afternoon(relaxation/ snooze) in his favourite
armchair.
SectionD
word(s)fromthe list below:
Fittin the gapswith the appropriate
-transmit
attributed - paramount - mundane - encounter spin digest
you shouldnevergive up'
. difficulties,
24. Even if you
......your food more easily.
whileto ...
for
a
rest
you
should
meal
large
a
ZS. After
importanceto his bodyguards'
26. The president'ssafetyis of .
. any kind of information'
possible
to
it
makes
technology
27. Modern
roulettetable beforeleavingthe casino'
the
.
on
last
a
having
res''st
Zg. Dave couldn't
' to faultywiring.
29. The cause of the fire has been
just do somethingmore exciting!
...
activities,
with
everyday
30. lf you are fed up
SectionE
Choosethe correctPartfcle(s).
31. The antiquesdealerasked Mr Smithwhere he had come out / by i to the vase.
rnade
92. The two girls were alwaysfallingthrough / in with / out with each other,but they usually
friendsagainquicklY.
33. The firementook more than an hour to put out / off / up the blazeat the warehouse.
to finishthe
34. Becausethe projectwas runningback / behind / off schedule,extramen were hired
building.
35. When I was tidyingup my room I came across / along / over an old tape that I'd lost.
SectionF
Fillin the correctpreposition(s).
..'.the evidence,the thiefconfessed'
36. When he was confronted....'
. the strangestfood.
liking
has
a
pregnant,
she
became
she
97. since
126
TEST2 A
Mission:FCE2
p.3
38. The tax officeneededto have access
.......all the firm's financialrecords.
39. The peacetreatyrequireda largereduction
.......the numberof nuclearweapons.
40. lt takes sailorsdays to adjust
. being ashoreagain.
SectionG
Ghoosethe correctitem.
41. The cut was very deep, so he went to the hospitarto have it .......
A) sewed
B) stitched
c) knitted
D) embroidered
42. The builder'shourly....
A) wage
B) salary
... was very low becausehe was inexperienced.
C) income
D) profit
43. I don't know him very well; he's just a(n) .
A) mate
B) partner
c) companion
D) acquaintance
44. lt is a common
.......to shakehandswhen being introducedto somebody.
A) culture
B) tradition
C) custom
D) habit
45. A solid brick wall is
A) opaque
B) transparent
C) translucent
D) frosted
SectionH
Fillin the correctword derivedfrom the wordsin bord.
46. Many rat poisonsare no longer......
47. lsaw an ...
... performanceby an unknownactor in a play lastnight.
48. Childrenshouldbe taughtto be
... to theirelders.
49. The earthquakeonly affecteda
small area despiteits severity.
50.
. is a necessaryvirtueif you wish to work with young children.
EFFECT
EXCEPTTON
RESPECT
REIATE
TOLERATE
SectionI
Completethesentencesusingthe wordsln botd.Usetwoto fivewords.
51. The diamondnecklaceGeorgegave his wife is veryvaluabre.
worth
The diamondnecklaceGeorgegave his wife
.....money.
52. They decidedto go out for a walk even though it was rainingheavily.
despite
They decidedto go out for a walk
... rain.
53. I haven'tspoken to John for ages.
contact
I have
John.
54. "Whydon't we all go to the cinematomorrownight?"asked Bob.
going
Bob .
the cinemathe next night.
55. Afterthe war, many soldierswent into hiding becausethey were afraidof being persecuted.
fear
Afterthe war, many soldierswent into hiding .....
... persecuted,
Section J
Writean answerto one of the followingquestions.Writeyour answerin 120-180wordsin an
appropriatestyle,givingthe outlinefirst.
1
Severalaccidentshave occured outsideyour local school.Writea letter to the local authorities,
complainingabout the lack of proper signpostsand the indifferencethey have shown to the problem
so far.
2
Your teacherhas asked you to write a compositionon the subject:"Friends- the mostimportantthing
in life?'write a composition giving your opinionon this subject.
127
Mission:FCE 2
DATE:
NAME:
CIASS:
(Time:80 minutes)
TEST2A
(units3-4)
SectionA
rl-l
2
5
SectionB
7.
10.
13.
8.
11 .
14.
9.
12.
15.
1 7.
19.
2 1.
18.
20.
22.
24.
26.
28.
25.
27.
29.
..
16.
SectionC
23.
SectionD
30'
SectionE
31.
92.
33.
34.
35'
97.
38.
39.
40.
42.
43.
44-
45.
SectionF
36.
SectionG
41.
SectionH
46.
48.
47.
49.
128
50.
Mission; FCE 2
p.2
TEST 2 A
SectionI
51
51
52
52
54
55
n
54
55
SectionJ (Writing)
129
TEST2 B
Mission:FCE2
TEST2B
(Units3-4)
(Time:80 minutes)
SectionA
You are going to read a magazinearticleabout unusualcreatures.Six sentenceshave been
removedfrom the article.Choosefrom the sentences(A-H),the one which fits each gap (1-6).
Thereis one extrasentencewhich you do not need to use.There is an exampleat the
b e g i n n i n g( 0 ) .
The Creatures that Time Forgot
The processof evolutionhas beenveryhardon some
creatures.Just think of the dinosaurs.These,and
many other species,were unable to adapt to the
changingenvironmentand as a resultdied out. But
sometimes,a specieshas managedto hideawayand
liveon. 0 tE
they havecreateda laboratoryin underwatercavesin
orderto do this.
In equallydarkcavesunderthesea,therehasbeenan
even more syrpriEingdiscovery:a spongethat eats
I The water is cold and still, and
meat. 4 |
containingvery littlenutrition.Facedwith this lack of
food that other sponges take from the water, this
speciesstartedcatchingtinyseaanimalslikeshrimps
and prawnsand eatingthem. 5 |-]
The remarkablething about thesethree is that they
have not changedfor millionsof years.They have
rernainedhiddenawavin someof the darkestunderThey lack light The mostfamousof allthesecreaturesthoughis the
water placeson earth. 1 n
coelacanth.This ancientfish has livedin the sea for
and food and the creaturesthat live in them have
had to struggleto survive.Since caves are isolated more than 300 millionyears. Until 1938,scientists
places,the creaturesfound in them are often com- thoughtit had died out a longtime before.Then,one
Arecent
*as caughtin the lndianOcean. 6 t-]
pletelyunique.
study showed that, unlike other fish, it lives and
lt is the white salamander,which is a breedsin caves,andthe onlytimeitventuresout isfor
2 n
memberof a species350millionyearsold - olderthan food.
the dinosaur.Over the last 20 millionyears,it has
been drivento isolatedplacesas it triedto escapeits As a resultof fishingand tourism,the coelacanthis
hunters.The underwatercavewas the idealplace.In in great danger of dying out. Expertssay there are
factthesalamandermanagedto hideso successfully only about 200 of them left.lt seemsthat the isolation
whichprotectedtheseancientcreaturesfor millionsof
thatthe firstsightingwasn'treporteduntil1689.
yearsis no more. Human beingsare, of course,the
pale,
milky
and
biggest threat to them, and now that their secret
colour
The salamanderis usuallya
placeshavebeendiscovered,they havenowhereleft
almostblind,with only very simpleeyes. 3 E
go.
to
result
The salamanderis underthreat,though,as a
of pollutionin undergroundrivers.Scientistshave
had problemstryingto developsalamandereggs,so
130
A
The most exoticof these creatureslivesdeep in an underwatercave in Europe.
B
The fish had fins like legs and thesehavenot changedover millionsof years.
C
lt was discoveredin a cavethat was flooded7,000yearsago.
D
Theseare caveswhich havenot been properlyexplored.
E
Thiswas the only way this strangecreaturecould survive.
F
Meat-eating
sponges,coelacanthsand the whitesalamanderare membersof three
s u c hs p e c i e s .
G
lt can live up to 100years,and can apparentlysurvivefor decadeswithoutfood.
H
Many dinosaurslived in caves becausethey were hunted.
TEST2 B
Mission:FCE 2
p.2
Section B
Fill in the appropriateword(s) from the list Use the word(s) only once.
to underestimateopen-air
doubt
to spark
stomach-spinning purring
7.
B. a(n)
9.
10.
11. a(n)
to serve
to decrease
yourinterest
12.
collection
displays
productivity
intrade
13. the
14.
15. beyond
16. a(n)
outstanding
boom
.. a function
.... of an engine
.. the ability
. . .r i d e
SectionC
Choosethe correctitem.
The police have recentlybeen giventrainingin (urban / suburb) warfaretactics.
The coursegives prospectivestudentsa(n) (insight / sight) into universitylife.
Everythingshe says is (conducive/ contradictory)to what she actuallydoes; she is such a hypocrite!
Becauseof theirfans' violentbehaviourat matches,the FootballAssociationdecidedto
(relegate/ relocate)the tea:rito a lowerdivision.
21. The Lockheartsdecidedto (instil / install; a lacuzziin their bathroom.
22. LuckilyI managedto (grab / grasp) Tommy beforehe ran out into the oncomingtraffic.
23. lt is usuallyhard to (trail I trace) people'sfamilytreesfurtherback than five generations.
17.
18.
19.
20.
SectionD
Fillin the gapswith the appropriateword(s)fromthe list below:
flounder - famine - conducive - in the lurch - maintenance - cram - wicked
24. Sue and Jane carriedoff the roles of Cinderella's
step-sisterswith ease.
25. Beethovenfound the peaceand quietof the countryside..
.......to composingmusic.
26. Rosiewanted to ....
. as much as possibleinto her suitcasebecauseshe was going away
for a whole year.
27. The .
of a largegardenlike ours is a full-timejob.
28. "LiveAid"was a massivemoney-raising
concertin aid of those livingin ....
......-stricken
countries.
29. Her self-confidencebegan to ....
. aftershe was severelycriticisedby her boss.
30. "How could you go out and leaveme ..
....when therewas stillso much work to do?"
SectionE
Choosethe correctparticle(s).
petrol.
31. Ourcar runson / off / by unleaded
32. As I couldn'tdialdirect,I calledthe operatorto put me off / on / through.
33. Whileshewasill,Pollyfellaway/ back/ behindwithherschoolwork.
34. Jillwasso busythatshehadto putasideI ott lon herhairdresser's
appointment.
35. Afterfainting,Chrisdidn'tcomeover / round/ back untilshewastakento hospital.
SectionF
Fillin the correctpreposition(s).
36. Timingwas vital
. the successof the spy's mission.
37. The unsignedmanuscripthas been attributed
. Shakespeare.
38. Some of the children'swork is ....
....displayin the schoolentrancehall.
131
Mission:FCE2
TEST2 B
p.3
39. I don'tknowwhy,but I'mverysuspicious
everything
Lornasays.
40. Alan'sparentsaretryingto instila senseof responsibility
. theirson.
SectionG
Choosethe correctitem.
41. Theair-hostess
toldthe passengers
to fastentheirseatbelts
.......the strapto fit.
and .
A) adjust
B) adapt
C) adopt
D)acquire
42. Don'tthinkMr lmriewillchangehismindeasily.
He'svery.
........
!
A) greedy
B)conceited
C) stubborn
D)snobbish
43. We can'tgo on holidaythisyear- our
. aretoo low.
A) fees
B)funds
C)fines
D) costs
44. TheRomansbuiltmany.......dedicated
to Diana,Goddessof the Hunt.
A) temples
B) monuments
C) columns
D) posts
45. Thereareseveraltypesof insectswhichlivein
A) communities B)societies
C)associations D) colonies
SectionH
Fillin the correctword derivedfrom the wordsin bold.
46. I don't believein the
....of ghosts.
47. Adrienneis a very
worker,and is a creditto our company.
48. Havingto move back home after university,Jonathanreally
m i s s e dh i s . .
49.
....,the authoris releasinghis new book next month.
5 0 . l t w o u l db e . . . . . . . .o
. .f h i m t o g i v e u p h i s j o b b e f o r ef i n d i n ga n o t h e ro n e .
EXIST
INDUSTRY
DEPEND
APPEAR
SENSE
SectionI
Completethesentencesusingthe wordsin bold.Usetwoto fivewords.
51. Sandraset her alarmclock an hour earlier,so that she wouldn'tbe late.
avoid
Sandraset her alarmclock an hour earlier
.. late.
52. Sammy went to the bank to open an account.
view
Sammy went to the bank
.......an account.
53. I alwaysthink of Mattas a generousperson.
regard
| ......
. . . b e i n g a g e n e r o u sp e r s o n .
54. "Youtook my car withoutaskingme, didn't you Joe?"Tom said.
accused
Tom
car without asking him.
55. Sarahtook the train into town becausethe bus driverswere on strike.
due
Sarahtook the train into town
..thebus driverswere on strike .
Section J
Writean answerto one of the two followingquestions.Writeyour answerin 120- 180wordsin
an appropriatestyle,givingthe outlinefirst.
1
Youarea seniorstudent
at a college
andyouthinkthefoodandservice
inthecanteen
areverypoor.
Writea letterto the Principal
of the college,complaining
aboutthe situation
and givingsuggestions.
2
Yourteacherhasaskedyou to writea composition
"Doyou thinkmuch stricter
on the question'.
punishments
wouldreducetheamountof crime?"Writea compositiongivingyouropinionon this
subject.
132
Mission:FCE 2
NAME:
DATE:
GLASS:
(Time:80 minutes)
TEST2 B
(units3-4)
5
18.
20.
22.
24.
26.
28.
25.
27.
29.
SectionD
30.
SectionE
31.
32.
SectionF
36.
SectionG
41.
SectionH
46.
48.
47.
49.
50.
133
Mission:
FCE2
TEST2 B
p.2
SectionI
51
51
52
52
s4
54
55
55
SectionJ (Writing)
134
Mission:FCE2
TEST 2 A
KEY
A.
1.F
B.
7. to spread
8. survival
2. C
4. G
3.A
9. highly
10. a sense
5.H
11. circuits
12. to charge
6.E
13. to beat
14. inflatabfe
15. to foresee
16. well-stocked
C.
17. contemporary
18. immigration
19. boom
20. convert
21. outsmart
22. instil
23. snooze
D.
24. encounter
25. digest
26. paramount
27. transmit
28. spin
29. attributed
30. mundane
E.
31. by
F.
36. with
G.
41. B
H.
46. effective
l.
51. ... is wortha lot of ...
52. ...despitethe heavy...
32. outwith
33. out
34. behind
35. across.
37. tor
38. to
39. in
40. to
42. A
43. D
44. C
45.A
47. exceptional
48. respectful
49. relatively
53. ...lostcontactwith ...
55. ...suggestedgoingto ...
50. Tolerance
54. ...for fearof being...
J. (Suggestedanswers)
1. DearSir,
outsideStGeorge's
SchoolonWood
lam writingto complaininthestrongestterms
aboutthelackof signposts
Lane.
in the morning.Threechildrenhavealreadybeen
WoodLaneis a busyroadwithveryheavytraffic,especially
trafficsignsareneededto letdriversknow
injured,oneof whomhadto spendalmostamonthin hospital.
Obviously,
thereis a schoolnearby,andthuslotsof children.
I havealreadywrittenseverallettersto you regardingthis matter,none of which have receiveda reply.I
signs,signsindicating
a muchlowerspeedlimit,30mph,andmakingthestreet
suggested
erecting
schoolcrossing
a no parkingzone.
Themostsensible
optionwouldbe to banparkingandreducethespeedlimit.Thendriverscouldseechildren
beforetheystepontothe road,or brakebeforean accidentoccurs.
Therefore
I demandthat
to it is unforgivable.
Thisintolerable
situationhasexistedfortoo longandyourindifference
youtakeimmediate
action,andif nothinghasbeendonebytheendofthemonthI shallreferthematterto mylawyer.
Yourssincerely,
Mr StevenCrowtown
2.
I do notthinkthatfriendship
is veryimportant,
Whilefriendship
anda lifewithoutfriendswouldbe unbearable,
andof courseourownfeelingof selfthingin life.Familyrelationships
arealsoveryimportant,
isthemostimportant
life.
worthis centralto havinga happy,fulfilling
friendsare
Friendsdo playa majorrolein life.Whileourfamiliesgiveus a senseof securityand belonging,
peoplewe chooseto be with.Friendsarefor sharingsecretswithand for havinga goodtimewith- we canfeel
freewithour friendsin a waythat is difficultto do withinthe familycircle.
Whensomeonebecomesa realfriend
Anotherrolefriendsplayis in boostingour senseof self-assurance.
thatexistbetweenus.They
and differences
he or she acceptsus as we are and respectsboththe similarities
willinglytakeus intotheirlives,unlikefamilymembers,
who in a sensehaveno choiceaboutsharingtheirlives
with us.
how
rolein our lives,otherfactorsinfluence
All in all,whileI believefriendsplayan extremely
significant
happyand satisfyingour livesare.Friendsare important,but theyare not the onlythingthat matters.
MarkingSchemefor Test 2 A
SectionA: 6itemsx2pointseach-12
S e c t i o n B : 1 0 i t e m s x 1p o i n t e a c h - 1 0
SectionC: Titemsx2pointseach*14
SectionD: 7 itemsx 2 pointseach- 14
Section E: 5 itemsx 1 point each : 5
SectionF: 5 itemsx 1 point €dch = 5
S e c t i o n G : 5 i t e m s x 1 p o i n t e a c h= 5
S e c t i o n H : 5 i t e m s x 1 p o i n t e a c h_ 5
S e c t i o n l : 5 i t e m s x l p o i n t e a c h_ 5
=25
SectionJ: (Writing)
Totaf 100x2:2O,O
135
Mission:FCE2
KEY
TEST2 B
2. A
A.
1. D
B.
7. to spark
8. outstanding
4.c
3.G
6.8
5.E
11. boom
9. open-air
10. to decrease 12. to serve
1 3 . purring
14. to underestimate
c.
1 7 . urban
1 8 . insight
D.
24. wicked
25. conducive
E.
31. on
32. through
33. behind
34. off
35. round
F.
36. to
37. to
38. on
39. of
40. in
G.
41. A
42. C
H.
46. existence 47. industrious
48. independence
t.
5 1 . . . .t o a v o i db e i n g. . .
52. ...witha viewto opening...
53. ... alwaysregardMattas ...
54. ... accusedJoe of takinghis ...
21. install
22. grab
19. contradictory
20. relegate
23. trace
28. famine
26. cram
27. maintenance 29. flounder
44. A
43. B
15. doubt
16. stomach-spinning
30. in the lurch
45. D
49. Apparently
50. senseless
55. ... due to the factthat ...
J . (Suggestedanswers)
1 . DearMr Thomson.
I am writingto complainaboutthe qualityof the food and servicein the collegecanteen.
To beginwith,the cookedmealsare
Overthe pastfew monthsI havenoticeda distinctdecreasein standards.
servedon plateswhichhavenot beenproperlywashed.I am surean
andarefrequently
neverhot but luke-warm,
wouldsolvetheseproblems.
effectivehot-plateand dishwasher
the actualfoodchosenfor cookingis of a veryinferiorqualityand I am surewellpastitssell-by-date.
Secondly,
measures
to ensurethateveryoneeatingtheredoesnot getfood poisoning!
Surelytheremustbe quality-control
Lastbut not least,I am sorryto saythatwhenI spoketo the canteenmanagerto lodgemy complaint,he was
extremelyrudeand indifferent.
unacceptable.
Couldthe collegenotarrangesometraining
I am afraidthatlfind the levelof servicecompletely
coursesfor the canteenstaff?lt wouldmakethe canteena muchmorepleasantplaceto eat.
I hopestepswill be takento improvethe situationand the matterwill receiveyour immediateattention.
Yourssincerely,
MissF. Lora
2.
but thereis muchdebateas to howthe problemshouldbe
No one can denythatthe crimerateis increasing,
people
wouldreducetheamountof crime.ln my
thinkthatmuchstricterpunishments
Moreandmore
combated.
opinion,thistacticwouldnot workfor a varietyof reasons.
and
Firstly,peopleshouldlook into the reasonswhy crime happens.lf therewas less unemployment
homelessness
manypeoplewouldnotbeforcedintocrime.Theywouldhaveselfrespectandmoneyto affordtheir
whichwoulddeterthemfromstealing.
everydayexpenses,
suchas the deathpenalty,stillhavehighcrimerates.Obviously,
Secondly,countrieswithstrictpunishments,
These
to thieves.Weshouldalsoconsiderthecaseof suicideterrorists.
threatsdon'tworkas a deterrent
therefore,
peopleare preparedto die for theircause- wouldthey be affectedby the prospectof a long prisonsentence?
however.
Shouldcriminals
canbe easilyunderstood,
Thereasonswhy peopledemandtougherpunishments
be allowedto walkfree,whiledecentcitizensfearfor theirpropertyor lives?Of coursenot, but will the tougher
approachactuallydecreasethe crimerate,or will it merelyovercrowdprisons?
areclear,peopleshouldlookmoreto the
In conclusion,
althoughthe reasonsfor wantingstricterpunishments
punishments.
providing
than
stricter
rate
down,
rather
to
cut
the
crime
causesof crime
MarkingSchemefor Test 2 B
Section A: 6 itemsx 2 points each=
Section B: 10 itemsx 1 point each Section C: 7 itemsx 2 pointseach=
Section D: 7 itemsx 2 pointseach=
Section E: 5 itemsx 1 point each =
Section F: 5 itemsx 1 point each 136
12
10
14
14
5
5
Section G:
Section H:
Sectionl:
SectionJ:
5 itemsx 1 point each
5 itemsx 1 point each
5 itemsx 1 point each
(Writing)
Totaf
= 5
_ 5
= 5
= 25
100x 2 = 2O,O
TEST3 A
Mission:FCE2
TEST 3 A (UnitsS,G,T)
(Time:80 minutes)
SectionA
Youaregoingto readsomeinformation
aboutgardens.Forquestions1 - 14,choosefromthe
extracts
(A-E).Someof thegardensmaybechosenmorethanonce.Whenmorethanoneanswer
is required,
thesemaybe givenin anyorder.Thereis an exampleat the beginning(O).
Whosegardenor gardens:
isterraced?
0
E
tl
containedibleproduce?
1
aresimpleand/ornatural?
4 []
havemadeuseof a smallspace?
6
haveherbsgrowing?
I
areexpensive
to keep?
10
wasdesignedto fit withthe environment?
12
aredesignedto impressothers?
13
2
5
E
E
7
I
11
t:]
E
tl
14
Gardens
David
David lives alone in a three-storeyterraced house. Although he doesn't have a garden,just a yard, he enjoys
growingplants.His busywork schedulemeanshe doesn't
have a lot of free time to spend gardening.He's keen on
cooking, so he decided he'd try to grow his own fresh
herbs.He grows them in pots which he's put on the steps
leading up to his front door. In his yard he's also put
differentpots in which he's planted small shrubs and
flowers and even some tomato plants.
Cella
Celia lives in a large detached house surrounded by
spaciousgrounds.When she moved in, the garden was
ratherovergrown,and she didn't know what to do with it.
Although she likes gardens, she doesn't really enjoy
gardening,so she wanted a garden that was simple and
easy to maintain.She thereforedecidedto planta border
of shrubs and a small orchard,then leavethe rest of the
gardenas a lawn.The orchardprovidesa lovelydisplayof
flowersin the spring plus, of course,fruit in the summer.
She says she's delightedwith her garden,which is green
and natural-looking
and doesn'tcost a fortuneto maintain.
Gavln
Gavin is a successfulbusinessmanwho liveson the top
floor of a block of flats.As part of his job he has to entertain
groups of clientsfrom abroad,often in his own house.He
createda miniaturegarden on his narrow balcony using
flowerpotscontainingcolourfuldisplays of flowers.The
scent alone is quite magnificent.He has to spend time
wateringand pruningthe plants,but he says he finds this
rel axi ng.H e doesn' tmi nd spendi ngmoneyon hi s garde n
as he feelsthe end resultis worth it.
ThompsonFamily
The Thompsonfamilylivein a semi-detachedhouse in the
suburbs with an average-sizedgarden.They decided to
make the most of their garden and have put in a lot of hard
work and money.Theirgardenincludesfountains,statues,
rosebeds and a smallkitchengardenfor herbs.lt evenhas
fruittrees,and is surroundedby a hedge.They startedwork
on their garden five years ago, and they receivedso many
complimentsfrom neighboursthat they were encouraged
to continueand make it even grander.
Derek
Derek liveswith his family in a cottage which backs onto a
river. He's spent a lot of time and energy creating his
garden,which slopesdown to the riverbank. He decided
to take advantageof the slope by creatingaterracedeffect,
so his gardenis on threedifferentlevels.Stepsrun through
the centre of the garden down to the river. He says he
wanted a naturalgarden that would suit the surrounding
environmentratherthan clash with it.
137
p.2
TEST 3 A
Mission:FCE 2
SectionB
Fillin the appropriateword(s)from the list below.Usethe word(s) only once.
seasonal
the debts
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
;;il;
amusement
current
::
meditative
to break
pileup
depression
affairs
run
areas
chronic
long
strict
urban
arcade
rules
exercise
the rules
chill
20. a(n)
21.
22.
23.
24.
Section C
Choose the correct item.
theirtricks.
to perform
to useoptical(delusions
/ illusions)
areoftenthought
25. Magicians
your
for
a finalburstofspeed.
energy
(prese
rve
you
should
you
marathon
lconserve)
a
running
are
26. lf
27. Topiaryis the art of (pruning / digging) hedges and bushes into interestingshapes.
ZB. Nobodybelieveshis excusesanymore;they'rejust too (plausible/ implausible).
29. Certainareasin centralLondon need constantpolice (invigilation/ surveillance).
30. The other studentsfelt too (intimidated/ intimate) to identifythe bully to the teacher.
31. The bank managertold Mr Arnoldto reduce his (overdraft/ discount) beforeChristmas.
SectionD
Fillin the gapswith the appropriateword(s)from the list below:
freak - prone - amenities- vigorous - desertification- undermine
. to heartdiseasethanyoungpeople.
32. Theelderlyare more
authority.
.......parental
to .
thatTVviolenceis beginning
33. lt is widelybelieved
prolonged
droughts.
.......of theirlandduring
94. Manyfarmersfear.
weatherconditionshavecausedmillionsof poundsworthof damage.
35. Recent
to the localcouncilaboutthe lackof public
30. Severalpeoplehavecomplained
.....workout,theyalwayshavea relaxingmassage.
37. Aftera(n)...
SectionE
,
Fillin the correctparticle(s).
hisseatbeltoncethe planehadtakenin / off / out.
38. He unfastened
woreoff / in / down.
to cry as the effectsof the anaesthetic
began
little
boy
The
39.
40. He wasquicklyarrestedafterholdingon / by / up the bank'
withhernewpuzzlebook.
andwasdelighted
41. Shelovesworkingout / through/ in problems
the attack.
continue
and
up
over
take
under
to
his
/
sergeant
/
42. TheGeneralordered
SectionF
Fillin the correctpreposition(s).
their cabins.
49. Becauseof the storm, passengerswere confined
actor.
prospect
favourite
her
meeting
of
the
.......
was
thrilled
44. She
. cold.
been
shivering
we've
all
days
ago,
fuel
two
of
45. Since we ran out
zinc.
and
copper
metals
.......
two
.
46. Brassis composed
. so many guests'
47. lt was very difficultto cater
138
Mission:FCE2
TEST3 A
p.3
SectionG
Choosethe corretitem.
SectionH
Fillin the correctwordderivedfrom the wordsin botd.
ESCAPE
DOMESTIC
Section I
Completethe sentencesusing the wordsin botd.Use two to five words.
58. Anthonydidn'tworkhardenough,so he wasfired.
been
lf Anthonyhad workedhardenough,
.....fired.
59. Wewon'tgo to the seasideif it'snotsunny.
unless
We won'tgo to the seaside...
... sunny.
60. Unfortunately
I was latefor my firstday at work.
wish
| ......
......latefor my firstday at work.
61. My motherdoesnot likemeto talkto strangers
on the street.
approve
My motherdoesnot ..
.. to strangers
on the street.
62. she paidthe bakerto makehera birthdaycakefor the party.
made
She
... for the party.
SectionJ
Writeananswerto oneof thefuvofollowingquestions.
Writeyouranswerin 120-180wordsin
an appropriate style,giving the outline first.
1
Youworkfor a sportsmagazine
and yourbosshasaskedyou to writea reporton a survey
carriedout intothe kindsof sportsyoungpeopleprefer.
2
Writea reviewabouta bookyou haverecentlyreadfor yourschool magazine.
139
Mission:FCE 2
DATE:
NAME:
CLASS:
(Time:80 minutes)
(units5, 6, 7)
TEST 3 A
SectionA
rfl
3E
stl
r E
etI
11tl
13E
2 E
4 n
6f
8f
10f
12I
14
SectionB
15.
18.
21.
16.
19.
22.
17.
20.
23.
24.
SectionC
25.
28.
26.
29.
27.
30.
31.
SectionD
32.
34.
36.
33.
35.
37.
SectionE
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
44.
45.
46.
47.
49.
50.
51.
52.
SectionF
43.
SectionG
48.
SectionH
53.
s5.
54.
56.
140
57'
r
Mission:FCE2
TEST 3 A
p.2
SectionI
SectionJ (Writing)
141
TEST3 B
Mission; FCE 2
TEST 3 B (Units5, 6,7)
(Time:80 minutes)
Section A
you aregoingto readan articleaboutschools.Forquestions1 - 14,choosefromthe schools
(A-H).Someof the schoolsmaybe chosenmorethanonce.Whenmorethanoneansweris
thesemaybe givenin anyorder.Thereis an exampleat the beginning(0)
required,
Which school or schools:
E
tl
would be mostappropriatefor a businessperson?
would suit someonewho doesn'tmind having
lessonsin the evenings?
r
r
would suit someonewho wishesto stay with
an Englishfamily?
specialisesin dealingwith studentsfrom
countries?
German-speaking
provideactivitiesand entertainmentin
the afternoons?
3
6
will improvea student'sEnglishvery quickly?
[]
will organisetripsto Londonfor their
students?
10
only accept adult students?
requiresstudentsto have some knowledge
of Englishbeforestartingthe course?
12
provideaccommodationat the school site?
13
r
r
r
11
r
r
14r
LanguageSchools
SpellometricLanguageSchools
hasbeenrunningcourses
Organisation
TheSpellometric
in Britainfor the last25 yearsand now hasfiveschools
of England.Theschoolsuse
inthesouthandsouth-west
proven
teachingtechniquewhich
and
a well-practised
recognisesthat spellingand numericalskillsare the
basisof all languagesand so shouldforma centralpart
The
Themaximumclasssizeistwenty-five.
of alllessons.
schoolscatermainlyfor studentsaged twelveto eighteen years,and courseslast from one to four weeks.
Lessonstake placein the mornings,startingat B:00am
studentscan
andfinishingat 1:00pm. Inthe afternoons
tennis
football,
such
as
part
activities
in
organised
take
or dramaand musicsessions.On Saturand basketball
tripsto London.The school
daysthe schoolorganises
for studentswith local
arrangesaccommodation
families.
142
LancingEnglishAssociation
The LancingEnglishAssociationruns two summer
mostlyattended
schools,onein Bath,andonein Bristol,
by youngstudentsfrom Germany,Austriaand Switzerfor
land.The schoolshavebeen runningsuccessfully
the last five years,with standardsrising every yeat.
method.The maximurn
Teachersusethe audio-lingual
classsizeis ten. The schoolday startsat 9:00 am and
finishesat 1:00 pm. In the afternoonsand evenings
studentstakepartin a variedactivityprogrammewhich,
thanksto the extensivegroundsof both schools,inStudentscan
cludescricket,footballand horse-riding.
alsoenjoythe schools'indoorswimmingpools.School
takeplace
tripsto Londonandothertouristdestinations
at weekends.Courseslastfromtwo to eightweeksand
withstudentsstayingin accommodation
areresidential,
on the schoolsite.
Mission:FCE2
TEST3 B
p.2
Englishis necessary.
Theschoolday runsfromg:00am
to 4:00pm withlessonstakingplacethroughoutthe
day.
situatedin centralLondon,
theinternationally
renowned studentsarefreein the evenings.courseslastfromtwo
Gattegnoschoolopenedin 1967and usesGattegno's to four weeks.Accommodationis organisedby the
"silentway" methodologyto teachstudents.teaining
KathrynHart Organisation,
with studentsstayingwith
local
families.
throughout
theyear,theschoolalsoorganises
summer
courseswithstudentsattendingfromalloverthe world.
Studentsmust be over the age of eighteenand the
PanglossSchool of English
maximumclasssizein thisschoolis six.
The Panglossschool specialisesin intensiveEnglish
coursesfor studentswho wishto improvetheirEnglish
Kathryn Hart Organisation
rapidlyin thespaceof a fewweeks.Theschooldaylasts
KathrynHart has been involvedin Englishlanguage from 10:00am to B:00pm, with intensive
instruciion
in
teachingsincethe 1950'sand hasdevefopedexpertise all aspectsof the Englishlanguage,from grammar
in both teachingand the organisation
of UK summer structuresto vocabulary.The courseis only open to
appropriate
schools.Herschoolsusea communicative
for studentsabout
approachto adultsand is particularly
teachingbasedon well-researched
coursebooks.
There to study at EnglishUniversitiesor businesspeople
languageskills.The maxi_
are ten KathrynHart summerschoolssituatedin the lookingfor morespecialised
southandsouthwestof Englandand in EastAnglia,
and mum classsizeis fivestudents.The schoolis situated
just outsideCamcountryside,
all alloweasyaccessto London.Studentsrangein age in the Cambridgeshire
from twelveto eighteenyearsand the maximumclass bridgeitself,andstudentsareaccommodated
in a large
size is fifteen.No previousexperienceof studying countryhousein the groundsof the school.
GattegnoSchool of English
SectionB
Fillin the appropriateword(s) from the lfst betow.use the word(s) only once,
maiden
hustle
to run
the breeds
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
to raise
weather
a programme
waste
and bustle
- beaten
plants
toxic
to hold
20.
21.
22.
29.
24.
to wreck
endangered
;i;) ::
a world record
of cattle
the Earth
a question
voyage
Section C
Choose the correctitem.
25- A cooker and fridge are considerednecessary(appliances/ gadgets).
26. Mrs Hatfieldconsiderswateringthe gardento be a real (task i ctrore).
27. This new law will haveserious(implications/ applications)
28. The police have been orderedto (intensify/ enlarge) their effortsto capturethe escapedprisoner.
29. The arrivalof the admiral's(crew / fleet) scaredoflthe enemy submarines.
30. lt seems that (fate / future) has decidedto keep us apart.
31. For minor (ailmentsi diseases),make an appointmentwith the nurseand not with your doctor.
SectionD
Fillin the gapswith the appropriateword(s)trom the tist below:
spark off - subsequenily - evacuate incinerate- devastating- specimens
32.
33.
34.
35.
The explorercollectedplant ......
.....to take back to the laboratory.
The tidal wave had a(n)
effecton the coastaltown.
The Prime Minister'sspeech managedto
. waves of protestfrom the opposition.
The bomb alertpromptedpoliceto ...
. the shoppingcentre.
143
p.3
TEST3 B
Mission:FCE 2
.....alltop secretpapers.
the spy wasorderedto
36. Afterthe missionwasaccomplished,
the
country'
left
..
jewels,
the criminal
37. Afterstealingthe
Section E
Fillin the correctParticle(s)'
38. Gavinwas advisedby his doctor to take in / up / on jogging.
39. Fred advisedthe young boy not to hold back / up / on any informationfrom the police.
40. Afterthe five mile run, Julie felt completelyworn out / off / on.
,,Don'tworr!," said the teacher,"there'splentyof time to work tor I on / against this problem before
41.
the exam."
42. Luckilyour suppliesheld down / back / out all throughthe long hard winter'
SectionF
Fillin the correctpreposition(s).
SportsMedicineafterhis generaltraining.
4g. Richwantsto specialise.....
her students.
44. Miss Bruce is very popular
......ticketholdersonly.
45. Entranceis restricted...
my movementsat the time of the crime.
46. The police asked me to account
the destructionof the rainforest.
are opposed .
42. Environmentalists
SectionG
Clroosethe corrextitem.
48. The film was extremelyboring so we changed
c) station
B) channel
A) canal
49. I always
A) dip
D) broadcast
.. my biscuitsin my coffee.
C)sink
B) dive
D)submerge
-stricken.
were
50. Whenthe Titanicstartedsinking,herpassengers
D)
C)apprehension Panic
B) horror
A) fear
51. I was havingdifficultysleepingso my doctor prescribedtabletsto ease my
D) rabies
C) insomnia
B) mumps
A) measles
5 2 . S h e i s u n d e rt h e .
A) illusion
. . . . . .t.h a t h e r f i a n c di s a m u l t i - m i l l i o n a i r e '
D) mirage
B) hallucination C) delusion
Section H
Fillin the correct word derived_fromthe words in bold.
whilelwasawayon holiday.
to watermyplants
agreed
53. MrsJones..........
.......to combatthe
54. Housesin Canadahaveverygood.....
freezingwinters.
of the damagewas
preliminary
....
55. Thesurveyor's
foundto be wrong.
subsequently
...withoutbeingtoo
56. Thebookon spacetravelwas ..
difficult to understand.
......to mostWesterners.
is totally
57. TheChineselanguage
144
OBLIGE
INSULATE
ASSESS
INFORM
COMPREHEND
Mission:
FCE2
TEST3 B
p.4
Section I
Completethe sentencesusrng the wordsin bold. Use two to tive words.
58. Jaydidn'tusesuncream;
heburntinthesun.
burnt
lf Jayhadusedsuncream
.......
in thesun.
59. lf Susanstudieshard, she might pass the exam.
unless
Susan won't pass the exam
60. lt's a pity we didn'tvisitthe exhibition.
only
lf
61. I don't likechildrento talk to theirparentslikethat.
approve
I don't
62. He took his car to the garageto adjustthe brakes.
adjusted
He had the .
hard.
the exhibition.
.....to their parentslike that.
......at the garage.
SectionJ
Writeananswerto oneof thetwofottowingquestions.
Writeyouranswerin 120-lB0wordsin
an appropriate style,giving the outline first.
1
Youworkfor a fashionmagazine
and haverecentty
carriedout a surveyintothe various
fashiontrendspeoplefollownowadays.
Writea reportanalysing
the survey.
2
A schoolmagazine
hasinvitedreadersto expresstheiropinionon the question:"sporfs
shouldbe for pleasure,
not forprofit." Writea shortarticlefor the magazine.
145
Mission:FCE2
DATE:
NAME:
GLASS:
(Time:80 minutes)
TEST 3 B
(unitss, o,7)
SectionA
iE
2 E
3tl
4 E
5f
6E
ef
10n
7n
sE
rg E
14T
rr[
t2E
SectionB
15.
18.
21.
16.
19.
22.
1 7.
20.
23.
24.
Section C
25.
28.
26.
29.
27.
30.
31.
Section D
32.
34.
36.
33.
35.
37.
SectionE
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
44.
45.
46.
47.
49.
50.
51.
52.
SectionF
43.
SectionG
48.
SectionH
53.
55.
54.
56.
146
57.
Mission:
FCE2
TEST3 B
p.2
Section I
58
58
59
59
60
61
61
62
62
SectionJ (Writing)
147
Mission:FCE2
KEY
TEST 3 A
8 , 9 . A , D ( i na n y o r d e r )
10,11. C, D (in any order)
A.
1 , 2 , 3 . A , B , D ( i na n y o r d e r )
4,5.
B, E (in any order)
A, C (in any order)
6,7 .
B.
15. thedebts 17. current
18. long
16. chronic
C.
25. illusions 27. pruning
26. conserve 28. implausible
D.
32. prone
33. undermine
E.
38. off
39. off
40. up
41. out
42. over
F.
43. to
44. at
45. with
46. of
47. for
G.
48. B
49. A
50. D
51. C
52. A
H.
53. escapism 54. domestically 55. Respondents 56. purification
l.
19. urban
20. amusement
29. surveillance
30. intimidated
12. E
13, 14. C,D (inany order)
21. strict
22. meditative
23. to break
24. seasonal
31. overdraft
34. desertification 36. amenities
35. freak
37. vigorous
58. ... he wouldn'thavebeen...
59. ... unlessit's ...
60. ...wishI hadn'tbeen...
57. undeniable
61. ... approveof me/mytalking...
62.. .. had a birthdaycake made ...
J. (Suggestedanswers)
1. To: Mr Bates
From:StevenJones
Subject:Sportspreferences
lntroduction
The purposeof this reportis to reviewthe resultsof a surveycarriedout intothe kindsof sports
youngpeopleprefer.In thissurveyyoungpeoplewerequestionedat variouslocations.
Types of Sport
play.Girlsprefervolleyballand
which78o/o
As expected,
the mostpopularsportfor boyswas basketball,
netball,at 51o/o
and 48/orespectively.
Recreation
sports,70%of both
despitemanybelievingthat boysand girlspreferdifferentrecreational
Surprisingly,
sexessaidtheyenjoyswimmingand beachvolley.
Frequency
of themattendregular
Themajorityof boystrainat leastten hoursa week,illustrated
by thefactthat620/o
girlswho practisemartialarts
trainin anysport.However,
weeklypracticesessions.Only34o/"
of girlsregularly
7-1 by them.
traintwiceas muchas the boys,despitebeingoutnumbered
Conclusion
To conclude,boysspendmoretimeplayingsportsthangirls;bothlikebeachsports,butgirlstrainharder
in martialarts.
2.
148
1960's.
ltdeals
TheBellsof
Monday
isanunusualnovelsetinLondoninthe
ThenewbookbyJohnO'Brian,
whoseconservative
with individuals
upbringingclasheswiththe changingmoralvaluesof thatera.
Meg,thecentralcharacter,
is forcedto leaveherhomein an affluentareaandmoveintoa Victorianslum.
by O'Brian.Hisexcellent
character
Herinabilityto copewitha changingsocietyis shownwithgreatsensitivity
makesonefeelpityand understanding
for Meg'sstrictCatholicmother,whoseworldseemsto
descriptions
Thebookwindsslowlythroughthe60'sagainsta background
of studentrevoltandhistoric
slowlydisintegrate.
events.lt endswith Meg'sdeath,and couldin manywaysbe hailedas a modernGreektragedy.
Bothjoy and extremesadnessmakethisbooka masterpiece
lt surpasses
of modernliterature.
O'Brian's
fasttwo bestsellers,
IhomasandBlackRoad.Apartfrom beinga brilliantnovel,it is alsoan interesting
social
studyof thatgoldenerawhichhasso oftenbeenwronglyportrayed.
Mission:FCE2
TEST3 B
I
KEY
A.
1. E
2,3. A, D (in any order)
4.8
5, 6. A, B (in any order)
7.
E
8, 9. A, B (in any order)
B.
15. to run
16. toxic
19. endangered 21. breeds
20. to hold
22. to wreck
c.
25. appliances
26. chore
27. implications
28. intensify
zg. fleet
30. fate
D.
32. specimens
33. devastating
34. spark off
35. evacuate
36. incinerate
97. subsequenily
E.
38. up
39. back
40. out
41. on
42.out
F.
43. in
44. with
45. to
46. for
47. to
G.
48. B
49. A
50. D
51. C
5 2 .A
H.
53. obligingly
t.
58. ... he wouldn'thaveburnt...
59. ...unlessshe studies...
60. ...onlywe had visited...
J.
(Suggestedanswers)
17. hustle
18. weather
54. insulation
1 0 ,1 1 . C , E (in any order)
12. E
1 3 ,1 4 . B , E (in any order)
Zg. to raise
24. maiden
31. ailments
55. assessment 56. informative
57. incomprehensible
61. ...approveof childrentalking...
62. ... brakesof his car adjusted...
1 . To: Mr James
From:CatherineBrookes
Subject:Fashiontrends
Introduction
Theaim of thisreportis to analysethe varioustrendsour readers(aged15-30)follow.We heldthe survey
to helpus planour futureissuesin the mostinteresting
way possible.
Men and Women-casualwear
jeanswinhandsdownasthemostpopularcasualclothes,with80%owningmorethansixpairs.
Aspredicted,
Twothirdsof girlsquestionedownat leastone pairof designerjeans- favouritebrandsbeingVersace,
Aimani
and Moschino.Menon the otherhandare lessinterested
in owningdesignerjeans,withonly 20o/o
havingone
pairor more.ThesemenalsofavourVersace'sand Armani'scuts.
Men and Women- formalwear
Regarding
moreformalwear,youngpeopleof bothsexesgenerallyowna formafsuit.Interestingfy,
70o/o
ot
womentendto buy non-designer
suits,favouringhighstreetbrandslikeMarksand Spencer.
Menon the otherhand(75o/")
are moreinclinedto buy a good qualitydesignersuitin the hopeit will last.
Conclusion
The resultsof our surveyimplythatour readerswouldbe interested
in fashionfeaturesshowingdesigner
jeansfor menand women.Theywouldalsolikearticlesshowingdesignersuitsfoi menand
and non-designer
morewell-cut,well-priced
clothesfor women.
2.
Manypeoplethinkthatsportsshouldbe for pleasure,notfor profit.In theory,sportsshouldonlybe played
for enjoymentor as a meansof keepingfit, but this is a verymoralistic
view.
Mostgovernments
get sucha lot of revenuefromsportingeventsthatit wouldn'tbe practic4to askthem
to bancompanies
frommakinga profitout of sports.lf theydid,it wouldbe politically
unwiseastaxeswouldbe
raisedand the government
wouldbecomeveryunpopularindeed.
lf you considerthe numberof jobs createdby sport,whetherit be for peopleconstructingstadiums,
manufacturing
teamstripsfor fansor sellinghot dogsat matches,it is possibleto see how importlntsportis
economically
for individuals
as wellas for the countryas a whole.
Advertising
atsportseventsalsocreatesa lotof profitforthecompanies
involved.
Moreoftenthannot,however,
promotecigarettes
advertisements
andalcohol.lt is immoralfora sportingeventto advertise
productswhichare
unhealthy
andcankillif abused,so maybestepsshouldbe takento stopmanufacturers
of theseproductsfrom
149
Mission;FCE2
KEY
TEST 3 B CONI.
makinga profitout of sport.
For thesereasonsit is very difficultto expectmost companiesto acceptregulationswhich ban them from
puttingprofitbeforepleasure.In manycases,if we did it would causeevenmoreharmthan good to spot't.
MarkingSchemefor Test 3 A / 3 B
SectionA: 14 itemsx 1 point each
SectionB: 10 itemsx 1 point each
SectionC: 7 itemsx 2 pointseach
SectionD: 6 itemsx 2 pointseach
SectionE: 5 itemsx 1 point each
14
10
14
12
5
Section F:
Section G:
Section H:
Section l:
Section J:
5 itemsx 1 point each
5 itemsx 1 point each
5 itemsx 1 point each
5 itemsx 1 point each
=25
(Writing)
Totaf 100x2=2O,O
150
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