Exam Questions - markscheme

Section 2 Exam Questions – Olympic Ideal - Mark scheme
In today’s society the majority of people have access to a variety of sporting activities.
Explain how the leisure opportunities for the working classes improved during the 19th
century in terms of provision. (7 marks)
7 marks for 7 of:
A. (Increased time) Factory Reform Acts/more time available/shorter working hours/Saturday half
day/Wednesday early closing/Bank Holidays/ machine time
B. (More money) increased wages/broken time payments/ access to professional sport
C. Factory owners established clubs/facilities
D. Churches/Youth Movements established clubs/teams/scouts/Boys Brigade/facilities or eq.
E. Public provision/parks/public baths/Municipal Reform Act/Government provision
F. Philanthropists provided new facilities/libraries/ working men’s clubs or eq./Muscular
Christianity/social reform
G. Better communication links/trains easier to visit areas/matches/events
H. New towns developed eg seaside resorts/ countryside
I. New sports developed/rational sports/structured sport/codified
J. National Governing body established/formation of leagues and cup competitions/regular
K. (Social class changes) more working class allowed access to previously restricted
competition/lifting of Manual Labour
Clause/ Middle class encouraged working class sport
L. Increased opportunity for spectatorism
M. Increased media coverage/newspapers led to greater knowledge and awareness
A – ‘time’ must be
qualified to credit mark
B – ‘money’ must be
qualified to credit mark
‘More facilities’ – too
vague – need examples
Not ‘social control’
K – need to quality
‘social class changes’
L/M – not access to TV
and internet
2. 4 marks for 4 of:
1. Local;
2. Unstructured in terms of boundaries/number of players/time/kit/no
spectators/participation based/disorganised;
3. Rules were few/simple/unwritten (do not credit no rules);
4. Male;
5. Working class;
6. Violent/many injuries/alcohol fuelled;
7. Limited equipment/cheap;
8. Initially rural/ later some urban adaptation/village rivalries;
9. Played occasionally/holy/feast days;
10. Force not skill. 4 marks
3 marks for 3 of:
1. Banned by authorities/unpopular with middle class/churches/violent/
disorderly/damage to properties/land;
2. Lack of space in urban areas/no space;
3. Need for disciplined workforce/time off work due to injuries/no time/losing
holy days/increased working hours/machine led/lack of free time;
4. Rationalising/civilising of society ongoing process;
5. Middle class encouraged rational forms of recreation/factory/church teams;
6. Developed in public schools. 3 marks
At the beginning of the 20th century, the extent and nature of a person’s participation in sport were
influenced by their social class & gender.
a) Describe the differences in the sports played and the roles undertaken by the upper/middle
classes & the working classes. Illustrate your answers with examples.
Upper Class – refined games with complex rules such as real tennis and fencing. Also went
hunting, fishing, athletics. Taught sports to public school boys and to other countries.
Gentlemen amateur – played sport for pleasure – FAIR PLAY. Girls were playing tennis &
Middle Class – Invented hockey, badminton, tennis
Working Class – mob games that were violent, unruly, disorganised such as mob football.
They were either professional players (A sports performer who is paid to play their sport) or
spectators – started having Saturdays afternoons off work to go and spectate. Women
would not be professionals.
Clear distinction between the classes – amateurs & professionals.
b) Discuss the reasons why people from the working class had fewer opportunities to
participate than those from the upper & middle classes
(3 mark)
Worked 12 hour days 6 days a week
Sunday was the day off but it’s the day of rest- church day
Now live in cities did not have village rivalry
Lack of space
Lack of money
Many elite sports have high public profile and offer the performers extrinsic rewards. Violence may
sometimes occur in elite sport, both on and off the pitch.
a) Discuss whether an act of violence would be acceptable within the concept of the ‘contract
to compete’. (4 marks)