Randi Nicole Bozeman
Megan Edwards
Caitlin Linden
Lucia Ogando
According to, motivation is defined as “the
act or an instance of motivating, the state or condition of
being motivated, or something that motivates; inducement;
incentive. Motivate (verb) is “to provide with an incentive;
move to action; impel.
According to Lemlech (p.39), students motivation refers
to the “way students approach learning tasks and how
intently they perform each task”, or “whether the student
demonstrates interest and attentiveness in learning tasks
and the goals the student sets for himself or herself.”
Motivation can be positive or
negative influences that makes someone
want to do something
Rewards, such as food, stickers, toys,
promotion, etc.
Desire for praise or desire not to be
Someone says, "you'll never be able to do
it,” and you try to prove them wrong
Sense of achievement
There are many different forms of
motivation, depending on the desires of
the individual person
 Behavioral
 Cognitive Perspective
 Humanistic Perspective (Maslow's
Hierarchy of Needs)
According to
motivate.html, the main
factor in motivation based
on the Behavioral View is
positive and negative
“The application of
reinforcers provides
incentives to increase
“The application of
punishers provides
disincentives that result in
a decrease in behavior.”
A person is behaviorally
conditioned to do what is
desired by using extrinsic
motivation (external
stimuli such as rewards or
According to Lemlech,
“students achieve
satisfaction from learning
and from appropriate
Based on intrinsic motivation
(a need for achievement is a
personal motivator)
Leon Festinger's Cognitive
Dissonance Theory (based on
Piaget's Disequilibrium
(Theory of Cog. Dev.)): When
students are learning
something new and get
confused, or in a state of
disequilibrium, they are
motivated to sort out the
conflict of information to
return to a state of
If a teacher can create
disequilibrium, a student will
change the behavior in order
to resolve the discrepancy in
information and return to the
state of equilibrium.
Attribution Theory: Blaming internal or external
"attributes" that caused one to succeed or fail. We need to
teach children to develop a self-attribution explanation of
effort (one is responsible for one’s own actions and
Locus of Control (Social Learning Theory by Rotter):
Internal locus of control – if a child fails, it is their own
fault, and if a child succeeds, they credit themselves;
External locus of control – if a child fails, it is someone
else’s fault, and if a child succeeds it is because someone
else helped them
 Explains
as motivated by
individual needs
 Maslow’s Hierarchy
of Needs
 Intrinsic
or Internal Motivation – within the
 Extrinsic
or External Motivation – outside the
Intrinsic motivation
occurs within a
 People are
motivated because
Self satisfaction
Accomplish personal
Interest in subject or
Extrinsic motivation
occurs outside a
 People are
motivated because
Desire for personal gain
Good grades
(food, stickers,
certificates, money,
Desire to avoid
 When
the goals and rewards of the learning
are meaningful to the learner
 When the learning is important to the
 When the learning assists the learner in
obtaining valued accomplishments
 When the learning assists the learners in
integrating themselves with the world, with
others, and promotes self-awareness
Behavioral/External: obtain desired, pleasant
consequences (rewards) or escape/avoid undesired,
unpleasant consequences
Social: positive models; be a part of a group or a valued
Biological: activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc.;
maintain homeostasis (balance)
Cognitive: develop meaning or understanding; eliminate
threat or risk
Affective: increase security of or decrease threats to selfesteem; maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm
Conative: meet individually developed/selected goal;
develop or maintain self-efficacy
Spiritual: understand purpose of one's life
 Staying
 More enjoyment in activities
 Greater chance of success
 Feeling appreciated
 Having a goal and purpose
Children who are over
motivated feel that
they have to please
 They also feel that
they need to be
perfect at all times.
 If they do not achieve
what is expected of
them, then they feel
like they have failed
themselves and
Over motivation can
Over thinking situations
Fear of failure or
Disinterest in school,
sports, etc.
 Children
who are
under motivated
feel unappreciated.
 They feel as if no
one cares about
them and often
think “why bother?”
 They do not usually
care about school,
sports, or any type
of achievement
 Under
 Drop out of school
 Low test scores
 Feelings of
According to Jere Brophy (1987),
motivation to learn is a
competence acquired "through
general experience but stimulated
most directly through modeling,
communication of expectations,
and direct instruction or
socialization by significant others
(especially parents and teachers).”
When parents nurture their
children's natural curiosity about
the world by welcoming their
questions, encouraging
exploration, and familiarizing them
with resources that can enlarge
their world, they are giving their
children the message that learning
is worthwhile and frequently fun
and satisfying.
When children are raised in a home
that nurtures a sense of self-worth,
competence, autonomy, and selfefficacy, they will be more apt to
accept the risks inherent in
 Family/Home
 Culture/Community
 Teacher’s Beliefs/Values
 Environment/Classroom
 Socialization/Peers
 Role Models/Mentors
 Motivation
creates better
focus and a better chance
of success
 Motivation affects selfconfidence and selfefficacy
 Motivation affects selfactualization (personal
growth and self-fulfillment)
 Relevant
subject matter
 Interesting instruction
 Satisfied learner
 Expectations of success.
 Hootstein (1998)
A teacher’s enthusiasm for a
subject can affect motivation.
If a teacher is excited about a
lesson, children are likely to
get excited as well.
A feeling of comfort and
safety in the classroom
environment can affect
motivation. Students must
feel safe to take risks in order
to be motivated.
Recognize that even when students use strategies
that are ultimately self-defeating (such as
withholding effort, cheating, procrastination, and so
forth), their goal is actually to protect their sense of
self-worth (Raffini).
Practice exercises
Concentrate on the tasks rather than becoming distracted by
fear of failure
Respond to frustration by retracing steps to find mistakes or
finding alternative ways of approaching a problem
Attribute failures to insufficient effort, lack of information, or
reliance on ineffective strategies rather than to lack of ability
(Brophy, 1986)
 The
role of the teacher is to give any many
intrinsic rewards as possible.
 Teachers
must keep in mind that not all
students can be motivated by intrinsic
Explain or show why
learning a particular
content or skill is
Create and/or maintain
Provide a variety of
activities and sensory
Provide games and
Set goals for learning
Relate learning to
student needs
Help student develop
plan of action
Provide clear
 Give corrective
 Provide valuable rewards
(sticker charts,
homework passes, prizes,
 Make rewards available
Motivation in the classroom is the same with any
aspect of a child’s life.
 Once the child is motivated they will continue on
the path to achievement.
 The reward, whether intrinsic or extrinsic, is
what motivates the child. In school this could be
a sticker, good grade or a pizza party.
 Outside of school motivation for the reward
could be learning to ride a bike with out training
wheels or tying their own shoes.
 Motivation is the factor that keeps the child
engage and attempting the skill until they
 Motivation
and achievement are connected
because once a student is engaged they will
be motivated to learn the subject or concept
being taught.
 Once they have improved the skill
achievement will follow.
 When the student has a positive experience
and is motivated they will continue down the
path to achievement.
 You can not have achievement without
Keeping It Simple
Establishing a Classroom Token Economy
Deadline for the rewards
Example: Homework pass, candy, teacher’s assistant for
the week
Target Behaviors: When student shows a behavior that
is a target behavior, they receive a token
Example: End of week, month, or assignment
Example: Points, stickers, fake money
Example: Sitting in assigned seat after entering
classroom, raising hand, not interrupting, helping a
fellow student
Target Skills
Example: Focus on note taking, meaningful discussion,
Provide opportunities for success
Teach students to set reasonable goals and to assess
their performance
Help students to recognize the relationship between
effort and outcome
Relate lessons to students’ own lives
Model interest and enthusiasm
Include novelty and variety in your lessons
Provide opportunities for students to respond actively
Allow students to create finished products
Provide opportunities to interact with peers
From PowerPoint on Motivation Tab - LiveText
Beswick, D. (2007, February 17). Management implications of the interaction between intrinsic
motivation and extrinsic rewards. Retrieved March, April 2009, from Intrinsic Motivation and
Extrinsic Rewards:
Chye, O. T. (2007, January 13). What Factors Influence The Development Of Students' Motivation?
Retrieved March, April 2009, from Education, Motivation & Classroom Management:
Ellen A. Skinner, M. J. (1993, June 14). Motivation in the Classroom: Reciprocal Effects of Teacher
Behavior and Student Engagement Across the School Year. Retrieved March, April 2009, from
Journal of Educational Psychology:
Fortin, C. (2008, May 6). Creating an Incentive Plan for the Classroom. Retrieved April 2009, from
For Teachers: Motivating Students:
Huitt, W. (2001). Motivation to learn: An overview. Retrieved March, April 2009, from Educational
Psychology Interactive:
Lemlech, J. K. (2006). Curriculum and Instructional Methods for the Elementary and Middle
School (Sixth Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ; Columbus, OH: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.
University, F. S. (n.d.). Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation. Retrieved March, April 2009, from
Center for Teaching, Learning & Faculty Development:
Wagner, D. (2002, March 28). Student Motivation and Parental Involvement. Retrieved March, April
2009, from Student Motivation: