Unit 1 Pure Substances and Mixtures Notes

Unit 1: Pure Substances and Mixtures
What are things made of?
Matter is anything that has mass and volume (takes up space).
We can see and feel most types of matter.
We can classify items in many different ways (for example:
soft, hard, shiny, colourful, liquid, solid).
To make products, we mix new materials together in combinations
that may require heating, freezing, stirring, melting, hardening or
Through a series of processes, we end up with the items we use
every day.
The raw materials that we use for products come from the earth
(for example: the food we grow, metals we mine).
By taking things from the earth and putting things into landfills, we
are having an effect on the environment.
Particle Theory
Matter is made up of tiny particles with spaces between them.
Particles are always moving. The more energy they have, the
faster they move. The tiny particles in matter are also attracted to
each other.
Matter generally exists in three forms: solid, liquid, and gas.
Solid: particles are close together and
locked into a pattern. They can move,
but only back and forth a little.
Attractive forces hold the particles
Liquid: particles are slightly farther apart.
Because the particles are farther apart,
the attractive forces are weaker.
They are able to slide past one another.
Gas: particles are far apart. The particles
can move in any direction because
the attractive forces are weakest.
A fourth state does exist: plasma.
Classifying Substances
Substances may be classified according to their physical, chemical
and biological properties.
Physical properties include: size, shape, texture, mass, volume
Chemical properties refer to the way substance reacts with other
substances to form new substances.
Biological properties refer to characteristics of life such as
metabolism, growth, irritability, locomotion,
reproduction, and adaptation.
Pure Substances
A pure substance contains only one kind of particle throughout.
Only a few pure substances can be found in nature. Almost all
pure substances we use have been made pure by humans. We take
the raw material that contains them and separate out the substance
we want. (e.g. table sugar, aluminum foil)
Almost all substances (natural and man-made) are mixtures of pure
Pure substances mix to form either mechanical mixtures or
Solution: particles of the pure substances are mixed evenly so
that neither original substance is visible. (e.g.
chocolate milk) (also called a homogeneous mixture)
pure substance
pure substance
In a solution, one substance has mixed completely, or dissolved,
into another. They look like pure mixtures, but contain at least
two different kinds of particles.
Solvent: the substance into which they dissolve (has large spaces
in the particles)
Solutes: the substances that dissolve (has small spaces in the
particles). When combined with the solvent, the solute hides in
the larger spaces of the solvent.
Types of Solutions
Solute Solvent
Air (hydrogen in oxygen)
Pop (carbon dioxide in water)
Antifreeze (alcohol in water)
Vinegar (acetic acid in water)
Dental Fillings
Salt or Sugar in Water
Brass (copper in zinc)
Solder (tin in lead)
Alloys like steel (carbon in
Mechanical Mixture
Mechanical Mixture: the substances do not mix evenly. Both
substances are clearly visible and can be separated.
(e.g. granola, or sand and rocks)
(also called a heterogeneous mixture)
pure substance
mechanical mixture
pure substance
How Do Solutions Form?
Some substances mix easily to form solutions, while others do not
mix at all. If a solution is formed, particles in the solute are
attracted to particles of the solvent and break apart to attach to the
solvent particles in the spaces between them. This means the
solute is soluble, or able to be dissolved. The resulting volume
may not be the sum of the two volumes before combined. (e.g.
water & alcohol)
A Model for a Solution
50 mL water + 50 mL dice
If the particles of the solute are not attracted to the particles of the
solvent, the two substances generally cannot form a solution. This
means that the solute is insoluble, or unable to be dissolved.
The Rate of Dissolving
Many factors affect the speed at which one substance dissolves in
another, for example:
the surface area of the solute particles 
size of the solute particles 
Breaking up the solute particles into smaller pieces increases the
overall surface area of crystals exposed to solvent, thereby
accelerating the dissolving process.
 temperature
As temperature increases, the particles move faster and spread out
with greater chances for mixing of the solute and solvent particles.
 amount of solute
 amount of solvent
 amount of shaking
The greater the amount of solvent relative to the solute, the greater
the opportunity for interactions and attractions between the solute
and solvent particles, and the more uniform the distribution of the
 type of solvent
The level of attraction changes with the types of particles.
Dissolving will happen faster when the solute’s and solvent’s
particles are highly attractive.
Saturated or Unsaturated?
Concentration: the amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity
of solvent or solution.
Dilute Solutions: low concentration of
solute (“weak”)
Concentrated Solutions: high amount of
solute (“strong”)
Unsaturated Solutions: still contain unfilled spaces between the
solvent particles
Saturated Solutions: the maximum amount of solute dissolved in
the solution (all the spaces in solvent are filled). If you try to
strengthen a saturated solution, the solute will simply sink to the
bottom of the solvent without dissolving.
Supersaturation: a solution that contains more of the solute than
would be found in a saturated solution (can be made with some
solutes by starting with a hot saturated solution and cooling it
Types of Mixtures
Suspension: A solid and a liquid which
mix but settle upon
standing, such as silt and
Emulsion: Two liquids which mix but separate
upon standing, such as oil and water.
Colloids: mixtures that are made of particles of one substance
suspended into another. The suspended particles get
stuck in the spaces of the other particles. This allows
them to scatter light. (e.g. smoke in air)
Colloids will show the Tyndall Effect.
Tyndall Effect: shows that some mixtures that appear to be
solutions may prove not to be solutions after all. If the
path of light shining through a mixture can easily be
seen, then that mixture is not a solution. A non-solution
contains particles large enough to
scatter or reflect light, showing the
path of light as it passed through a
mixture. True solutions do not show
the Tyndall Effect.
Do not separate on standing Do not separate on
Cannot be separated by
Cannot be separated by
Do not scatter light
Scatter light (Tyndall
Particles settle out
Can be separated by
May scatter light, but are not
Separation of Mixtures
Solutions and mechanical mixtures can be separated in many ways.
1. Evaporation: the liquid evaporates and a solid
(residue) is left behind.
2. Distillation: a two step process that:
a) heats a solution to change one part into gas and then,
b) cools the gas/vapour to liquid form and collects it
3. Filtration: the use of a funnel and filter paper to
separate a solid from a liquid. The liquid
passes through the filter paper and is called
filtrate. The solid remains in the filter paper
and is called residue.
4. Sifting: using a sieve, different sized substances can
be separated.
5. Magnetism: a magnet can be used to remove metal
from non-metallic substances.
6. Allowing parts to float or settle in water (salad dressing)
7. Picking apart the bits and pieces by hand (raisins & cereal)
8. Dissolving one substance but not the other (salt & pepper)
(see text page 37 for more diagrams)
Products from Raw Materials
Alloy –a combination of two or more metals into a solid solution
- mixtures made for specific purposes, such as: to resist heat (e.g.
for rockets), strong & light (e.g. for bicycles), to resist corrosion
(e.g. for musical instruments)
Ceramics – e.g. pottery, bricks, cement, glass, heat shields on
- made mostly of silica (silicon dioxide found naturally)
- quartz is mined as the raw material for silica (also found in sand)
- glass can be used in communications (fibre optic cables) and in
insulation (fibreglass)
Oil & Gas (including Plastic)
- crude oil is a mixture of many different pure substances that can
be separated from each other in a refinery
- crude oil is processed into: gasoline, waxes, asphalt, plastics
Water Quality
Canada’s fresh water contains hundreds of dissolved substances. Some
come from natural sources (animals, soil, rocks, plants) and some come
from people (manufacturing, refining, sewage, waste disposal, farming,
incinerating). Pollution may be carried long distances by moving water.
Polluted air can be carried great distances by wind currents before
falling to the ground and being absorbed by the water. There are laws to
ensure safe disposal of pollutants, but disposal is never 100% effective.
Dissolved Oxygen
- necessary for organisms to live in water
- comes from the air and aquatic plants
- healthy = 5 to 6 ppm (parts per million)
- organisms die at 2 ppm
- measured by pH (potential of hydrogen) of 0 to 14
- pure water has a pH of 7
- lower than 7 = acidic
- higher than 7 = alkaline
- a slightly alkaline pH (8) is needed for the health of aquatic organisms
- both highly acidic and highly alkaline are corrosive and hazardous
- a measure of how cloudy water is
- caused by suspended particles
- over-cloudy water blocks sunlight, killing aquatic plants
- dissolved minerals in water affects the hardness
- small amounts of dissolved minerals = soft water (e.g. rain water)
- high amounts of dissolved minerals (especially calcium, magnesium or
sulfur) = hard
- hard water may cause an unpleasant taste, and soap will not form a
Hazardous Household Products
WHMIS Symbols (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System)