Earth Unit Exam Review

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Earth Unit Exam Review
Plate Tectonics:
1. List the crustal formations that occur when the following
boundaries are found.
 Transform – Fault Line
 Divergent – Mid-Ocean Ridge, Rift Valley
 Convergent (continent/continent) - Mountains
 Convergent (continent/ocean) – Trenches,
Subduction Zones
2. Illustrate the different boundaries:
 Transform  Convergent  Divergent 3. Define continental drift. – The Earth’s continents have
drifted slowly over millions of years to their current
locations.
4. List the 5 pieces of evidence that support the theory of
continental drift. – Pieces appear to fit together like a
puzzle, similar plant and animal fossils, similar rock
formations, similar climatic conditions, similar rock and
mineral types.
5. Describe how convection currents move in the mantle.
Hot magma rises towards the surface and cooler magma
sinks in the Earth’s Mantle.
6. What is the main cause of plate tectonics? Convection
Currents in the Mantle.
7. Where will you find the youngest rock on Earth? At MidOcean Ridges.
8. At the Ring of Fire you will find many volcanoes created
by subduction zones, what kind of plate boundary is this?
Convergent Boundary
9. True or False: In the Ring of Fire, volcanoes are only
found in the center of the tectonic plate.
10. How are trenches formed? By subduction of
continental and oceanic tectonic plates. Which plate
boundary creates this crustal feature? Convergent
Boundary.
11. How are mountains formed? By the collision of
continental tectonic plates. Which plate boundary creates
this crustal feature? Convergent Boundary.
12. When you have a divergent boundary occurring on
land, what is the name of the crustal feature formed? Rift
Valley
13. Name the outermost layer of the Earth that is divided
into huge pieces called tectonic plates. Crust
14. What occurs at Mid-Ocean Ridges? Sea Floor
Spreading (tectonic plates moving apart at a divergent
boundary on the ocean floor)
15. What is sea floor spreading and what type of boundary
does it take place at? Tectonic plates moving apart on the
ocean floor at a divergent boundary.
Topographic Maps:
16. What are topographic maps? A map of the Earth’s
surface showing elevation.
17. Define contour lines. Lines drawn on a map that
connect points of equal elevation.
18. Define contour interval. Distance between points of
elevation as marked by contour lines.
19. How can you find the contour interval on a map? By
using the key or legend finding the difference between
marked contour lines.
20. Define erosion. – Movement of broken down rock.
21. Define weathering. – Breaking down of rock.
22. Define deposition. – Broken down rock being placed or
deposited somewhere else.
23. What are some causes of erosion? Wind, Flowing
Water
24. What do tightly spaced contour lines represent? Steep
Incline
25. What do widely spaced contour lines represent? Slow,
shallow incline
26. If a hurricane hits Houston, Texas, how can we best
identify and see the amount of erosion that has occurred?
By studying the topographic maps before and after the
hurricane.
Weather and Climate:
27. List the function of each of the following weather
instruments:
 Barometer – Measure Air Pressure
 Hygrometer – Measures moisture/humidity
 Anemometer – Measures Wind Speed
 Psychrometer – Measures Relative Humidity
28. What is a front? – Boundary between two air masses.
29. Illustrate the movement of coastal air during the day.
(Sea Breezes)
30. Illustrate the movement of coastal air during the night.
(Land Breezes) See #29
31. Describe how a lake or ocean affects the climate of a
particular location. Overall cooler climate with less
drastic changes in temperature from day to night.
32. Wind currents are created by differences in
_Temperature________.
33. Humidity_______ is the amount of moisture or water
vapor in the air.
34. Why would a hurricane die or decrease in strength? If
it moves over land or cooler/cold ocean water.
35. What is the fueling source of energy for a hurricane?
Warm ocean water
36. High air pressure is _cooler______, more dense air.
37. Low air pressure is _warmer_______, less dense air.
38. Energy from the sun creates Convection___ currents.
39. Define convection. Movement of hot or warm air or
water to an area of cooler air or water.
40. Energy from the sun is transferred around the Earth by
_Radiation________ and _Convection_______.
41. Solar energy = Energy from the __Sun_____.
42. List the 4 types of air masses. Maritime Polar,
Continental Polar, Maritime Tropical, Continental
Tropical
43. Maritime Polar air forms over water and is _Moist____
and __Cool______.
44. Continental Polar air forms over land and is _Dry___
and _Cool_______.
45. Maritime Tropical air is _Moist______ and _Warm___.
46. Continental Tropical air is _Dry______ and _Warm__.
47. When a cold air mass replaces a warm air mass, what
kind of weather is produced? A cold front, usually cooler
and rainy.
48. When a warm front occurs, what weather is produced?
Warmer weather, sometimes rainy, sometimes dry
49. How do meteorologists use barometric pressure to
predict the weather? High and Low Pressure systems help
to determine if it is going to rain or if the temperature is
going to change.
50. What occurs when warm, moist air rises rapidly in an
unstable atmosphere? Severe weather such as hurricanes
and thunder storms begin to form.
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