Torres Anatomy and Physiology Review Sheet Chapters 1 – 5 I. Chapter 1 – Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology a. Describe the five basic functions of living systems. b. Define anatomy and physiology c. Identify the 11 organ systems of the human body and their main functions. d. Explain the significance of homeostasis. e. Be familiar with the anatomical terms that describe body sections, body regions, and relative positions. II. Chapter 2 – Matter: Atoms and Molecules a. Distinguish among the three major types of chemical reactions that are important for studying physiology. b. Explain how the chemical properties of water make life possible. c. Discuss the functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids III. Chapter 3 – Cell Structure and Function a. Describe the organelles of a typical cell and indicate their specific functions. b. Describe the process of mitosis and explain its significance. IV. Chapter 4 – The Tissues a. Identify the body’s four major tissue types and describe their roles. b. Discuss the types and functions of epithelial cells. c. Describe the relationship between form and function for each epithelial type. c. Compare the structures and functions of the various types of connective tissues. d. Explain how epithelial and connective tissues combine to form four types of membranes and specify the functions of each. e. Describe the three types of muscle tissue and the special structural features of each. f. Discuss the basic structure and role of neural tissue. g. Explain how tissues respond in a coordinated manner to maintain homeostasis. V. Chapter 5 – The Integumentary System a. Describe the general functions of the integumentary system. b. Describe the main structural features of the epidermis, and explain their functional significance. c. Describe how the integumentary system helps regulate body temperature. d. Discuss the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin and the role played by melanocytes. e. Discuss the functions of the skin’s accessory structures. f. Explain how the skin responds to injury and repairs itself. The test will be multiple choice, free response (short essay) and/or identification. The emphasis will be on chapters 4 and 5.