```Biology EOC Review
NAME_______________________________________________________
Goal 1: Learner will develop abilities necessary to do and understand scientific inquiry.
1.01 Identify biological problems and questions that can be answered through scientific
investigations.
1.02 Design and conduct scientific investigations to answer biological questions (create testable
hypotheses, identify variables, use a control or comparison group when appropriate, select
and use appropriate measurement tools, collect and record data, organize data into charts and
graphs, analyze and interpret data, communicate findings).
You have measured the rate at which a fish breaths at various temperatures by counting the rate at which
its gills open. The data is below.
Breathing rate Temperature
19/min 5 deg C
25/min 10 deg C
30/min 20 deg C
34/min 30 deg C
37/min 35 deg C
1. What is the independent variable? The dependent variable? p. 9
Temperature
Breathing rate
2. What happens to breathing rate with increase in Temp?
Breathing rate increases
3. What would be a good control for this experiment?
Measure breathing rate of fish in regular environment
4. How do you think the breathing rate was measured?
Counting movements of gill cover or mouth openings
5. What do you think would happen if you raised the
temperature even more?
Fish might die at some point – living systems cannot handle too much increase in T.
6. Why would it be a bad idea to do this?
Death of fish
1.03 Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models of biological phenomena using logic
and evidence to: explain observations, make inferences and predictions, explain the
relationship between evidence and explanation.
Bromothymol blue turns to bromothymol yellow in the presence of carbon dioxide. When the carbon
dioxide is removed, the solution will return to a blue color. Two green water plants were placed in
separate test tubes, each containing water and bromothymol yellow. Both test tubes were corked. One
tube was placed in the light, the other in the dark. After several days, the liquid in the tube exposed to
light turned blue.
1. What is the independent variable in this experiment?
Light
2. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?
Color of the bromothymol
3. What is the control for this experiment?
Test tube in the dark
4. This demonstration illustrates that, during photosynthesis, green plants take in carbon dioxide.
1.
Biology EOC Review
1.04 Apply safety procedures in the laboratory and in field studies. (Recognize and avoid potential
hazards, safely manipulate materials and equipment needed for scientific investigations.)
1.Label the microscope. p. 1070
1. Body tube
2. Revolving nosepiece
3. Low power objective
4. Medium power objective
5. High power objective
6. Stage clips
7. Diaphragm
8. Light source
9. Eyepiece
10. Arm
11. Stage
14. Base
2. How do you determine total magnification of
a microscope? (Assume the eyepiece magnifies 10 x and the objective magnifies 40 x)
eyepiece x objective = total
10x x 40x = 400x
3. Draw how the letter “e” would look as view through a microscope?
Upside down and inverted
4. What kind of care must be taken when working with bacteria?
Use gloves; goggles; do not expose bacteria to air unnecessarily.
5. Why must care be used when working with bacteria?
Bacteria can cause disease and should be handled with care.
6. What are the issues surrounding the use of animals for research?
Answers will vary – animals should not be tortured or used in a way that causes great pain.
1.05 Analyze reports of scientific investigations from an informed scientifically literate viewpoint
including considerations of: appropriate sample, adequacy of experimental controls,
replication of findings, and alternative interpretations of the data.
Biology EOC Review
Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and cellular basis of life.
2.01 Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the following organic
molecules: P. 44-48
Macromolecules
Carbohydrates
Function
Quick energy; plant cell walls
Proteins
Serve as enzymes, antibodies, plasma membrane
inclusions; carrier molecules (hemoglobin); structural
Lipids
insoluble in water,
hydrophobic
Nucleic Acids
Long term energy storage, insulation, plasma membranes
Carry instructions for making proteins; also carry those
instructions to the ribosomes
Nucleotides (sugar,
phosphate, Nit. base)
Specific Molecule
Function
Starch
Glucose storage in plants
Cellulose
Structural support for plants
Insulin
Hormone that lowers blood glucose levels
Type of Organic
compound
Carbohydrate
(glucose)
Carbohydrate
(glucose)
protein
Glycogen
Glucose storage in animals
Glucose
Energy
Enzymes
protein
Hemoglobin
Speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation
energy
Carries oxygen in blood to body tissues
Fats
Store energy
Lipid
DNA
Stores hereditary information
Nucleic acid
RNA
Manufacturing (making) proteins
Nucleic acid
Describe the following nutrient tests:
Nutrient
Type of Test
Starch
Iodine
Lipids
Brown paper
Monosaccharides
Simple Sugars
Protein
Benedicts solution and
heat
Biurets
Subunits / Monomer
Monosaccharides
such as glucose
(simple sugars)
Amino acids (held
together by peptide
bonds)
Glycerol and 3 fatty
acids
Carbohydrate
(glucose)
carbohydrate
Negative Test
Orangish-brown
No spot
Protein
blue
Positive Test
Dark blue-black
Translucent, greasy
spot
orange
blue
Dark purple
Biology EOC Review
2.02 Investigate and describe the structure and function of cells including cell organelles, cell
specialization, and communication among cells within an organism. Ch. 7 p. 169-193
Fill in this chart. Also give the letter or number of the part as seen in the diagrams below.
Cell Part and Letter Structure Description
Function
Nucleus
Dense region in the center of the cell
Control the cell
A, 6
Plasma Membrane
Lipid bilayer- surrounds the cell
Controls what comes in and out of
K, near 11
the cell
Cell wall
Thick layer outside the cell membrane of Structure and support
Plants only, J
plants
Mitochondria
Double membrane- shaped like a kidney Powerhouse to produce ATPL, 1
bean
cellular respiration
Vacuoles
Sac-like organ
Stores water, wastes, ions, and
G, 3, large in plants
nutrients
Chloroplasts
Double membrane- contains stacks of
Perform photosynthesis to make
Plants only, I
discs- green
glucose
Ribosomes
Small particles around the cell
Protein synthesis
F, 13
1. Which cell is the plant cell (left or right)? left
2. Which structures are found only in the plant cell? Chloroplast, large central vacuole, cell wall
3. Which structures are found only in the animal cell? Centrioles, lysosomes
4. Put the following in order from smallest to largest: p. 192
Organ systems
____4_______
Cells
______1_____
Organs
__3_________
Tissues
____2_______
Biology EOC Review
Below are a variety of cells from the human body. Use the index of your book to look them up.
1. Which cell is adapted for movement? What structure
makes this movement possible? What organelle is very
plentiful in these cells in order to provide the energy for
movement?
Sperm cell; flagellum; mitochondrion (for cellular
respiration)
2. What is the function of the Red Blood cell?
To carry oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from cells
3. Which cell is involved in the immune system?
White blood cell (B cells, T cells, macrophages)
4. Which cell helps in movement of bones?
Muscle cell; contraction involving muscle proteins
(myosin and actin)
5. Which cell is adapted for transmitting messages?
Neuron (nerve cell)
Hormones: p. 997-1002
1. What structures produce hormones?
Glands
2. How do hormones travel throughout a body?
Through the circulatory system (bloodstream)
3. What is the function of hormones?
Regulation of body functions; growth; metabolism, etc.
The diagram below shows many proteins and other molecules embedded in a cell membrane. p. 182
1. What is the cell membrane made up of?
Phospholipid bilayer & proteins
2. What are some of the functions of these proteins and other molecules?
Receptor proteins, channels, pumps
3. Why is it described as selectively permeable?
Some substances can pass through the membrane and others cannot
1. Protein
2. Phospholipid
Biology EOC Review
2.03 Investigate and analyze the cell as a living system including: maintenance of homeostasis,
movement of materials into and out of cells, and energy use and release in biochemical reactions.
p. 182-189
1. Explain what has happened in the diagram
to the left.
Water (white) passed to right; starch (dark)
could not move through membrane
2. Why did the large dark molecules NOT
move to the left?
Too large for membrane pores
3. How is the semi-permeable membrane like
a cell membrane?
Allows some substances to pass and not
others- regulates movement
4. If the dark molecule is starch, where is the starch concentration greatest (left or right)? On right
5. If the white molecule is water, where is the water concentration greatest at first? On left
6. In osmosis, water moves from an area of __high___ to an area of __low____ concentration.
7. If the dark molecules could move, in what direction would they move? From right to left Why? High
concentration is on right; low is on left and molecules move from high to low concentration.
8. In diffusion, molecules move from an area of __high___ to an area of __low___ concentration.
9. What is osmotic pressure?
The difference between concentrations of molecules on each side of membrane – greater the difference,
the greater the osmotic pressure.
10.Draw arrows to show which way water will move in each of the following situations:
a. Salt inside the cell = 65% and outside the cell 40%.
----------------------------------------b. Sugar inside the cell 27% and outside 80%.
-----------------------------------------
11. What is homeostasis?
Regulation of internal environment; maintenance of balance and stability
12. How do cells maintain homeostasis: Consider pH, temperature, blood glucose, water balance
(hormone systems maintains homeostasis); insulin and glucagon work together to maintain blood sugar;
osmosis regulates water; temperature regulation through sweating, shivering, blood vessels opening wide
and becoming smaller; pH through buffers and H ions.
Comparison of active and passive transport p. 182-189
Requires energy?
Low to high concentration or
high to low concentration?
Examples
PASSIVE TRANPORT
NO
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
YES
High to Low
Low to High
Osmosis of water; movement of
glucose
Neurons – sodium/potassium
pumps or iodine in thyroid
Biology EOC Review
Salt is a solute, when it is concentrated inside or outside the cell, it will draw the water in its direction.
This is also why you get thirsty after eating something salty.
Type of Solutions
Biology EOC Review
Diffusion and Osmosis are both types of ___PASSIVE___ TRANSPORT - that is, no energy is required
for the molecules to move into or out of the cell.
Sometimes, large molecules cannot cross the plasma membrane, and are "helped" across by _proteins_.
This process, which uses proteins and ATP is called _ACTIVE TRANSPORT_.
Energy p. 201-203
Use the following diagram – label where energy is released and where energy is used. Also use arrows
on the lines attached to the circles to indicate if energy is going in or out.
1. What cellular process produces ATP?
Cellular respiration
2. What is ATP energy used for? Give examples.
To provide energy for all cell processes that require energy – active
transport for example.
3. How do we get energy from ATP?
By breaking the bond between the 2nd & 3rd phosphate to release the energy
Biology EOC Review
2.05 Investigate and analyze the bioenergetic reactions: aerobic respiration, anaerobic
respiration, and photosynthesis. p. 204-225
Label the following molecules in these equations (water, glucose, oxygen, carbon dioxide, ethyl alcohol)
A) water + carbon dioxide = glucose + oxygen gas (Photosynthesis)
B) glucose + oxygen gas = carbon dioxide + water ( Aerobic Cellular Respiration)
C) glucose = ethyl alcohol + carbon dioxide (Fermentation; anaerobic cellular respiration)
A)
B)
C)
1. Which of the above reactions is photosynthesis?
A
2. Which of the above reactions is fermentation (anaerobic cellular respiration)? C
3. Which of the above reactions is cellular respiration (aerobic)? B
4. Which reaction requires chlorophyll? A
What is the purpose of the chlorophyll? To absorb
sunlight for photosynthesis
5. Which reaction requires light? A
What is the light used for? Energy source
6. Which organisms carry out process A? Plants / Animals / or Both
7. Which organisms carry out process B? Plants / Animals / or Both
8. Which organisms carry out process C?
anaerobes (bacteria) and yeast
9. Which process uses chloroplasts in eukaryotes?
Photosynthesis
10. Which process uses mitochondria in eukaryotes?
Cellular respiration (aerobic)
11. What factors could speed up (or slow down) process A?
amount of light; water, carbon dioxide;
temperature; pH
12. What factors could speed up (or slow down) process B?
amount of glucose; amount of oxygen;
temperature; pH
13. Label the missing parts in Photosynthesis:
1. Light 2. Carbon dioxide 3. Water 4. Oxygen 5. Glucose
1. Glucose 2. Oxygen 3. Light 4. Carbon dioxide 5. ATP (energy)
14. What type of organisms perform aerobic cellular respiration? Animals, plants, fungi
15. Where does aerobic respiration occur in the cell? Mitochondria
16. What cellular process produces ATP more efficiently? Is this process anaerobic or aerobic? Aerobic
cellular respiration
Biology EOC Review
2.04 Investigate and describe the structure and function of enzymes and explain their importance
in biological systems. p. 49-53
1. substrate 2. Enzyme 3. Product
1. Does the enzyme or substrate
change shape?
Substrate
2. What 2 conditions cause
enzymes to become denatured
(change shape)?
Temperature and pH
3. Enzymes are types of what
organic compound?
Proteins
4. Why is the enzyme-substrate
complex compared to a lock and
key?
Enzymes are shaped so only a
specific substrate will fit in the
active site
5. Why can enzymes be used over and over again?
Enzymes are not changed by the reaction
6. What is the function of enzymes in biological systems? Why are they necessary for all biochemical
reactions? They act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions. They maintain homeostasis because
reactions would not take place quickly enough without enzymes.
7. Why is there only one kind of enzyme for each biochemical reaction?
Enzymes act only on specific substrates.
Biology EOC Review
Goal 3: Learner will develop an understanding of the continuity of life and the changes of
organisms over time.
3.01: Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including: DNA replication, Protein Synthesis
(transcription and translation), and gene regulation. p. 286-312
Below is a strand of DNA. DNA in the cells exists as a double helix –
1. Circle one nucleotide. What 3 pieces is it made up of?
Phosphate group, sugar (deoxyribose), nitrogen base
2. What are the black pentagons?
deoxyribose
What are the nitrogen bases? A,C,G,T
___C__
__T___
__G___
_G__
_C___
__T___
3. Fill in the blanks with the complimentary DNA bases.
4. If a strand of DNA undergoes transcription, what will the sequence of the mRNA be?
DNA = G A C T G A
mRNA = C U G A C U
tRNA = G A C U G A
Label the summary of protein
synthesis diagrammed below:
 DNA
 Transcription
 mRNA
 Nucleus
 Cytoplasm
 mRNA
 tRNA
 Ribosome
 Anticodon
 Codon
 Amino Acid
 Polypeptide Chain /
Protein
 Nuclear Membrane
 rRNA
 Translation
Biology EOC Review
5. After translation, what would the amino acid
sequence be for the section of mRNA above?
Leu-Thr
6. What is a codon?
3 nucleotide sequence on the mRNA that
codes for an amino acid or start or stop signal
What is an anti-codon?
3 base sequence on the tRNA that is
complimentary to a codon to determine if the
7. Compare RNA and DNA in the following table
RNA
DNA
Sugars
Ribose
Deoxyribose
Bases
A,C,G,U
A,C,G,T
Strands 1 1
2
or 2
Where
In Cell
but moves to
(eukaryotes)
cytoplasm
Function Protein
Store genetic
synthesis
info (info to
make proteins)
8. What kinds of bonds hold the amino acids together in the protein that is formed?
Peptide bonds
9. What are the three types of RNA and what are their functions?
1) mRNA- carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome in the cytoplasm
2) rRNA- makes up the structure of the ribosome
3) tRNA- brings correct amino acid to the ribosome to assemble protein
10. What kind of weak bonds hold the two strands of DNA together between the nitrogen bases?
Hydrogen bonds
11. Why is it important that these bonds be weak?
They will need to be broken for replication and for transcription.
12. What happens to DNA when a mutation occurs?
The code is changed (different bases are in the DNA strand).
13. How does this affect the mRNA?
Bases in mRNA will be different.
14. How can this affect translation?
This may mean a different amino acid is in the protein strand.
15. How does this affect the structure and shape of the resulting protein?
This can cause a change in the shape of the protein, causing it to possibly not function.
16. Where in the cell does transcription occur?
Nucleus
17. Where in the cell does translation occur?
In the cytoplasm at the ribosome
Biology EOC Review
Cell Cycle: p. 244-253
1. Look at the diagram of the cell cycle.
When does the replication of DNA occur? What is
this phase called?
Interphase (S phase – synthesis)
2. What do GI and G2 represent?
G1 – equals growth after cell division; G2 is growth
after DNA replicates.
3. Does mitosis include cytokinesis (division of the
cytoplasm)?
NO
1. G1 2. S 3. G2 4. Mitosis 5. Cytokinesis
Gene Expression and Regulation p. 309-312
1. If all the cells in an organism (cells with nuclei) have the same DNA, explain, in terms of genes, how a
nerve cell functions differently from a muscle cell.
Different genes are turned on in different types of cells.
2. Why does a pancreas cell produce insulin in great amounts but a blood cell does not?
Because the insulin gene is turned on in the pancreas cell but not as much in a blood cell.
3. There are advantages and disadvantages to the overproduction of proteins by a cell. Describe the
advantages and disadvantages for an injured cell. Overproduction in an injured cell can help it heal if the
proteins are needed; but overproduction of unneeded proteins could hinder healing.
Too much of certain proteins in a cancerous cell could promote tumor production in other cells.
3.02 Compare and contrast the characteristics of asexual and sexual reproduction.
MITOSIS
p. 246-248
MEIOSIS p. 275-278
Type of reproduction
Asexual
Sexual
(Asexual or sexual)
Chromosome number of mother 2N
2N
cell (1N=haploid or 2N=diploid)
Chromosome number of
2N
1N
daughter cells (1N=haploid or
2N=diploid)
Number of cell divisions
1 division
2 divisions
Number of cells produced
2
4
When does replication happen?
Interphase (S phase)
SOURCES OF VARIATION
Yes or No
Interphase (S phase) before cell
divides the first time
Yes or No
Crossing over
Random assortment of
chromosomes
Gene mutations
Nondisjunction
fertilization
NO
NO
YES
YES
YES (rare)
NO
NO
YES
YES
YES
Biology EOC Review
Label the following stages of mitosis (cell division). Put the letters in order starting with interphase.
C, B, E, A, D
What type of cell is this Plant or animal and how do you know?
Plant- rigid square structure because of cell wall
3.03 Interpret and predict patterns of inheritance: (dominant, recessive and intermediate traits,
multiple alleles, polygenic traits, sex-linked traits, independent assortment, test cross, pedigrees,
and Punnett squares)
1. In the Punnett square to the left, T = tall and t=short. Give the
genotype for the parents. p. 263-274
Tt
2. Give the phenotype for the parents.
Tall
3. What are the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring?
TT – tall, Tt – tall, tt - short
4. What is the genotypic ratio of the offspring?
1 TT: 2 Tt: 1 tt
5. What is the phenotypic ratio of the offspring?
3 Tall: 1 short
6. What environmental factors might affect the expression of these genes for height? Explain.
Nutrition, exercise, disease
7. Some genes produce intermediate phenotypes. Cross a pure breeding red flower (RR) with a pure
breeding white flower (WW). Give the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. p. 272-273
RR x WW = 100% RW
Red parent crosses with white parent gives all pink offspring.
Explain the inheritance of the following disorders: p. 341-346
Sickle cell anemia: Autosomal recessive
Cystic fibrosis: Autosomal recessive
Huntington Disease: Autosomal dominant
PKU: Autosomal recessive
Biology EOC Review
Blood type p. 344-345
1. If a woman with type A blood has a child with a man with type B blood and their first child has type O
blood, give the genotypes of the woman and the man and do the cross. (Alleles are IA, IB, and i)
Parents are IAi and IBi because that is the only way to get an ii child (type O)
2. What are the odds that they will have a child with type O blood again?
25%
3. What are the odds that they will have a child with homozygous type A blood?
0% Their children will be IAIB, IAi, IBi, and ii
4. What are the odds that they will have a child with type AB blood? 25%
5. A blood test is done to see if one of three men is the father of a child. The child has type O blood, the
mother has type A blood. Man #1 has type AB blood, Man #2 has type A blood, Man #3 has type O
blood. Are there any men that can be ruled out as the father. Explain.
Man #1 is ruled out; child needs to get “O” from each parent.
Polygenic traits p. 395-396
1. Some traits are considered to be polygenic. What does this mean?
Traits that are controlled by more than one gene.
2. What is an example of a polygenic trait in humans?
Eye color, height, weight, hair and skin color
Sex Chromosomes p. 341-342, 350--352
1. What are the male sex chromosomes in humans? XY
2. What are the female sex chromosomes in humans? XX
3. Colorblindness and hemophilia are sex-linked traits. What chromosome are these genes found
on? X
4. What are the 3 possible female genotypes? __XHXH__
__ XHXh __
__ XhXh __
Phenotypes _normal _
5.
What are the 2 possible male genotypes?
__XHY__
Phenotypes? _normal_
_carrier_
_disease_
__ XhY __
_disease_
6. Cross a female who is a carrier for hemophilia with a normal male. XHXh x XHY
7. What are the odds that they will have a child with hemophilia.
25%
8. What are the odds that they will have a daughter with hemophilia?
0%
9. What are the odds that they will have a daughter who is a carrier for hemophilia?
25%
10. Why are males more likely to show a sex-linked disorder? They only need to get the disorder allele
from their mother not from both parents.
Biology EOC Review
Karyotype p. 341, 352-353
1. What is the gender of the person
whose karyotype is shown to the left?
female
2. What is the disorder that this person
Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome); there
are 3 # 21 chromosomes
3. What are some of the characteristics
of this disorder?
Mental retardation; shorter stature;
simian palm crease; low set ears; thick
tongue; some heart defects sometimes.
4. What caused this type of disorder? Nondisjunction during meiosis
Pedigrees p. 342-343
1. Is the inheritance pattern shown by this
pedigree dominant or recessive?
Autosomal recessive
2. How do you know?
Both males and females; parents don’t have it;
kids do.
3. Using A,a, what is the genotype of person
II 4. aa
4. What is the genotype of person I 3? Aa
Test Cross p. 263-280
Describe the test cross that a farmer would use to determine the genotype of an animal that shows a
dominant trait. Use the following Punnett squares and the letters A and a to explain your answer.
Cross the animal with a recessive; If the animal is Aa crossed with aa – then ½ of the offspring will be
recessive; If the animal is AA crossed with aa – all offspring will show the dominant trait.
Mendel’s Laws p. 263-280
Explain each of Mendel’s Laws and explain the experiments he used to determine these laws.
1. Law of segregation of characters (alleles)
In meiosis the two alleles separate so that each gamete receives only one form of the gene.
2. Law of independent assortment (of alleles)
Each trait is inherited separately from the other traits (chance).
3. How does meiosis lead to segregation and independent assortment?
Segregation and ind. assortment happen during meiosis, during the creation of the gametes.
Biology EOC Review
4. A problem to solve:
In the P1 generation a homozygous dominant brown mink crossed with a homozygous recessive
silverblue mink produced all brown heterozygous offspring. When these F1 heterozygous minks were
crossed among themselves they produced 47 brown animals and 15 silverblue animals (F2 generation).
Determine all the genotypes and phenotypes, and their relative ratios, in the F1 and F2 generations.
B = Brown; b = silverblue Parents of F1 are BB and bb. Offspring are Bb – all brown
Parents of F2 are Bb and Bb – offspring are ¼ BB, 2/4 Bb, and ¼ bb – or 3 brown to 1 silverblue
3.04 Assess the impacts of genomics on individuals and society (Human genome project and
applications of biotechnology)
1. What were the goals of the human genome project? p. 357- 358
To sequence the entire human genome; map genes to their chromosomes and determine their traits.
2. What are 2 scientific uses of the human genome project? p. 357-360
To determine if individuals carry genes for genetic conditions and to develop gene therapy.
To the left is an electrophoresis gel, showing evidence from a
rape case. p. 322- 326, 356-357
3. Could the defendant be the rapist? Explain your
No – the bands do not match the male DNA found in the
vagina.
4. Which fragments of DNA are the longest? Explain.
The fragments that are closest to the source or top. Smaller
fragments can travel quicker through the gel.
5. What other ways can DNA fingerprinting be useful?
Forensics, species relatedness, paternity
Biology EOC Review
Transgenic organisms: p. 327-332
1. What are transgenic organisms?
Organisms whose DNA contains genes from other
species (contain foreign DNA).
2. What is the value of this technology in agriculture?
To have plants produce their own pesticide; produce
better yield food crops; to produce larger livestock more
quickly
3. What is the value of this type of technology in the
pharmaceutical industry?
Pure human proteins can be produced in mass and
relatively cheaply. Pure insulin – so much better for
person than horse or pig.
Stem Cells p.253
1. The diagram to the right shows how stem
cells can develop into many types of
different cells. What are some of the
potential benefits that could come from the
growing of stem cells in a laboratory?
New organs could be grown (no rejection);
cancerous cells replaced with good cells;
genetic disorders replaced by new cells
2. What are some of the ethical issues
surrounding the collection and use of stem
cells?
Embryonic stem cells come from embryos
and how those embryos are collected is
problematic.
Biology EOC Review
3.05 Examine the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection including:
development of the theory, the origin and history of life, fossil and biochemical evidence,
mechanisms of evolution, and applications (pesticide and antibiotic resistance).
In the following chart, describe the role of each of the following in developing the current theory of
evolution.
Understanding of geology
(Changes in the earth) p. 374
Growth p. 374
Embryological Similarities p. 385
Patterns in fossil evidence p. 417
Homologous Structures p. 384
Biochemical comparisons
(DNA and proteins) p. 394
The role of variations p. 380, 407
How this supports the evolutionary theory:
Understanding that the earth changes over time explains why
organisms might change to fit the new environments.
Organisms reproduce exponentially but the world is not
overcrowded by organisms – because they compete to survive
Similar anatomy early in development suggests similar ancestry.
Following the patterns and aging the fossils suggests evolutionary
trees.
Similar anatomy suggests similar ancestry
Similar DNA and/or proteins suggests similar ancestry
The role of sexual reproduction
Variations provide the fuel for natural selection. Those variations
that are advantageous are selected for; survive and are passed on.
Sexual reproduction is a source of variation.
The role of geographic isolation
p. 380, 407
The importance of the
environment
Geographic isolation can lead to speciation when organisms are
evolving in two different environments.
Environments select for the adaptations that best suit the organisms
for survival in that environment.
Discuss the steps in Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.
1. Populations of organisms have many genetic variations. Where do these come from? p. 394
Mutations and sexual reproduction
2. Organisms could reproduce exponentially but they don’t. Why not? p.380
Competition for resources – only the hardiest survive
Characteristics that fit the organism to the environment
4. Some adaptations have better survival value in certain environments. What does this mean? p. 380
Those that are better able to cope with the environment are more likely to reproduce
5. Those organisms with adaptations that better fit them to an environment will survive, reproduce and
pass on their genes. What does it mean to be “fit” to an environment? p. 380
More likely to survive, reproduce and pass on those genes.
6. The next population will have a high frequency of the genes that have been selected for. Why will the
frequency of selected genes increase? p. 394
Because organisms with those alleles have survived to reproduce; the organisms with other alleles did not
survive to reproduce (as frequently).
7. When this process continues over millions of years, it can lead to speciation. What is speciation?
p.404 Formation of a new species
The appearance of a group of organisms that are different enough from their ancestors that they could no
longer interbreed and produce fertile offspring with those ancestors.
Biology EOC Review
8. Describe how a population of bacteria can become resistant to an antibiotic (or an insect to a pesticide)
using the steps listed above. p. 403
The bacteria that are different and able to survive an antibiotic will reproduce and pass this resistance on
to the next generation
Bacteria are exposed to antibiotic; a few of the bacteria have a variation that makes them resistant to the
antibiotic; those bacteria survive in the antibiotic environment; they are the bacteria that reproduce and
their genes are passed on; the new generation has a much high frequency of the resistance genes. If this
happens over many generations, speciation could occur.
9. What are the differences between abiogenesis and biogenesis? p. 8-13
Abiogenesis is life arising from non-living things; biogenesis is life arising from living things
10. What did Louis Pasteur contribute to our understanding of the origins of life? p. 12-13
Pasteur showed that living things could only arise from other living things.
11.Explain Miller and Urey’s hypothesis. p.424
Organic molecules could be synthesis from the inorganic
molecules in the early environment.
12. Why did Miller and Urey put those particular gases
into their experiment? p. 424
Early earth’s atmosphere consisted of methane,
ammonia, hydrogen gas, and water vapor.
13. What type of organic molecules did they find? p. 424
Amino acids, lipids
14. What is the significance of their experiments? p. 424
It helps explain how living things might first have
evolved.
15. Most hypotheses state that prokaryotic anaerobes
probably evolved first. Why? p.426-428
Simpler- no oxygen present on early earth
16. The hypotheses then suggest that prokaryotic
autotrophs probably evolved? Why? p.426-428
More complex than anaerobes, but still no oxygen in
environment.
17. What would enter the atmosphere as a result of these autotrophs appearing. p. 426 Oxygen gas
18. Then prokaryotic aerobic heterotrophs could evolve. What can these cells do that others before them
cannot? p. 426-428 Use oxygen to get maximum energy from their nutrients.
19. What is the hypothesis explaining how eukaryotic cells evolved? p.426-428
Endosymbiotic hypothesis – bacteria began living inside other bacteria mutualistically. Over time, these
bacteria became mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Biology EOC Review
Goal 4: Learner will develop an understanding of the unity and diversity of life.
4.01 Analyze the classification of organisms according to their evolutionary relationships.
(Historical development and changing nature of classification systems, similarities and differences
between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, similarities and differences among the eukaryotic
kingdoms, classifying organisms using a key)
1. Draw figure 18-11 that explains how the organization of the kingdoms and domains have changed over
time. p. 458
Changing Number of Kingdoms
First
Introduced
Names of Kingdoms
Plantae
1700s
Protista
Late 1800s
1950s
1990s
Animalia
Monera
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
Plantae
Animalia
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
2. Who came up with the first 2 Kingdoms and what were they? p. 457
Carl Linnaeus- Animalia & Plantae
3. What is the current seven-level classification system? p. 450
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
4. What is binomial nomenclature?
The Genus species name of each type of organism
5. How are DNA and biochemical analysis, embryology, and morphology used to classify organisms?
p. 452-455 All are used to determine relatedness which is a key factor in classification.
6. Similarities in the evidence above proves that organisms share a __common__ __ancestor__.
7. To the left is a phylogenetic tree of some
organisms. According to this tree, which pairs
of organisms are most closely related? P.460
Salamanders and frogs; lizards and snakes; crocs
and birds
8. Which organism is most closely related to the
rayfinned fish?
Lungfish
9. Which organisms are the mammals most
closely related to?
Birds & reptiles
10. Organisms that are close to each other show
__common__ __ancestry__.
11. Which would be the most primitive organism? Rayfinned fish
Biology EOC Review
Fill in the following chart with the characteristics of the various kingdoms. P. 459
Domain
Kingdom
Eukaryotic
or
prokaryotic
Multicellular
or singlecelled
Sexual or
asexual
reproduction
Autotrophic
or
heterotrophic
Aerobic or
anaerobic
Cell walls or
no cell walls
Examples
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Prokaryotic
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic
Single
Single
Single
(mainly)
Multi
Multi
Multi
Asexual (by
binary
fission)
Asexual
Both
Both
Sexual
Sexual
Both
Both
Both
Hetero
Auto
Hetero
Both
Both
Both
Both
Aerobic
Aerobic
Yespeptidoglycan
YesGlycoprotein
Polysacch.
Algae YES
Protozoa NO
Yes- chitin
Yes- cellulose
none
E. coli,
Streptococcus
methanogens,
halophiles,
thermophiles
Algae,
amoeba,
euglena
Mushrooms,
mold, yeast
Pine, moss,
roses
Insects,
annelids,
amphibians
What are some differences between the bacteria and the archaea? P. 459 cell walls, livable environment
Use the following key to identify the tree branch to the left.
1. a. leaf is needle-like….go to 2
b. leaf is broad……… go to 5
2. a. needles are short ....go to 3
b. needles are long…...go to 4
3. a. underside of needles green…hemlock
b. underside of needles silver ..balsam
4. a. 3 needles in bundle….pitch pine
b. 5 needles in bundle….white pine
5. a. edge of leaf round.go to 6
b. edge of leaf serrated…go to 7
6. a. minty odor…… wintergreen
b. no minty odor…..laurel
needle-like, long needles, in bundle of 3 = pitch pine
Biology EOC Review
4.02 Analyze the processes by which organisms representative of the following groups accomplish
essential life functions including………….
Fill in the charts below showing how various groups of organisms accomplish the life functions
listed.
Protists Ch. 20
Diffusion
Annelids p. 694-699
5 contractile “hearts”;
mostly closed system
Insects p. 726-733
Dorsal heart; open
circulation
Diffusion
Paired nephridia – each
segments
Malpighian tubules;
empty into digestive
Respiration – How do
They get Oxygen?
Diffusion
Mainly diffusion
Spiracles along side of
body to allow oxygen in
Regulation /
Maintain Homeostasis
Contractile vacuole etc.
Small brain; ventral
nerve cord; sense organs
Brain; ventral nerve
cord; eyes, antennae
Growth and
Development
Just cell growth
Eggs in cocoons – hatch
as small worms
Metamorphosis (egg,
Paramecium, Amoeba,
Kelp, Euglena
Earthworms, leeches
Grasshoppers, ants, bees
Transport of materials
Circulatory System ?
Open or Closed ?
Excretion – How is
Waste Removed?
Examples
Amphibians p. 782-789
3 chambered heart; closed system
Mammals p. 821-832
4-chambered heart; closed system –
veins, arteries, capillaries
Kidneys – empty into cloaca
Respiration – How do
They get Oxygen?
Lungs or gills, also through skin
Lungs with trachea, bronchiole tubes;
air sacs
Regulation /
Maintain Homeostasis
Internal ears, vocal sac; some
poison glands
Glands and complex nervous system
with brain
Growth and
development
Baby continues to develop after birth;
varies with species
Humans, bears, whales
Transport of materials
Circulatory System?
Open or Closed?
Excretion – How is
Waste Removed?
Examples
Biology EOC Review
Transport of materials
Vascular Tissue??
Size – Small or Large
Leaves ?
What Type?
Location – Near water
Or not?
Seeds or Spores
Is water required for
reproduction?
How are spores or
seeds dispersed?
Examples
Non-vascular Plants
p. 551-559
Osmosis & diffusion
Gymnosperms
p. 564-568
Vascular system
Angiosperms
p. 569-572
Vascular system
Small, low to the
ground
None
Large/tall
Large/tall
Needle-like leaves
In moist, damp places
On land
On land
spores
seeds
seeds
Yes, sperm is released
into water
wind or water
No, sperm (pollen) is
Seeds are held by a
pinecone (trees are
called conifers)
Conifers, douglas fir
trees, bristlecone pine
trees, cedars, gingkos
birds, bees, or animals
Seeds are protected by a
fruit
Moss, liverworts,
hornworts
Compare the following two types of cells. p. 173
Prokaryotic
Membrane-bound organelles
No
Ribosomes
Yes
Types of chromosomes
Plasmid (1 circular loop of
DNA)
size
Examples
Small and simple
Bacteria
Apples, roses, tomatoes,
daisies, oranges,
peppers, walnuts
Eukaryotic
Yes (also a nucleus)
Yes
Wound up into dense, rodshaped structures before
Large and complex
Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists
4.03 Assess, describe and explain adaptations affecting survival and reproductive success
(structural adaptations in plants and animals, disease-causing viruses and microorganisms,
co-evolution)
Label the following parts on the flower and give their
functions: p. 612
Stigma, style, ovary, petal, sepal, anther, filament
Top left: petals
Bottom left under stamen: anther and then filament
Under Pistil on right: stigma, style, ovary
Biology EOC Review
1. What is the purpose of stomata?
Tiny holes on the underside of the leaf to allow for gas
exchange- CO2 in and O2 out
2. What is the purpose of guard cells?
To open and close the stomata to control the loss of water
3. On the leaf cross-section diagram to the right, label a stomata
and the area of the leaf specialized for photosynthesis (think
about where sunlight hits the plant).
Stomata- bottom left hole
Photosynthesis- layer of long cells packed close together near the top
Fill in the following charts with the information required.
Protists p. 501
Annelid worms
p. 695
Insects
p. 728
Amphibians
p. 784
Mammals
p. 822-823
Protists
p. 502
Annelid worms
p. 696
Insects
p. 729
Gullets and cilia to get foot into gullet; or pseudopods to surround the food;
flagella movement for catching food; trichocysts to subdue food. Also diffusion
Muscles to move around; tentacles; engulf soil filter feeding; predators
Specialized appendages for eating and palpating; sucking, lapping, etc. Wings and
legs for hopping and flying after food.
Tongue that flings out to traps insects; hopping legs, fast swimmers
Claws, large teeth for grinding
Asexual and sexual; join together
to mate – swimming forms of cells
In some both sexes in one
organism; clitellum for mating;
hard cover - egg
Ovipositors; internal fertilization
(and external); eat male after
mating
external fertilization in water;
amplexus;
Uterus for baby to grow – internal
fertilization
Gametophytes, sperm that swim in
water when it rains.
Cones seeds, pollen, seeds that can
travel in the wind
Flowers buds, petals, pollen, nectar
to attract pollinators_______
Setae for moving; eating soil – filtering to get
nutrients; muscles to move
Hopping legs; spiracles to get oxygen from
air;
Amphibians
Legs to hop; live near water; lungs to breathe
p. 786
air;
Mammals
Legs, wings, for getting around; fur to keep
p. 826
warm; skin that won’t lose water.
Non-vascular
Rhizoids to absorb water, live where it is
plants p. 557-588
moist and close to ground
Gymnosperms
Phloem/xylem, roots, cuticle to prevent water
p. 564
loss
Angiosperms
Phloem/xylem, roots, cuticle to prevent water
p. 569
loss
Viruses:
1. Describe the basic structure of a virus. P. 479
Protein capsid with genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside.
2. Explain how mutations in viruses and microorganisms that cause disease (bacteria) affect their
treatment? P. 287-288
A mutation that provides resistance to the treatment will allow those bacteria or viruses to keep surviving
and reproducing.
Biology EOC Review
3. How do they treat a viral infection versus a bacterial infection? P. 486 and 488
Viral infections are prevented with a vaccine. Bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics.
4. Complete the chart for the following diseases.
Type of pathogen:
Virus or Bacteria
HIV
Virus
p. 489
Influenza
Virus
p. 489
Smallpox
Virus
p. 489
Streptococcus
Bacteria
(Strep Throat) p. 486
Sinus Infection
Bacteria
Treatment with: antibiotics or immune system
Immune system
Immune system
Immune system
Antibiotic
Antibiotic
1. What is meant by coevolution? P. 437-438
Process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other.
2. Give an example of a flowering plant and a pollinator and describe how coevolution works? P. 437-438
The orchid that has a 40 cm flower is pollinated by a moth with a 40 cm structure to reach the nectar.
4.04 Analyze and explain the interactive role of internal and external factors in health and disease
(genetics, immune response, nutrition, parasites, and toxins)
1. Explain the relationship between sickle cell anemia and malaria. P. 347
Having the sickle cell trait, only one copy of the disease allele (heterozygote), provides resistance against
malaria.
2. Explain the relationship between lung and mouth cancer and tobacco use. P. 962-963
The carcinogens in tobacco can cause lung or mouth cancer.
3. Explain the relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet radiation from sun exposure. P. 974-975
Too much sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation will result in skin cancer.
4. Explain the relationship between diabetes, diet/exercise, and genetics. P. 1007-1008
Some types of diabetes are the result of a genetic problem. Adult-onset diabetes can often be controlled
by a strict diet and exercise.
5. Explain the relationship between PKU and diet. P. 345
People with PKU have to avoid foods with phenylalanine – which they are unable to break down.
Biology EOC Review
Immune Response p. 1036-1042
1.What is the function of helper T-cells? p. 1040
Activate and direct other immune cells
2. What is the function of killer T-cells? p. 1040
Destroy disease agents with antibodies on them
3. What is the function of cytotoxic T-cells? p. 1040
Destroy body cells infected with a virus
4. What do B cells produce? P. 1038
Antibodies
5. What are antigens? p. 1038-1039
Any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it.
An antigen may be a foreign substance from the environment such as chemicals, bacteria, viruses, or
pollen. An antigen may also be formed within the body, as with bacterial toxins or tissue cells.
6. What kinds of cells keep you from becoming reinfected? P. 1038
Memory B cells
7. What is the difference between active immunity and passive immunity? P. 1041
Active immunity happens when the immune system responds to an antigen by producing antibodies;
passive immunity is when antibodies are put directly into a person.
8. Explain what vaccines do to the immune system. p. 486
A vaccine triggers an immune response against the pathogen without symptoms of infection.
Health and Nutrition p. 976
1. What type of diet contributes to optimal health?
Balanced (protein, carbohydrate, lipid); lots of fruits and vegetables; low in saturated fats and refined
sugars.
2. What type of diet contributes to obesity?
High fat and refined sugars; too many calories.
3. What type of diet contributes to malnutrition?
The wrong type of calories – not enough of certain foods and too much of others.
Biology EOC Review
4. What happens when someone is deficient in Vitamin C? scurvy
Vitamin D? ricketts
Vitamin A? night blindness – vision problems.
Parasites (Malaria) p. 503
1. Describe the life cycle of the malarial parasite.
Protozoan plasmodium injected by Anopheles mosquito (vector); go to liver then red blood cells as adult;
gametes produced; taken in by mosquito; fertilization; hatching in mosquito – and continues.
3. What is the vector? mosquitoes
4. What are the symptoms? fever outbursts and chills
5. What are the treatments? can kill mosquitos or use drugs that are quinine based
Environmental Toxins
1. Explain the effects on human health of:
Lead: vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, coma or even death; mental effects in young
Mercury: nerve system poison; possible cancer trigger
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