Clarifying the Context for Classroom Assessment

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“A Pig Don’t Get Fatter The More You Weigh
It:” Classroom Assessment That Works
Judy F. Carr
USF Sarasota Manatee
and
The Center for Curriculum Renewal
2665 Belvoir Blvd, Sarasota, FL 34237
www.curriculumrenewal.com
[email protected]
Florida ASCD Conference
November 30, 2007
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Florida ASCD Conference
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Classroom Assessments That Work
Clarifying the Context for Classroom Assessment
Types
Purposes
Individual
 Self-assessment
 Feedback about learning
 Providing modifications and alternative
assessments
 Placement in courses and programs
 Promotion and retention
Classroom
 Instructional improvement
 Progress monitoring
 Improvement of student learning
School/
District






Florida
Improvement goals
Longitudinal progress
Action planning
Strategic planning
Curriculum development and revisions
Public reporting and local accountability
 Accountability
 Impact of laws and funding
 Impact and results of policies and procedures
Adapted from Carr (2007) Classroom assessments that work. In Jones, P., Carr, J., & Ataya, R. (2007) A pig don’t
get fatter the more you weigh it: Classroom assessments that work. NY: Teachers College Press.
Florida ASCD Conference
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Classroom Assessments That Work
Choosing the Right Type of Classroom Assessment
Selected Response
Examples
More
Effective for
Assessing
Less Effective
for Assessing
Multiple choice
True-False
Matching
Declarative
Knowledge
Information and
facts
Procedural
Knowledge
Skills and processes
Constructed Response
Short Answers
Fill in the blank:
h word(s),
phrase(s)
Short answer
sentence(s)
paragraph(s)
Label a diagram
“show your work”
Visual
representation
web, concept
map,
flowchart, table,
graph
Declarative
Knowledge
Information and
facts
Content and
concepts
Procedural
Knowledge
Skills and
processes
Dispositions
Dispositions
Scoring
Guides
Answer key
Scoring template
Machine scoring
Reporting/
Feedback
Methods
Numerical score:
Percentages
Point totals
Generalized rubric
Task-specific
rubric
Checklist
Answer key
Letter grades
Checklist
Products
Essay, research
paper, log/journal,
lab report,
story/play, poem,
portfolio, art
exhibit, science
project, model,
video/audio tape,
spreadsheet,
learning log
Performances
Oral presentation,
science lab,
dance/movement,
demonstration,
athletic
competition,
conversation and
observation,
dramatic reading,
debate, “think
aloud”
Declarative
Knowledge
Content and
concepts
Procedural
Knowledge
Skills and
processes
Dispositions
Dispositions
Procedural
Knowledge
Skills and
processes
Declarative
Knowledge
Content and
concepts
Declarative
Knowledge
Information and
facts
Declarative
Knowledge
Information and
facts
Procedural
Knowledge
Skills and
processes
Generalized rubric
Task-specific
rubric
Checklist
Generalized rubric
Task-specific
rubric
Checklist
Observation Sheet
Developmental/proficiency scale:
generalized rubric, task-specific
rubric, rating scale
Narrative report (written)
Written comments
Verbal report/conference
Self
Teacher(s)
Peer(s) Parent(s) Expert Judges
Community Members
Based on the VT-DOE Teacher Resource Guide, McREL resources, & the work of McTighe, Ferrara, &
Stiggins
Assessor(s)
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Classroom Assessments That Work
Elmira City School District Quality Classroom Assessment
Assessment is the process of gathering evidence of student learning to inform
instructional decisions to keep students confident and striving to learn.
Component
TARGET
PURPOSE
METHOD
&
MATCH
ASSESSOR
QUANTITY/
AMOUNT
Description
~Have clear, appropriate learning
goals/objectives
~Tie to performance indicators/standards
~Start with the end in mind
~Improve instruction
~Provide specific feedback to students
~Inform planning by aligning
goal/objective/aim, instructional strategies,
assessment
~Use assessment data continuously to
inform instruction
~ Check for mastery
~ Diagnose needs and strengths
~Accountability
~Match type of assessment to learning
goal/objective/aim
~ Have appropriate match among target,
purpose, and method of assessment
~ Ensure validity by having assessment
measure what it claims to assess
~ Self, peer, teacher, “outside” experts
~Use multiple measures
~Use multiple samples of student work to
make sound inferences about learning
FREQUENCY
~Provide continuous feedback to students
(during and end of lessons and units)
ACCURACY
~Create fair assessments that are free from
biases
~Incorporate modifications/
accommodations
~Provide continuous feedback to students
~Clearly report to parents, other teachers,
the public
COMMUNICATION
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Examples/ Resources
Posted Goals
I Can Statements
AIMS
Learning Objectives
Curriculum Webs
Rubrics
Conferences (teacher, peer)
Self-assessment
Exemplars
Progress Monitoring
Benchmark/Common
Assessments
CBA
Report Cards
Types of Assessment:
 Selected Response
 Constructed Response/Short
Answer,
 Products and Performances
Selected response matches goal at
Bloom’s knowledge evaluation level
Student self-assessment
Teacher scoring
A quiz, a project, and a presentation
Student portfolio
Check for Understanding
Ticket Out
Benchmark Assessments
Rubrics
Checklists
Portfolio
Report Card
Classroom Assessments That Work
Classroom Assessment Peer Review Process
AssessmentTitle:
Assessment Creator:
Strengths
Challenges
“Scoring Guide”
The Score
4
3
2
1
The Criteria
Exemplar with almost no changes
needed
Exemplar with minor adjustments
needed
Many strengths but a few specific
and substantive changes are
needed (e.g. revise assessment
tools to better match the
“standards”)
Both strengths and issues are
evident
Reviewer’s Name:
Florida ASCD Conference
Next Step
Support, coach, assist as needed
Adjust, support, coach, assist as
needed
Resubmit with the identified
items adjusted or fixed
Create an action plan to revise
and submit
Date:
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Classroom Assessments That Work
Assessment Plan
Standards (Core Curriculum)
SS1.E.1A.04.01 Know that Native
American Indians were the first
inhabitants of our local region and
state
that the Iroquois
(Haudenosaunee - People of the
Longhouse) and the Algonquian
were the early inhabitants of our
State
Student Work
Scoring Guides
Unit Test
Unit Test Key (AK)
CRQ
CRQ Rubric (R)
Unit Test
Unit Test Key (AK)
Compare/Contrast
Organizer
Compare/Contrast
Organizer (CL)
Writing Piece
Writing Piece Rubric (R)
Unit Test
Unit Test Key (AK)
ELA Activity
ELA Activity Rubric (R)
Unit Test
Unit Test Key (AK)
Journal Entry
Journal Entry Rubric (R)
Unit Test
Unit Test Key (AK)
CRQ
CRQ Rubric (R)
Journal Entry
Journal Entry Rubric (R)
SS1.E.1A.04.02 Know
SS1.E.1A.04.05 Understand
the roots of
American culture, how it developed
from many different traditions, and
the ways many people from a
variety of groups and backgrounds
played a role in creating it
SS1.E.3A.04.01 Know
the important
accomplishments of Native
American Indians who lived in our
community and New York State
SS1.E.3A.04.01 Know
the important
accomplishments of Native
American Indians who lived in our
community and New York State
SS3.E.1E.04.01 Know
the uses of the
environment and how Native
American Indian settlements were
influenced by environmental and
geographic factors
ELA1.E.LR1C.04.01 Read
to identify main
idea and supporting details in
informational texts
and correctly
spell level appropriate high
frequency words
Journal Entry Rubric (R)
ELA1.E.SW2G.04.02 Know
uppercase letters
appropriately (e.g. proper nouns,
pronoun I, beginning of a sentence,
titles. etc.)
Journal Entry
ELA1.E.SW2G.04.03 Use
Florida ASCD Conference
Journal Entry Rubric (R)
Journal Entry
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Classroom Assessments That Work
Name:________________________
Date:_______________
Unit Test: Native Americans of NY State
Circle the best answer for each question below.
1. People first came to North America by _______.
a) crossing an ice bridge
b) crossing a land bridge
c) swimming across the ocean
d) sailing across the ocean
2. Most Native Americans in New York State lived in ______.
a) teepees
b) tents
c) wigwams
d) longhouses
3. The leader of each Iroquois clan was the _______.
a) clan leader
b) firekeeper
c) clan mother
d) sachem
4. _______ was a string of polished beads passed at council to show the
speaker was truthful.
a) wampum
b) sachem
c) artifact
d) wigwam
5. The Native American nations in New York State made up the _____.
a) Iroquois Conference
b) Iroquois Confederacy
c) Iroquois Legion
d) Iroquois Group
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Classroom Assessments That Work
Assessment Training Institute
Principles of Assessment for Learning --Teachers
1. I understand and can articulate in advance of teaching the achievement targets students
are to hit.
Low 1_______ 2_______ 3_______ 4_______ 5_______ High
2. My students are informed regularly about those targets in terms they can understand, in part
through the study of the criteria by which their work will be evaluated and samples of highquality
work.
Low 1_______ 2_______ 3_______ 4_______ 5_______ High
3. My students can describe what targets they are to hit and what comes next in their
learning.
Low 1_______ 2_______ 3_______ 4_______ 5_______ High
4. I can transform those targets into dependable assessments that yield accurate information.
Low 1_______ 2_______ 3_______ 4_______ 5_______ High
5. I use classroom assessment information to revise and guide teaching and student learning,
and share this information with students.
Low 1_______ 2_______ 3_______ 4_______ 5_______ High
6. The feedback I give to students is descriptive, constructive, frequent, and immediate,
helping students know how to plan and improve.
Low 1_______ 2_______ 3_______ 4_______ 5_______ High
7. My students are actively, consistently, and effectively involved in assessment, including
learning to manage their own learning through the skills of self-assessment.
Low 1_______ 2_______ 3_______ 4_______ 5_______ High
8. My students actively, consistently, and effectively communicate with others about their
achievement status and improvement.
Low 1_______ 2_______ 3_______ 4_______ 5_______ High
9. I understand the relationship between assessment and student motivation and use assessment
to build student success and confidence rather than failure and defeat.
Low 1_______ 2_______ 3_______ 4_______ 5_______ High
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Classroom Assessments That Work
Assessment Competencies for Educational Leaders
The leader understands the standards of quality for student assessments and how to
ensure that these standards are met in all assessments.
Low 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________ 5________ High
The leader understands the principles of assessment for learning and works with staff to
integrate them into classroom instruction.
Low 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________ 5________ High
The leader understands the necessity of clear academic achievement targets, aligned
classroom-level achievement targets, and their relationship to the development of accurate
assessments.
Low 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________ 5________ High
The leader knows and can evaluate teachers’ classroom assessment competencies and
helps teachers learn to assess accurately and use the results productively.
Low 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________ 5________ High
The leader can plan, present, or secure professional development activities that contribute
the use of sound practices.
Low 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________ 5________ High
The leader accurately analyzes assessment information, uses the information to improve
curriculum and instruction, and assists teachers in doing the same.
Low 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________ 5________ High
The leader can develop and implement sound assessment and assessment-related policies.
Low 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________ 5________ High
The leader creates the conditions necessary for the appropriate use and reporting of student
achievement information, and can communicate effectively with all members of the
school community about student assessment results and their relationship to improving
curriculum and instruction.
Low 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________ 5________ High
The leader understands the attributes of a sound and balanced student assessment system.
Low 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________ 5________ High
The leader understands the issues related to the unethical and inappropriate use of student
assessment and protects students and staff from such misuse.
Low 1________ 2________ 3________ 4________ 5________ High
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Classroom Assessments That Work
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