Biol 300 Assignment 7 Chapter 14 Q22. (a) No control group. (b) The control was not simultaneous⎯time is a confounding variable. (c) Treatments were not assigned randomly to patients. Sex is a confounding variable. (d) This study failed to include blinding (best is double blind, in which neither patients nor clinician knows which subjects received which treatment). Extra question: H0: Mean amount of nectar doesn’t differ among caffeine concentrations. HA: Mean amount of nectar differs among caffeine concentrations. Source Sum of Squares df Mean Squares F Groups 1.1344 3 0.3781 Error 1.4482 16 0.0905 Total 2.5826 19 4.18 𝐹!.!" ! ,!,!" = 3.24. Since F > 3.24, P < 0.05. Reject H0 (P = 0.023). Caffeine concentration does affect mean amount of nectar taken.