Past Paper Questions and Mark Scheme

Currently, a national governing body for a sport produces a Whole Sport Plan. How
does this benefit a sport? (5 marks)
What were the main aims of Sports Colleges? (4 marks)
JUNE, 2011
5 (b) Many organisations, such as 'Sport England', are involved in the provision of
sporting and physical recreational activities in the United Kingdom.
Identify some of the initiatives that Sport England has developed in order to achieve its
objectives of "Grow, Sustain, Excel". (4 marks)
5(c) How does the 'Youth Sports Trust' help to develop Physical Education and school
sport opportunities? (3 marks)
What are the three key aims of Sport England? (3 marks)
A. Grow, Sustain, Excel or Start, Stay, Succeed;
The National Curriculum for Physical Education is compulsory in state schools.
List the six sport classifications on the National Curriculum for Physical
Education. (2 marks)
4 correct for 1 mark
6 correct for 2 marks
Games/athletics/swimming/gymnastics/dance/outdoor and adventurous
What roles, other than ‘performer’, does the National Curriculum for Physical
Education encourage children to develop? (3 marks)
3 marks for 3 of:
A. Critical performer/self improvement
B. Coaching
C. Choreographer/creative
D. Official/judging
E. Spectator/observation
F. Leadership/captain
G. Organising
In what ways are the characteristics of physical education and those of sport
(3 marks)
3 marks for 3 of (sub max 2 marks per section)
A. Sport is competitive/sport primarily seeks winners and losers/extrinsic
B. Sport may not have educational objective/is elitist
C. Sport does/may not lead to improvement/learning
D. Sport is serious/commitment/training
E. Sport is voluntary/in your own time/choice
F. PE develops (motor/psycho-motor) skills
G. PE involves learning other things
H. PE develops morals/ethics/fair play
I. PE health/social/life-long learning/child-centred
J. PE is compulsory
Describe how schools can provide extra-curricular opportunities to increase
participation rates for their pupils. (4 marks)
4 marks for 4 of:
A. Clubs/societies/school club links
B. Team/practices/matches/competitions
C. Voluntary/participation/anybody can take part/increased numbers
D. Lunchtime/after-school/weekends
E. Wide range of activities/choice
F. Cater for wide range of abilities
G. On-site/off site
H. Peripatetic teachers/coaches/instructors
JUNE 2009
The National Curriculum for Physical Education is compulsory in state schools
What are the main aims of the National Curriculum for Physical Education?
1. Improve health/fitness
2. Perform in a range of activities
3. Learn physical/social skills
4. Gain knowledge of the body in action
5. Become a ‘critical performer’/different roles
6. Learn competitiveness/sportsmanship/teamwork/leadership
7. Become creative/problem-solving/cognitive skills/decision making
8. Face up to challenges/develop self-esteem/confidence
9. Learn how to plan, perform and evaluate
10. Make choices for ‘lifelong learning’
By 2007 there were nearly 350 Sports Colleges in England. What are the main
aims of these Sports Colleges?
1. Part of Government’s ‘plan for sport’
2. Provide high quality PE and school sport
3. Raise standards of all pupils
4. Improve amount/time/range of PE
5. Meet Government targets/minimum 2/3/5 hours per week
6. Extra resources/facilities/teachers/coaches
7. Involves local secondary and primary schools/courses/competitions
8. School Sports Co-ordinator (SSCo)/PDMs
9. Foster community links/PESS(YP)/PESSCLS/school-club links
What are the advantages and disadvantages of young children participating in
competitive sport? (4 marks)
1. Health & fitness
2. Encourages pride/loyalty to team/ school/commitment
3. Develops teamwork skills/team spirit
4. Fosters interest for later life/join clubs
5. Self esteem if successful/show skillsto others
6. Preparation for competitive society/learn to win and lose/control of
temperament/respect officials/rules/character building/etiquette
7. Higher – skill development – strategic/development/more medals/deeper
understanding of sport
8. Winning emphasis can be over stressed/over competitive
9. Can lead to negative values such as cheating/aggression/lose sport ethic
10. Low morale if fail/fear of failure
11. Overtraining/physical stress/injury/ psychological stress/burn out
12. Loss of enjoyment/extrinsic rewards only
Identify recent initiatives that have been developed to encourage an increase in
competitive school sport. (3 marks)
1. Government included it in policies such as Raising the Game/A Sporting Future for
All/Game Plan/PESSCLS/Gifted & Talented/PESS/TOPS/high quality/school club links
2. Teachers could be paid extra by governor discretion/more extra curriculum
3. Sports colleges
4. School sports co-ordinators
5. Academies
6. More money given to develop school sport/better facilities/more curriculum time given
to PE
7. More advertising of school sport benefits/health/fitness/ambassadors
8. Winning of Olympics/school Olympics
9. Activemark [primary]/Sportsmark [secondary]/Gold Awards/Kite marks
10. Coaching for teachers
11. Active schools (active programme)
12. Sport Development Officers/NGB (must justify)
Many schools offer their pupils the opportunity to participate in non-competitive
What are the benefits of taking part in non-competitive outdoor and
adventurous activities, such as skiing? (5 marks)
1. Appreciation of the natural environment/travel to new environments (not just
2. Know personal limits/safety values (not just its safer)/self discovery
3. Trust in others/communication/awareness of others/team work
4. Self reliance/decision making/leadership/self discipline/survival techniques
5. Courage/bravery/overcome fear/challenging
6. Opportunities for ‘active leisure’/free time
7. Escape from stress/mental health
8. No social comparison
9. Freedom from rules
10. Health and fitness – physical
11. Intrinsic motivation/fun/enjoyment/adrenaline and excitement
12. Sense of achievement/fulfilment/new skills/self esteem
13. Social/friendship
14. Participation rather than end result/no pressure/at own pace/no fear of failure
How does the current National Curriculum for Physical Education attempt to
prepare children to use their leisure time effectively? (4 marks)
1. Provide a wide range of activities/options in later years
2. Develop a range of skills/transferable skills/basic skills/basic rules
3. Provide for other roles such as spectator/coach/official
4. Compulsory
5. Provides extra curricula/teams/clubs
6. HRF/understanding need for health lifestyle
7. Use of community facilities
8. Policies such as PESSCLS/improve links between schools and clubs
JUNE, 2008
There have been many changes to the teaching of physical education as a
result of gradual development in educational ideas and social change
(i) What are the present-day aims of physical education in the state school system? (3
3 marks for 3 of:
1. Develop a range of (psycho) – motor skills/range of sports
2. Fitness components eg flexibility/strength/stamina/mobility
3. Understanding and appreciation for physical activities/cognitive development/rules –
4. Positive attitudes eg sportsmanship/competition/abiding by rules/loyalty to
5. Confidence and self esteem/personal and social skills/successful
6. Understand need for a healthy lifestyle/carry on after school/prevent obesity/career
7. Meet levels of the attainment levels/high quality PE
8. Link PE with school sport/PESSCLS/extra-curricular provision
What factors may determine the amount and type of physical activity that children will
experience whilst at school? (5 marks)
5 marks for 5 of:
1. Type of school eg private/state/grammar/comprehensive/primary/
secondary/lots of facilities/Sports College status
2. Area of the country/locality eg local traditions/North/South/Wales
3. Headmaster/governor’s philosophies eg competitive sport/traditions of school
4. Government eg recommendations/policies/NC guidelines/2-5 hours
5. Curriculum eg time constraints/status of PE
6. Teachers eg qualifications/preferences/bring in coaches
7. Historical reasons
8. Extra curricular activities eg
9. Multi-cultural eg taking into account/different
10. Examination subject (GCSE/A Level) eg theory/analysis
11. Facilities/equipment/funding
(iii) Schools should help to prepare children to use their leisure time effectively.
Explain what social factors have led to this development. (3 marks)
3 marks for 3 of:
1. Leisure time was increasing
2. Changing employment patterns/flexible hours
3. Social control/fears of youth misbehaving/positively channel energies
4. Raising of school leaving age/need to occupy older age groups with different activities
5. Rising obesity/need to improve health – including mental/children with sedentary
leisure interests
6. Growing use of community facilities/dual use/joint provision/growth of new activities
7. Post school gap/drop in participation when people leave full time Education
How can a school physical education programme act as a pathway for
individuals to participate in a more structured form of sporting activity? (3 marks)
3 marks for 3 of:
1. Provides an initial interest/foundation level/develops basic sport skills/rules
2. Follow NC guidelines/government policies eg PESSCLS
3. Provides wide range of activities/find one they may enjoy/best suits
4. Extra curricular activities/participation bases/extend interest/coaching/teams/school
clubs/camps etc
5. Links with local clubs/publicise/raise awareness/provide information/play for a club
6. Send pupils for trials/selection/referral
7. Specialist sports colleges/school sport co-ordinators
Levels of participation in physical activity drop when individuals leave fulltime
education. Explain some of the possible reasons for this occurrence. (4 marks)
4 marks for 4 of:
1. Not as accessible/involves cost/lack of facilities
2. Other competing leisure interests eg clubbing
3. Poor experiences at school/didn’t enjoy PE/don’t feel good enough
4. Less leisure time/in employment
5. Domestic changes/marriage/children
6. Sport too competitive
7. No longer compulsory
8. Poor school-club links
School sport refers to the extracurricular activities offered by many schools. What
are the benefits of extracurricular sport to a pupil at secondary school? (5
1. Health and fitness [physical and mental] e.g. relaxation/stress relief;
2. Learn to win and lose/competitive experience;
3. Structured competitive levels – perform to a higher standard/improve skill
levels/opportunity for inter school – regional – national competitions;
4. Extrinsic rewards – trophies/certificates/badges;
5. Sense of loyalty/represent school;
6. Interact with wider community/inter school/local facility use;
7. Develop interest for later life/occupy leisure time/career route;
8. Act as role models for younger pupils;
9. Assume more responsibility e.g. captain. 5 marks
B) During the 20th century state schools expanded their physical education
curriculum to include outdoor and adventurous activities.
What are the considered benefits that young people may gain as a result of
experiencing activities such as climbing and canoeing? (5 marks)
1. Physical health and fitness;
2. Motor skills;
3. Leadership/decision making/responsibility;
4. Personal skills/self esteem/well being/self awareness/knowing strengths
and weaknesses/personal limits;
5. Social skills/team work/co-operation/working with others/communication;
6. Later life/career/active leisure/qualifications;
7. Appreciation of natural environment – countryside/conservation issues/
pollution/erosion etc. 5 marks
(c) Some local authorities and schools have joint funding arrangements that have
led to an increased access to facilities on school sites by local communities.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of local communities sharing
school facilities? (3 marks)
1. Maximum use of local facilities
2. Schools in central locations
3. Lower cost to community facilities / school
4. Wear and tear of facilities / equipment
5. People don’t want to go back to school
6. Community can only use at certain times
7. Administration nightmare/ whose in charge
8. Security issues
3 mark
JUNE, 2007:
The National Curriculum for Physical Education is compulsory in state schools
(i) List three of the six sport classifications on the National Curriculum for
Physical Education. (3 marks)
1. Games;
2. Dance;
3. Gymnastics;
4. Swimming;
5. Outdoor and Adventurous activities;
6. Athletics.
(ii) Physical education lessons are used to develop students physically,
intellectually and socially.
What values and areas of knowledge can be delivered through physical
education lessons? (5 marks)
1. Health related fitness/diet/exercise/hygiene;
2. Appreciation of movement/aesthetic/wide range of sports;
3. Learning . understanding of rules;
4. Learning . understanding of tactics/ strategies/decision making;
5. Structure . function of body;
6. Observation/Analysis/Evaluation;
7. Preparation for work/career/other roles e.g official/coach;
8. Social . teamwork / cooperation;
9. Fair play/sportsmanship/etiquette;
10. Emotional control . win . lose;
11. Abide by rules/discipline/official decisions;
12. Leadership/responsibility/decision making/problem solving;
13. Creativity/imagination;
14. Fun/enjoyment/confidence.
(iii) What changes occurred within physical education programmes between 1933
and before the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1988? (3 marks)
1. Dance/gymnastics type of activities/skill based/new sports/activities/options
2. Child centred / focus on children.s needs (physical, psychological, social and
3. Programmes for primary schools . Moving & Growing / Planning the Programme/
Laban influence;
4. Children encouraged to be creative / imaginative / problem solving through
5. Better facilities / indoor etc;
6. Teaching styles . guidance / heuristic/interactive;
7. Teachers now specialists / plan own work / autonomy / not directed by
Syllabuses/ less command styles;
8. Less of a medical focus / responsibility now with Education Department not
with medical department;
9. Decentralised/secondary . primary distinction;
10. Non competitive emphasis.
(do not credit health and fitness or fun and enjoyment)
One of the aims of the National Curriculum for Physical Education is to develop
a child’s ability to become a critical performer.
(i) What is meant by the term critical performer? (2 marks)
1. Appreciation/judgement;
2. Knowledge/understanding of performance;
3. Informed spectator;
4. Observation/analysis/evaluation
(ii) According to the National Curriculum for Physical Education, what other
roles are children required to adopt within their physical education lessons?
(3 marks)
1. Performer;
2. Choreographer;
3. Captain/leader;
4. Response to leadership;
5. Team member;
6. Manager/administrator;
7. Official/referee/umpire;
8. Coach/teacher/assessor/observation & analysis;
9. Informed spectator.
JUNE, 2006:
In the United Kingdom opposing opinions have been expressed about the status
that sport should occupy in schools.
(i) Discuss the suggestion that school sport should be the nursery of sporting
talent. (4 marks)
1. Maximum number of children reached/identify talent
2. Beginning of sport most crucial/ need best coaching/ best introduction/ likely to carry
3. Schools have most of the country.s sporting facilities/ link into local clubs
4. Counteract the situation that school sport is in decline
5. Need to improve country.s medal tally/ feel good factor for the country
6. PE teacher tends to spread across a lot of sports/ not specialise
7. Lack of coaches in UK schools/ clubs are better set up
8. Conflicts with traditional view of PE/ educational focus rather than performance
9. Winning medals shouldn.t be the focus of a teacher
10. Focus on specialising can be elitist/leave some out
11. Could put some off sport/ choice reduced
(ii) How does the National Curriculum for Physical Education encourage children
to develop an appreciation of sport, beyond that of merely participating as a
performer? (2 marks)
1. Critical performer;
2. Observation and analysis;
3. Coaching/evaluation of others;
4. Officiating roles;
5. Choreography;
6. Leadership/captain;
7. Spectating role
Physical Education and Outdoor Education are considered worthwhile experiences for
children and young adults.
(a) Physical Education programmes in schools may include gymnastics, as this is
thought to be an important activity within the National Curriculum for Physical
(i) What objectives might a teacher have when planning a Key Stage 3
gymnastics lesson? (4 marks)
1. Motor skills/vaulting/running/jumping/balancing/improve physical skills/ equiv;
2. Choreography/a routine/creativity/imagination;
3. Problem solving/observation & analysis/evaluating/critical performer
4. Social . working with others/interpersonal skills/communication/group work (do not
credit team work);
5. Safety;
6. Meet National Curriculum objectives;
7. Allow each child to reach their own potential/respond within own capability/identify
own strength and weaknesses;
8. Fun/enjoyment/intrinsic;
9. Raise an interest for child to continue activity in own time
(ii) Gymnastics has been taught in many different forms since the 19th century.
Each form has been associated with a change in educational thinking.
Explain how and why gymnastics has developed to meet the changing ideas
in education since the 19th century. (4 marks)
1. Swedish gymnastics (PH Ling);
2. Therapeutic function/health/based on scientific principles of the day;
3. Popular in state schools;
4. Free standing/no equipment/instruction based/catered for large numbers/callisthenics;
(do not credit military/model but accept drill/command style)
5. Less popular with public schools/foreign/no character building qualities;
6. Included syllabuses of PT/medical;
7. (1930.s) educational gymnastics/Part of movement approach/posture/dance;
8. Free movement/creative/skills based/experimental/child centred;
9. Children given stimulus/individual response/problem solving/guidance style/heulistic/
trained teachers/teacher . pupil interaction;
10. Can respond according to ability;
11. (1945) Apparatus introduced/Moving & Growing/Planning the programme;
(b) As part of the National Curriculum for Physical Education, outdoor and
adventurous activities should be provided by state schools.
(i) Using suitable examples, explain what is meant by the terms outdoor
education and outdoor recreation. (2 marks)
1. In an educational setting with school/college e.g. school ski trip (education)/ canoeing
in pool;
2. In person.s free time/holidays/with friends (recreation)/choice/ e.g. mountain biking;
(must distinguish between outdoor education and outdoor recreation to credit)
(ii) What educational and recreational values might a child gain when
participating in outdoor and adventurous activities? (5 marks)
1. Appreciation/understanding of the natural environmental/issues
2. Know personal limits
3. Trust in others/communication/ awareness of others/team work
4. Self reliance/decision making/leadership
5. Courage/bravery/Overcome fear
6. Cross curricula opportunities/field trips/ geography, biology etc
7. Acquire new skills/survival/map reading/ bushcraft/safety
(need to qualify to credit)
8. Opportunities for .active leisure./free time
9. Choice
10. Escape from stress/relax/mental health
11. Health & fitness . physical
12. Intrinsic motivation/fun
13. Sense of achievement/fulfilment/ confidence/self esteem
14. Social/friendship
(c) Why might young adults give up physical activity when they leave school? (3 marks)
(c) 3 marks for 3 of:
1. No longer compulsory;
2. Competing leisure interests;
3. Employment/less leisure time;
4. Poor links from school to community clubs;
5. Poor experiences whilst at school;
6. Not as accessible or as affordable;
7. Changes in domestic lives/marriage/children;
8. Peer groups influence; 3 marks
Many organisations such as Sport England are involved in the provision of
sporting and physical recreational activities in the United Kingdom.
What are the objectives of Sport England and what initiatives has it developed to
achieve these objectives? (4 marks)
1. Strategic lead for sport in England;
2. Focus investments;
3. Provide advice and support to partners;
4. Influence decision makers & public
5. Start/more people . increase participation;
6. Stay/more places . retain participants via
effective network of clubs/more/improve
7. Succeed/more medals . achieve success at
every level;
8. Internal efficiency . operate and allocate
9. Sports Colleges/coordinators/Sport
development officers;
10. Sportsmark/Activemark/Sports Partnership
11. Active Sports Programme;
12. Sport Action Zones;
13. PESSCLS/school club links;
14. TOPS;
15. Best Value;
16. Sporting equals
The Government requires schools to provide all of their students with a minimum
number of hours of physical education each week. This target is met by only a
third of secondary schools.
Why might some schools fail to make this provision for their students? (3 marks)
1. 2 hours not compulsory/only guidelines;
2. Timetable restrictions;
3. PE not considered as important as academic work;
4. Extra curricula relies on goodwill of teachers;
5. Insufficient specialist physical education teachers;
6. Lack of facilities/equipment/access to facilities/budget restrictions. 3 marks