Study Guide Test 3 Advanced Sport Nutrition Protein and Amino Acids. 1. Know what makes protein molecularly different from fats and carbohydrates (what does protein have that fats and CHO do not?). 2. Be able to define the following: essential amino acid, non-essential amino acid, branched-chain amino acid and glucogenic amino acid. Know the specific essential amino acids and branched-chain amino acids? 3. Be able to describe the basics of protein metabolism from digestion of protein to protein anabolism. 4. Know the difference between a complete protein and an incomplete protein. 5. Know the basic difference between plant and animal protein relative to amino acid content. 6. Be able to fundamentally explain the process of transamination and deamination and the importance of each in protein metabolism. What are the three potential fates of the carbon skeletons of deaminated and tranaminated amino acids? 7. Understand the meaning of positive and negative nitrogen balance. 8. Know the RDA for protein for jr.high school, high school-age youth, and adults. 9. Know the amount of protein in common sources of protein (meat, dairy, soy). 10. Be able to describe the role of amino acids in providing fuel substrate during both resistance type exercise and endurance exercise. 11. Be able to summarize the response of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown to acute bouts and repetitive bouts (training) of both resistance and endurance exercise. 12. Be able to describe the role of insulin in protein synthesis and breakdown and the implications for feedings during and after exercise bouts that hope to increase protein synthesis. 13. Be able to describe the role of total caloric consumption on increasing muscle mass. 14. Be able to describe the relationship of type of amino acid and rate of appearance of amino acid in the blood to protein synthesis, and the timing of intake to exercise. 15. Know the recommendations for protein intake for athletes. Know the recommendations for protein intake before, during and following exercise. 16. What is a reasonable increase in muscle mass and strength when amino acids and timing is optimized over a 10-12 week period and over 1 year? 17. Know the consensus regarding the effect of supplementing the following: branchedchain amino acids (BCAA), glutamine, creatine, and HMB. 18. Be able to identify high risk groups for inadequate protein intake. Water Requirements and Fluid Balance (Readings: Hyponatremia in Athletes; Preventing Dehydration; Heat Stroke in Sports; Fluid and Fuel Intake During Exercise) 1. What are the water requirements for an average adult? How does exercise and the environment impact the water requirements? 2. What are the six primary functions of water in the body? 3. Describe the 4 methods humans use to get rid of heat. How does exercise and the environment impact each method? 4. What is the relationship between oxygen consumption, heat production and core temp? 5. Explain the effect of air temperature and humidity on heat regulation of the body. 6. Explain how dehydration and hypohydration affect muscular performance. 7. What are the specific recommendations for fluids for replacing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise in the heat. 8. What is the content of common sports drinks like Gatorade relative to carbohydrates, sodium and potassium. What is the purpose of each component in the sport drink?. 9. What is hyponatremia and what causes it? 10. Describe how someone exercising in a heated environment may develop heat illness. Explain the impact of heat illness on performance. 11. Define heat acclimatization. How does heat acclimatization improve exercise performance in the heat?