1831 1851 1869 1887 1924 1928 1877 – 1933 1934 1946 1953 – 1961 1968 1979 Supreme Court rules that Native Americans are “domestic dependent nations”, with the United States assuming the role of a guardian.Trail of Tears: Cherokee Nation moved from Georgia to the Mid-West. Indian Appropriation Act: allows the creation of Native American reservations in Oklahoma. “Peace Policy”: relocation of tribes under the leadership of religious men in order to teach the Christian faith. The relocation programme causes many wars, namely The Sioux War, with its figureheads Sitting Bull and General Custer. Dawes Act: Native American land divided into small plots and given to individual Native American = allows land-hungry white people to buy Native American land. Native Americans were promised full citizenship if they adopted “the habits of civilized life”, meaning that many Native Americans were educated in boarding schools away from their parents to “kill the Indian in him and save the man.” Citizenship Act gives citizenship to all Native Americans, yet in many western states Native Americans are denied the vote. Meriam Report states that most Native Americans live in extreme poverty, suggests that Native Americans should not be deprived of their culture. US aim to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream American society (similar to the work of missionaries elsewhere) in order to lead them from barbarism to Christian civilization. Indian Reorganization Act (IRA): further sale of Native American land banned, granted Native American communities some self-government and autonomy. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) established. Creates new respect for Native American culture but does not help to solve the poor state of many reservations and the problems of 100,000 homeless Native Americans. Efforts in Arizona to improve the education of Native American children.World War II: About 25,000 Native Americans serve in the army. In the west, Native American land is used to build gunnery ranges or intern Japanese-Americans in camps. Many Native Americans move to cities to work in war-related industries where they are often met with discrimination just like the Mexican workers. Indian Claims Commission set up to deal with stolen land claims. Does provide financial compensation but does not return any land to Native Americans. Policy of Termination of the Reservations. Native Americans on reservations are subjected to the same laws as other US citizens. Sale of guns and alcohol to Native Americans banned. Termination opens up new possibilities for white people to purchase valuable Native American land. Stops federal funds for health and education services. Encourages assimilation. American Indian Movement (AIM) founded. Tries to raise awareness for the plight of the Native Americans. First Native American casino opens in Florida. Gambling provides many reservations with a good income today.