Chapter One Study Guide

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NAME: ___________________________________________________________ PERIOD:___________

Ancient Civilizations Study Guide

Ms. Cave

Unit One: Foundations of Human Society

Essential

Understanding:

Human adaptation to the surrounding environment influenced the development of society, technology, and culture.

Essential Questions:

*How does archaeology provide knowledge of early human life & its changes?

*How did physical geography influence the lives of early humans?

*How did hominids develop & what were their achievements?

*What were the characteristics of hunter-gather societies?

*How did the beginning of agriculture & the domestication of animals promote the rise of settled communities?

Essential Knowledge:

*Archaeologists study past cultures by locating & analyzing human remains, fossils, & artifacts.

*Archaeologists apply scientific tests such as carbon dating to analyze fossils & artifacts.

*Homo sapiens emerged in E Africa between 100,000 & 400,000 years ago & migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, & the Americas.

*Early humans were hunters & gatherers whose survival depended on wild plants & animals.

Hunter gatherer societies during the Paleolithic Era:

Nomadic

Invented first tools/weapons

Controlled fire

Lived in clan groups

Developed oral language

Created “cave art”

Societies during the Neolithic Era:

Developed agriculture (domesticated plants)

Domesticated animals

Used advanced tools

Made pottery

Developed weaving skills

Chapter One Reading Guide

Section 1: pp. 2-13

I. Vocabulary: Understand the following terms. Be sure you can answer, “Why is it important”?

Artifact: Carbon 14 dating technique:

Culture: Fossil:

Hominid: homo sapiens

Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age

Pre-history Technology:

Development of Early Hominids

II. Chart: Fill in the chart with relevant information from your text.

Traits/Characteristics/Achievements Hominid Group

Australopithecines

1

Homo habilis

Homo Erectus

Neanderthal

Cro-Magnon

Source of food

Technology

Type of

Community

Compare Paleolithic & Neolithic Eras

Paleolithic Neolithic

Section 2: pp. 14-18

Vocabulary: Understand the following terms. Be sure you can answer, “Why is it important”?

Nomad: Hunter-gatherers

Slash/burn farming: Neolithic Revolution

Domestication: Catal Huyuk

2

BIG IDEA: People of the Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Era) were nomadic hunter-gatherers who wandered from place to place in search of food.

1.

How did hunter-gatherers use technology to improve their chances of survival?

2.

What types of art did Paleolithic people create?

BIG IDEA: About 10,000 years ago, an agricultural revolution began.

3.

What factors led to the agricultural revolution?

4.

How did farming develop and spread worldwide?

BIG IDEA: Farming led to a settled way of life.

5.

Which effect of the development of agriculture was the most significant? Explain.

6.

Why do some archaeologists believe that women were the first farmers?

Section 3: pp. 19-23

Vocabulary: Understand the following terms. Be sure you can answer, “Why is it important”?

Specialization: Civilization:

Artisan Institutions:

Scribe:

Bronze Age:

Cuneiform:

Ur:

Barter:

Ziggurat:

3

BIG IDEA: Villages Grow Into Cities

What economic changes occurred?

____________ _________________ freed some people to do other jobs and develop other skills besides farming.

People who became craft workers created valuable new products such as pottery, metal objects, and woven cloth.

What social changes occurred?

Many laborers needed for large building projects and _________________ _______________. Specialized workers developed. Social classes with varying degrees of …

What changes in religion occurred?

BIG IDEA: Urbanization=Civilization Begins.

Describe the key traits (characteristics) of a civilization? Provide examples from Sumer

. (p.21) a.

Advanced cities b.

Specialized workers c.

Complex institutions d.

Record keeping e.

Advanced technology

4

Thesis:

Answer

ONE

of the following questions in a thesis statement

.

1.

Compare and contrast the Paleolithic era and the Neolithic era in two of the following ways: technology,

2.

3.

role of women, economy. (Be sure to include the reasons for similarity or difference)

Analyze the factors that led to the development of civilization. (choose three & provide broad examples)

Analyze the major characteristics of a civilization. (Choose at least three.)

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