SCH4C Activity Series Metals and Halogens

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Activity Series of Metals
Metal
Lithium
Potassium
Strontium
Calcium
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminum
Zinc
Chromium
Iron
Cadmium
Cobalt
Nickel
Tin
Lead
Symbol
Li
K
Sr
Ca
Na
Mg
Al
Zn
Cr
Fe
Cd
Co
Ni
Sn
Pb
Hydrogen gas
H2
Antimony
Arsenic
Bismuth
Copper
Mercury
Silver
Paladium
Platinum
Gold
Sb
As
Bi
Cu
Hg
Ag
Pd
Pt
Au
Reactivity
MOST Reactive
displaces H2 gas
from water, steam
and acids and
forms hydroxides
displaces H2 gas
from steam and
acids and forms
hydroxides
displaces H2 gas
from acids only
and forms
hydroxides
included for
comparison
combines with O2
to form oxides and
cannot displace H2
found free in
nature, oxides
decompose with
heating
LEAST Reactive
Activity Series of Halogens
Halogen
Fluorine
Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine
Symbol
F
Cl
Br
I
Reactivity
MOST Reactive
LEAST Reactive
The Activity Series of the metals is an invaluable aid
to predicting the products of replacement reactions. It
also can be used as an aid in predicting products of
some other reactions. Pay attention to the notes below
as they are provided to help you make better use of the
activity series than just the list of metals by
themselves.
1. Each element on the list replaces from a compound
any of the elements below it. The larger the
interval between elements, the more vigorous the
reaction.
2. The first five elements (lithium - sodium) are
known as very active metals and they react with
cold water to produce the hydroxide and hydrogen
gas.
3. The next four metals (magnesium - chromium) are
considered active metals and they will react with
very hot water or steam to form the oxide and
hydrogen gas.
4. The oxides of all of these first metals resist
reduction by H2.
5. The next six metals (iron - lead) replace hydrogen
from HCl and dil. sulfuric and nitric acids. Their
oxides undergo reduction by heating with H2,
carbon, and carbon monoxide.
6. The metals lithium - copper, can combine directly
with oxygen to form the oxide.
7. The last five metals (mercury - gold) are often
found free in nature, their oxides decompose with
mild heating, and they form oxides only indirectly.
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