Earth Unit Exam Review Plate Tectonics: 1. List the crustal formations that occur when the following boundaries are found. Transform – Fault Line Divergent – Mid-Ocean Ridge, Rift Valley Convergent (continent/continent) - Mountains Convergent (continent/ocean) – Trenches, Subduction Zones 2. Illustrate the different boundaries: Transform Convergent Divergent 3. Define continental drift. – The Earth’s continents have drifted slowly over millions of years to their current locations. 4. List the 5 pieces of evidence that support the theory of continental drift. – Pieces appear to fit together like a puzzle, similar plant and animal fossils, similar rock formations, similar climatic conditions, similar rock and mineral types. 5. Describe how convection currents move in the mantle. Hot magma rises towards the surface and cooler magma sinks in the Earth’s Mantle. 6. What is the main cause of plate tectonics? Convection Currents in the Mantle. 7. Where will you find the youngest rock on Earth? At MidOcean Ridges. 8. At the Ring of Fire you will find many volcanoes created by subduction zones, what kind of plate boundary is this? Convergent Boundary 9. True or False: In the Ring of Fire, volcanoes are only found in the center of the tectonic plate. 10. How are trenches formed? By subduction of continental and oceanic tectonic plates. Which plate boundary creates this crustal feature? Convergent Boundary. 11. How are mountains formed? By the collision of continental tectonic plates. Which plate boundary creates this crustal feature? Convergent Boundary. 12. When you have a divergent boundary occurring on land, what is the name of the crustal feature formed? Rift Valley 13. Name the outermost layer of the Earth that is divided into huge pieces called tectonic plates. Crust 14. What occurs at Mid-Ocean Ridges? Sea Floor Spreading (tectonic plates moving apart at a divergent boundary on the ocean floor) 15. What is sea floor spreading and what type of boundary does it take place at? Tectonic plates moving apart on the ocean floor at a divergent boundary. Topographic Maps: 16. What are topographic maps? A map of the Earth’s surface showing elevation. 17. Define contour lines. Lines drawn on a map that connect points of equal elevation. 18. Define contour interval. Distance between points of elevation as marked by contour lines. 19. How can you find the contour interval on a map? By using the key or legend finding the difference between marked contour lines. 20. Define erosion. – Movement of broken down rock. 21. Define weathering. – Breaking down of rock. 22. Define deposition. – Broken down rock being placed or deposited somewhere else. 23. What are some causes of erosion? Wind, Flowing Water 24. What do tightly spaced contour lines represent? Steep Incline 25. What do widely spaced contour lines represent? Slow, shallow incline 26. If a hurricane hits Houston, Texas, how can we best identify and see the amount of erosion that has occurred? By studying the topographic maps before and after the hurricane. Weather and Climate: 27. List the function of each of the following weather instruments: Barometer – Measure Air Pressure Hygrometer – Measures moisture/humidity Anemometer – Measures Wind Speed Psychrometer – Measures Relative Humidity 28. What is a front? – Boundary between two air masses. 29. Illustrate the movement of coastal air during the day. (Sea Breezes) 30. Illustrate the movement of coastal air during the night. (Land Breezes) See #29 31. Describe how a lake or ocean affects the climate of a particular location. Overall cooler climate with less drastic changes in temperature from day to night. 32. Wind currents are created by differences in _Temperature________. 33. Humidity_______ is the amount of moisture or water vapor in the air. 34. Why would a hurricane die or decrease in strength? If it moves over land or cooler/cold ocean water. 35. What is the fueling source of energy for a hurricane? Warm ocean water 36. High air pressure is _cooler______, more dense air. 37. Low air pressure is _warmer_______, less dense air. 38. Energy from the sun creates Convection___ currents. 39. Define convection. Movement of hot or warm air or water to an area of cooler air or water. 40. Energy from the sun is transferred around the Earth by _Radiation________ and _Convection_______. 41. Solar energy = Energy from the __Sun_____. 42. List the 4 types of air masses. Maritime Polar, Continental Polar, Maritime Tropical, Continental Tropical 43. Maritime Polar air forms over water and is _Moist____ and __Cool______. 44. Continental Polar air forms over land and is _Dry___ and _Cool_______. 45. Maritime Tropical air is _Moist______ and _Warm___. 46. Continental Tropical air is _Dry______ and _Warm__. 47. When a cold air mass replaces a warm air mass, what kind of weather is produced? A cold front, usually cooler and rainy. 48. When a warm front occurs, what weather is produced? Warmer weather, sometimes rainy, sometimes dry 49. How do meteorologists use barometric pressure to predict the weather? High and Low Pressure systems help to determine if it is going to rain or if the temperature is going to change. 50. What occurs when warm, moist air rises rapidly in an unstable atmosphere? Severe weather such as hurricanes and thunder storms begin to form.